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if. 2.4-3 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1 877, by 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


TN this volume there is, I believe, a greater variety of pictures of a comic and 
-- satirical cast than was ever before presented at one view. Many nations, 
ancient and modern, pagan and Christian, are represented in it, as well as most 
of the names identified with art of this nature. The extraordinary liberality 
of the publishers, and the skill of their corps of engravers, have seconded my 
own industrious researches, and the result is a volume unique, at least, in the 
character of its illustrations. A large portion of its contents appeared in Har- 
per's Monthly Magazine during the year 1875; but many of the most curious 
and interesting of the pictures are given here for the first time ; notably, those 
exhibiting the present or recent caricature of Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and 
Japan, several of which did not arrive in time for use in the periodical. 

Generally speaking, articles contributed to a Magazine may as well be left 
in their natural tomb of " back numbers," or " bound volumes ;" for the better 
they serve a temporary purpose, the less adapted they are for permanent utili- 
ty. Among the exceptions are such series as the present, which had no refer- 
ence whatever to the passing months, and in the preparation of which a great 
expenditure was directed to a single class of objects of special interest. I am, 
indeed, amazed at the cost of producing such articles as these. So very great 
is the expense, that many subjects could not be adequately treated, with all de- 
sirable illustration, unless the publishers could offer the work to the public in 

There is not much to be said upon the subject treated in this volume. 
"When I was invited by the learned and urbane editor of Harper's Monthly to 
furnish a number of articles upon caricature, I supposed that the work pro- 
posed would be a relief after labors too arduous, too long continued, and of a 
more serious character. On the contrary, no subject that I ever attempted 
presented such baffling difficulties. After ransacking the world for specimens, 


and collecting them by the hundred, I found that, usually, a caricature is a 
thing of a moment, and that, dying as soon as its moment has passed, it loses 
all power to interest, instantly and forever. I found, too, that our respectable 
ancestors had not the least notion of what we call decency. When, therefore, 
I had laid aside from the mass the obsolete and the improper, there were not 
so very many left, and most of those told their own story so plainly that no 
elucidation was necessary. Instead of wearying the reader with a mere de- 
scriptive catalogue, I have preferred to accompany the pictures with allusions 
to contemporary satire other than pictorial. 

The great living authorities upon this branch of art are two in number one 
English, and one French to both of whom I am greatly indebted. The En- 
glish author is Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S. A., etc., whose " History of Carica- 
ture and the Grotesque " is well known among us, as well as his more recent 
volume upon the incomparable caricaturist of the last generation, James Gill- 
ray. The French writer is M. Jules Champfleury, author of a valuable series 
of volumes reviewing satiric art from ancient times to our own day, with 
countless illustrations. No one has treated so fully or so well as he the carica- 
ture of the Greeks and Romans. Many years ago, M. Champfleury began to 
illustrate this part of his subject in the G-azette des Beaux Arts, and his con- 
tributions to that important periodical were the basis of his subsequent vol- 
umes. He is one of the few writers on comic matters who have avoided the 
lapse into catalogue, and contrived to be interesting. 

It has been agreeable to me to observe that Americans are not without nat- 
ural aptitude in this kind of art. Our generous Franklin, the friend of Ho- 
garth, to whom the dying artist wrote his last letter, replying to the last letter 
he ever received, was a capital caricaturist, and used his skill in this way, as he 
did all his other gifts and powers, in behalf of his country and his kind. At 
the present time, every week's issue of the illustrated periodicals exhibits evi- 
dence of the skill, as well as the patriotism and right feeling, of the humorous 
artists of the United States. For some years past, caricature has been a pow- 
er in the land, and a power generally on the right side. There are also humor- 
ous artists of another and gentler kind, some even of the gentler sex, who pre- 
sent to us scenes which surprise us all into smiles and good temper without 
having in them any lurking sting of reproof. These domestic humorists, I 
trust, will continue to amuse and soften us, while the avensrinsj satirist with 

* w O 

dreadful pencil makes mad the guilty, and appalls the free. 


There must be something preciou^-in caricature, else the enemies of truth 
and freedom would not hate it as they do. Some of the worst excesses and 
perversions of satiric art are due to that very hatred. Persecuted and re- 
pressed, caricature becomes malign and perverse; or, being excluded from le- 
gitimate subjects, it seems as if it were compelled to ally itself to vice. We 
have only to turn from a heap of French albums to ^volumes of English carica- 
ture to have a striking evidence of the truth, that the repressive system re- 
presses good and develops evil. It is the "Censure" that debauches the 
comic pencil ; it is freedom that makes it the ally of good conduct and sound 
politics. In free countries alone it has scope enough, without wandering into 
paths which the eternal proprieties forbid. I am sometimes sanguine enough 
to think that the pencil of the satirist will at last render war impossible, by 
bringing vividly home to all genial minds the ludicrous absurdity of such a 
method of arriving at truth. Fancy two armies " in presence." By some proc- 
ess yet to be developed, the Nast of the next generation, if not the admirable 
Nast of this, projects upon the sky, in the sight of the belligerent forces, A 
PICTURE exhibiting the enormous comicality of their attitude and purpose. 
They all see the point, and both armies break up in laughter, and come to- 
gether roaring over the joke. 

In the hope that this volume may contribute something to the amusement 
of the happy at festive seasons, and to the instruction of the curious at all 
times, it is presented to the consideration of the public. 


































INDEX .. 335 


Pigmy Pugilists, from Pompeii 15 

Chalk Drawing by Roman Soldier in Pompeii 15 

Chalk Caricature on a Wall in Pompeii 16 

Battle between Pigmies and Geese 17 

A Pigmy Scene from Pompeii 18 

Vases with Pigmy Designs 19 

A Grasshopper drjving a Chariot 19 

From an Antique Amethyst 19 

Flight of ^Eneas from Troy 20 

Caricature of the Flight of .(Eneas. 20 

From a Red Jasper. 21 

Roman Masks, Comic and Tragic 22 

Roman Comic Actor, masked for Silenns 22 

Roman Wall Caricature of a Christian 25 

Burlesque of Jupiter's Wooing of Princess Alcmena 29 

Greek Caricature of the Oracle of Apollo 30 

An Egyptian Caricature 32 

A Condemned Soul, Egyptian Caricature 33 

Egyptian Servants conveying Home their Masters 

from a Carouse 33 

Too Late with the Basin 34 

The Hindoo God Krishna on his Travels 37 

Krishna's Attendants assuming the Form of a Bird 37 

Krishna in his Palanquin '. 38 

Capital in the Autnn Cathedral 41 

Capitals in the Strasburg Cathedral, A.D. 1300. 41 

Engraved upon a Stall in Sherborne Miuster, En- 
gland 43 

From a Manuscript of the Thirteenth Century 43 

From a Mass-book of the Fourteenth Century 44 

From a French Prayer-book of the Thirteenth 

Century 45 

From Queen Mary's Prayer-book, A.D. 1553 46 

Gog and Magog, Guildhall, London 50 

Head of the Great Dragon of Norwich 51 

Souls weighed in the Balance, Autun Cathedral.... 51 
Straggle for Possession of a Soul between Angel 

and Devil 52 

Lost Souls cast into Hell 53 

Devils seizing their Prey 54 

The Temptation 55 

French Death-crier 56 

Death and the Cripple 57 

Death and the Old Man 58 

Death and the Peddler 58 

Death and the Knight 58 

Heaven and Earth weighed in the Balance 60 

English Caricature of an Irishman, A.I>. 1280 62 

Caricature of the Jews in England, A.D. 1233 63 

Luther inspired by Satan 64 

Devil fiddling upon a Pair of Bellows 65 

Oldest Drawing in the British Museum, A.D. 1320. . 66 

Bishop's Seal, A.D. 1300 67 

Pastor and Flock, Sixteenth Century 70 

Confessing to God ; and Sale of Indulgences 72 

Christ, the True Light 73 

Papa, Doctor Theologise et Magister Fidei 77 

The Pope cast into Hell 77 

" The Beam that is in thine own Eye," A.D. 1540. . . 78 

Luther Triumphant 79 

The Triumph of Riches 81 

Calvin branded 83 

Calvin at the Burning of Servetus 84 

Calvin, the Pope, and Luther 85 

Titian's Caricature of the Laocoun 89 

The Papal Gorgon 90 

Spayne and Rome defeated. 94 

From Title-page to Sermon "Woe to Drunkards". 97 
' ' Let not the World devide those whom Christ hath 

joined " 99 

" England's Wolfe with Eagle's Clawes," 1647 102 

Charles II. and the Scotch Presbyterians, 1051 .... 103 

Cris-cross Rhymes on Love's Crosses, 1640 105 

Shrove-tide in Arms against Lent 107 

Lent tilting at Shrove-tide 108 

The Queen of James II. and Father Petre 10!) 

Caricature of Corpulent General Galas lis 

A Quaker Meeting, 1710 1 10 

Archbishop of Paris 11^ 

Archbishop of Rbeims 11* 

Caricature of Louis XIV., by Thackeray 119 

" Shares 1 Shares 1 Shares '" Caricature of John 

Law 120 

Island of Madhead 122 

Speculative Map of Louisiana 126 

John Law, Wind Monopolist 129 

The Sleeping Congregation 134 

Hogarth's Drawing in Three Strokes 137 

Hogarth's Invitation Card 137 

Time Smoking a Picture 138 

Dedication of a Proposed History of the Arts 140 

Walpole paring the Nails of the British Lion 142 

Dutch Neutrality, 1745 142 

British Idolatry of the Opera-singer Mingotti 143 

The Motion (for the Removal of Walpole) 144 

Antiquaries puzzled 146 

Caricature designed by Benjamin Franklin 147 

Lord Bute 152 

Princess of Wales Bute George III 152 

The Wire-master (Bute) and his Puppets 153 

The Gouty Colossus, William Pitt 156 

The Mask (Coalition) 167 

Heads of Fox and North 158 

Assembly of the Notables at Paris 161 

Mirabeau 162 

The Dagger Scene in the House of Commons 164 

The Zenith of French Glory 165 

The Estates 16 

The New Calvary 160 

President of Revolutionary Committee amusing 

himself with his Art 18 

Rare Animals 169 



Aristocrat and Democrat 1*0 

}'./u frank ! Have confidence in you /" 171 

Matrimony A Man loaded with Mischief 173 

S,-i tling the Odd Trick 174 

"Who was that gentleman that just went out?".. 176 
"Now, understand me. To-morrow morning he 

will ask you to dinner" 17T 

"Madame," your Cousin Betty wishes to know if 

yon can receive her '' 179 

A Scene of Conjugal Life 180 

A Splendid Spread 181 

American Lady walking in the Snow 183 

My dear Baron, I am in the most pressing need 

of five hundred franc" 184 

"Sir, be good enough to come round in front and 

speak to me" 185 

' Where are the diamonds exhibited ?" 185 

Evening Scene in the Parlor of an American 

Boarding-honse 186 

"He's coming! Take off your hat 1" 188 

The Scholastic Hen and her Chickens 189 

Chinese Caricature of an English Foraging Party. 191 

A Deaf Mandarin 196 

After Dinner. A Chinese Caricature 197 

The Rat Rice Merchants. A Japanese Carica- 
ture 206 

Talleyrand the Man with Six Heads 209 

A Great Man's Last Leap. 210 

Talleyrand 211 

A Promenade in the Palais Royal 213 

Family of the Extinguishers 214 

The Jesuits at Court. 215 

Charles Philipon 218 

Robert Macaire fishing for Share-holders 221 

A Husband's Dilemma 223 

Housekeeping 224 

A Poultice for Two 226 

Parisian "Shoo, Fly !" 227 

Three! 228 

Two Attitudes 230 

The Den of Lions at the Opera 231 

The Vulture 233 

Partant pour la Syrie 234 

Gararni 236 

Honors Daumier 237 

Evolution of the Piano 243 

A Corporal interviewed by the Major 244 

A Bold Comparison 245 

Strict Discipline in the Field 246 

Ahead of Time 247 

A Journeyman's Leave-taking 248 

After Sedan 250 

To theBull-flght 251 

A Delegation of Birds of Prey 252 

"Child, yon will take cold" 253 

Inconvenience of the New Collar 254 

Sufferings endured by a Prisoner of War 255 

King Bomba's Ultimatum to Sicily 259 

He has begun the Service with Mass, and com- 
pleted it with Bombs 2CO 

The Burial of Liberty 261 

Bomba at Supper 262 

"Such is the Love of Kings" 263 

Mr. Punch 264 

Return of the Pope to Rome 265 

James Gillray 267 

Tiddy-Doll, the Great French Gingerbread Baker. 268 

The Threatened Invasion of England 269 

The Bibliomaniac 270 

Hope A Phrenological Illustration 271 

Term Time 273 

Box in a New York Theatre in 1830 276 

Seymour's Conception of Mr. Winkle 278 

Probable Suggestion of the Fat Boy 280 

A Wedding Breakfast 281 

The Boy who chalked up " No Popery !" 284 

John Leech 285 

Preparatory School for Young Ladies 286 

The Qnarrel. England and France 287 

Obstructives 290 

Jeddo and Belfast ; or, a Puzzle for Japan 291 

"At the Church-gate" 292 

An Early Quibble 294 

John Tenniel 298 

Soliloquy of a Rationalistic Chicken 298 

" I'll follow thee 1" 299 

Join or Die 304 

Boston Massacre Coffins 306 

A Militia Drill in Massachusetts in 1832 308 

Fight in Congress between Lyon and Griswold. . . 312 

The Gerry-mander 316 

Thomas Nast 318 

Wholesale and Retail 319 

The Brains of the Tammany Ring 820 

"What are the wild waves saying?" 321 

Shin-plaster Caricature of General Jackson's War 

on the United States Bank 322 

City People in a Country Church 323 

"Why don't yon take it?". 324 

Popular Caricature of the Secession War 325 

Virginia pausing 326 

Tweedledee and Sweedledum 328 

" Who Stole the People's Money ?" 329 

" On to Richmond !" 330 

Christmas-time. Won at a Turkey Raffle 331 

" He cometh not, she said " 332 





ITCH as the ancients differed from ourselves in other particulars, they cer- 
tainly laughed at one another just as we do, for precisely the same rea- 
sons, and employed every art, device, and implement of 
ridicule which is known to us. 

Observe this rude and childish attempt at a drawing. 
Go into any boys' school to-day, and turn over the slates 
and copy-books, or visit an inclosure where men are 
obliged to pass idle days, and you will be likely to find 
pictures conceived in this taste, and executed with this 
degree of artistic skill. But the drawing dates back nearly 
eighteen centuries. It was done on one of the hot, languid 
days of August, A.D. 79, by a Roman soldier with a piece of 
red chalk on a wall of his barracks in the city of Pompeii.* 
On the 23d of August, in the year 79, occurred the eruption 
of Vesuvius, which buried not Italian cities only, but Antiq- 
uity itself, and, by burying, preserved it for the instruction of after-times. In 
disinterred Pompeii, the Past stands revealed to us, and we remark with a kind 

* "Naples and the Canipagna Felice." In a Series of Letters addressed to a Friend in En- 
gland, in 1802, p. 104. 



of infantile surprise the great number of particulars in which the people of 
that day were even such as we are. There was found the familiar apothecary's 
shop, with a box of pills on the counter, and a roll of material that was about 
to be made up when the apothecary heard the warning thunder and fled. The 
baker's shop remained, with a loaf of bread stamped with the maker's name. 
A sculptor's studio was strewed with blocks of marble, unfinished statues, mal- 
lets, compasses, chisels, and saws. A thousand objects attest that when the 
fatal eruption burst upon these cities, life and its activities were going forward 
in all essential particulars as they are at this moment in any rich and luxurious 
town of Southern Europe. 

In the building supposed to have been the quarters of the Roman garrison, 
many of the walls were covered with such attempts at caricature as the speci- 
men just given, to some of which were appended opprobrious epithets and 
phrases. The name of the personage above portrayed was Nonius Maximus, 
who was probably a martinet centurion, odious to his company, for the name 
was found in various parts of the inclosure, usually accompanied by dispara- 
ging words. Many of the soldiers had simply chalked their own names ; others 
had added the number of their cohort or legion, precisely as in the late war 
soldiers left records of their stay on the walls of fort and hospital. A large 
number of these wall-chalkings in red, white, and black (most of them in red) 


were clearly legible fifty years after exposure. I give another specimen, a gen- 
uine political caricature, copied from an outside wall of a private house in 

The allusion is to an occurrence in local history of the liveliest possible in- 
terest to the people. A few years before the fatal eruption there was a fierce 
town-and-country row in the amphitheatre, in which the Pompeians defeated and 



put to flight the provincial Xucerians^' Nero condemned the pugnacious men 
of Pompeii to the terrible penalty of closing their amphitheatre for ten years. 
In the picture an armed man descends into the arena bearing the palm of vic- 
tory, while on the other side a prisoner is dragged away bound. The inscrip- 
tion alone gives us the key to the street artist's meaning, Campani victoria 
una cum, Nucerinis peristis " Men of Campania, you perished in the victory 
not less than the Nucerians ;" as though the patriotic son of Campania had 
written, " We beat 'em, but very little we got by it." 

If the idlers of the streets chalked caricature on the walls, we can not be 
surprised to discover that Pompeian artists delighted in the comic and bur- 
lesque. Comic scenes from the plays of Terence and Plautus, with the names 
of the characters written over them, have been found, as well as a large num- 
ber of burlesque scenes, in which dwarfs, deformed people, Pigmies, beasts, and 
birds are engaged in the ordinary labors of men. The gay and luxurious peo- 
ple of the buried cities seem to have delighted in nothing so much as in repre- 
sentations of Pigmies, for there was scarcely a house in Pompeii yet uncovered 
which did not exhibit some trace of the ancient belief in the existence of these 
little people. Homer, Aristotle, and Pliny all discourse f the Pigmies as act- 
ually existing, and the artists, availing themselves of this belief, which they 
shared, employed it in a hundred ways to caricature the doings of men of 
larger growth. Pliny describes them as inhabiting the salubrious mountain- 
ous regions of India, their stature about twenty-seven inches, and engaged in 
eternal war with their enemies, the geese. " They say," Pliny continues, " that, 


mounted upon rams and goats, and armed with bows and arrows, they descend 
in a body during spring-time to the edge of the waters, where they eat the eggs 
and the young of those birds, not returning to the mountains for three months. 
Otherwise they could not resist the ever -increasing multitude of the geese. 
The Pigmies live in cabins made of mud, the shells of goose eggs, and feathers 
of the same bird." 

Homer, in the third book of the " Iliad," alludes to the wars of the 
Cranes and Pigmies : 

"So when inclement winters vex the plain 
With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, 


To wurmer seas the Cranes embodied fly, 
With noise and order througli the midway sky ; 
To Pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, 
And all the war descends upon the wing." 

One of our engravings shows that not India only, but Egypt also, was re- 
garded as the haunt of 
the Pigmy race; for the 
Upper Nile was then, as 
now, the home of the hip- 
popotamus, the crocodile, 
and the lotus. Here we 
see a bald-headed Pigmy 
hero riding triumphantly 
on a mighty crocodile, 
regardless of the open- 
mouthed, bellowing hip- 
popotamus behind him. 
In other pictures, howev- 
er, the scaly monster, so 
far from playing this sub- 
missive part, is seen plung- 
ing in fierce pursuit of a 
Pigmy, who flies headlong 
before the foe. Frescoes, 
vases, mosaics, statuettes, 
paintings, and signet-rings 
found in the ancient cit- 
ies all attest the populari- 
ty of the little men. The 
odd pair of vases on the 
following page, one in the 
shape of a boar's head 
and the other in that of 
a ram's, are both adorned 
with a representation of the fierce combats between the Pigmies and the geese. 
There has been an extraordinary display of erudition in the attempt to ac- 
count for the endless repetition of Pigmy subjects in the houses of the Pom- 
peians ; but the learned and acute M. Champfleury " humbly hazards a con- 
jecture," as he modestly expresses it, which commends itself at once to general 
acceptance. He thinks these Pigmy pictures were designed to amuse the chil- 
dren. No conjecture could be less erudite or more probable. We know, 
however, as a matter of record, that the walls of taverns and wine-shops were 
usually adorned with Pigmy pictures, such subjects being associated in every 





mind with pleasure and gayety. It is not difficult to imagine that a picture 
of a pugilistic encounter between Pig- 
mies, like the one given at the head of 
this chapter, or a fanciful representa- 
tion of a combat of Pigmy gladiators, 
of which many have been discovered, 
would be both welcome and suitable 
as tavern pictures in the Italian cities 
of the classic period. 

The Pompeians, in common with 
all the people of antiquity, had a child- 
like enjoyment in witnessing represen- 
tations of animals engaged in the la- 

o o 

bors or the sports of human beings. 

A very large number of specimens 

have been uncovered, some of them 

gorgeous with the hues given them by 

masters of coloring eighteen hundred 

years ago. In the following cut is a 

specimen of these a representation. 

of a grasshopper driving a chariot, copied in 1802 from a Pompeian work for 

an English traveler. 

Nothing can exceed either the brilliancy or the delicacy of the coloring of 

this picture in the original, 
the splendid plumage of the 
bird and the bright gold of 
the chariot shaft and wheel 
being relieved and heighten- 
ed by a gray background 
and the greenish brown of 
the course. The colorists of 
Pompeii have obviously in- 
fluenced the taste of Christendom. There are few houses of pretension dec- 
orated within the last quarter of a century, 
either in Europe or America, which do not ex- 
hibit combinations and contrasts of color of 
which the hint was found in exhumed Pom- 
peii. One or two other small specimens of 
this kind of art, selected from a large number 
accessible, may interest the reader. 

The spirited air of the team of cocks, and 

the nonchalant professional attitude of the FEOM AN ANTIQUE 
charioteer, will not escape notice. Perhaps the most interesting example of 




this propensity to personify animals 
which the exhumed cities have fur- 
nished us is a burlesque of a popular 
picture of ^Eneas escaping from Troy, 
carrying his father, Anchises, on his 
back, and leading by the hand his son ? 
Ascanius, the old man carrying the 
casket of household gods. No scene 
could have been more familiar to the 
people of Italy than one which exhib- 
ited the hero whom they regarded as 
the founder of their empire in so enga- 
ging a light, and to which the genius 
of Virgil had given a deathless charm : 

" Thus erd'ring all that prudence could provide 
I clothe ray shoulders with a lion's hide 
And yellow spoils ; then on my bending back 
The welcome load of my dear father take ; 
While on my better hand Ascanius hung, 
And with unequal paces tripped along." 

Artists found a subject in these 
lines, and of one picture suggested by 
them two copies have been found 
carved upon stone. 



This device of employing animals' 
heads upon human bodies is still used 
by the caricaturist, so few are the re- 
sources of his branch of art ; and we 
can not deny that it retains a portion 
of its power to excite laughter. If we 
may judge from what has been discov- 
ered of the burlesque art of the ancient 
nations, we may conclude that this 
idea, poor as it seems to us, was the 
one which the artists of antiquity most 
frequently employed. It was also com- 
mon with them to burlesque familiar 
paintings, as in the instance given. It 
is not unlikely that the cloyed and 
dainty taste of the Pompeian connois- 
seur perceived something ridiculous 
in the too -familiar exploit of Father 
JEneas as represented in serious art, 


just as we smile at the theatrical altitudes and costumes in the picture of 
" Washington crossing the Delaware." Fancy that work burlesqued by put- 
ting an eagle's head upon the Father of his Country, filling the boat with 
magpie soldiers, covering the river with icebergs, and making the oars still 
more ludicrously inadequate to the work in hand than they are in the paint- 
ing. Thus a caricaturist of Pompeii, Rome, Greece, Egypt, or Assyria would 
have endeavored to cast ridicule upon such a pictured 

Few events of the last century were more influential upon the progress of 
knowledge than the chance discovery of the 
buried cities, since it nourished a curiosity re- 
specting the past which could not be confined 
to those excavations, and which has since been 
disclosing antiquity in every quarter of the 
globe. We call it a chance discovery, although 
the part which accident plays in such matters 
is more interesting than important. The dig- 
ging of a well in 1708 let daylight into the 


amphitheatre of Herculaneum, and caused 

some languid exploration, which had small results. Forty years later, a 
peasant at work in a vineyard five miles from the same spot struck with 
his hoe something hard, which was too firmly fixed in the ground to be 
moved. It proved to be a small statue of metal, upright, and riveted to 
a stone pedestal, which was itself immovably fastened to some solid mass 
still deeper in the earth. Where the hoe had struck the statue the metal 
showed the tempting hue of gold, and the peasant, after carefully smooth- 
ing over the surface, hurried away with a fragment of it to a goldsmith, 
intending (so runs the local gossip) to work this opening as his private 
gold mine. But as the metal was pronounced brass, he honestly reported 
the discovery to a magistrate, who set on foot an excavation. The statue 
was found to be a Minerva, fixed to the centre of a small roof-like dome, 
and when the dome was broken through it was seen to be the roof of a tem- 
ple, of which the Minerva had been the topmost ornament. And thus was 
discovered, about the middle of the last century, the ancient city of Pompeii, 
buried by a storm of light ashes from Vesuvius sixteen hundred and seventy 
years before. 

It was not the accident, but the timeliness of the accident, which made it 
important; for there never could have been an excavation fifteen feet deep 
over the site of Pompeii without revealing indications of the buried city. But 
the time was then ripe for an exploration. It had become possible to excite a 
general curiosity in a Past exhumed ; and such a curiosity is a late result of 
culture: it does not exist in a dull or in an ignorant mind. And this curios- 
ity, nourished and inflamed as it was by the brilliant and marvelous things 
brought to light in Pompeii and Herculaneum, has sought new gratification 



wherever a heap of ruins betrayed an ancient 


The excavations at Rome, so rich in re- 
sults, were not needed to prove that to the 
Romans of old caricature was a familiar 
thing. The mere magnitude of their thea- 
tres, and their habit of performing plays in 
the open air, compelled caricature, the basis 
of which is exaggeration. Actors, both comic 
and tragic, wore masks of very elaborate con- 
struction, made of resonant metal, and so 
shaped as to serve, in some degree, the office 
of a speaking-trumpet. In the engravings on 
this page are represented a pair of masks 
such as were worn by Roman actors through- 
out the empire, of which many specimens 
have been found. 

If the reader has ever visited the Coli- 
seum at Rome, or even one of the large hip- 
podromes of Paris or New York, and can 
imagine the attempts of an actor to exhib- 
it comic or tragic effects of countenance or 
of vocal utterance across spaces so extensive, 
he will readily understand the necessity of 
such masks as these. The art of acting could 
only have been developed in small theatres. 
In the open air or in the uncovered amphi- 
theatre all must have been vociferation and 

civilization. It looks now as if 
many of the old cities of the 
world are in layers or strata 
a new London upon an old 
London, and perhaps a Lon- 
don under that a city three 
or four deep, each the record 
of an era. Two Romes we 
familiarly know, one of Which 
is built in part upon the oth- 
er; and at Cairo we can see 
the process going on by which 
some ancient cities were bur- 
ied without volcanic aid. The 
dirt of the unswept streets, 
never removed, has raised the 
grade of Cairo from age to age. 



caricature. Observe the figure of olcT Silenus, on preceding page, one of the 
chief mirth-makers of antiquity, who lives for us in the Old Man of the panto- 
mime. He is masked for the theatre. 

The legend of Silenus is itself an evidence of the tendency of the ancients 
to fall into caricature. To the Romans he was at once the tutor, the comrade, 
and the butt of jolly Bacchus. He discoursed wisdom and made fun. He 
was usually represented as an old man, bald, flat-nosed, half drunk, riding upon 
a broad-backed ass, or reeling along by the aid of a staff, uttering shrewd max- 
ims and doing ludicrous acts. People wonder that the pantomime called 
"Humpty Dumpty " should be played a thousand nights in New York; but 
the substance of all that boisterous nonsense, that exhibition of rollicking free- 
dom from restraints of law, usage, and 'gravitation, has amused mankind for 
unknown thousands of years ; for it is merely what remains to us of the leg- 
endary Bacchus and his jovial crew. We observe, too, that the great comic 
books, such as "Gil Bias," "Don Quixote," "Pickwick," and others, are most 
effective when the hero is most like Bacchus, roaming over the earth with mer- 
ry blades, delightfully free from the duties and conditions which make bond- 
men of us all. Mr. Dickens may never have thought of it and he may but 
there is much of the charm of the ancient Bacchic legends in the narrative of 
the four Pickwickians and Samuel Weller setting off on the top of a coach, and 
meeting all kinds of gay and semi -lawless adventures in country towns and 
rambling inns. Even the ancient distribution of characters is hinted at. With 
a few changes, easily imagined, the irrepressible Sam might represent Bacchus, 
and his master bring to mind the sage and comic Silenus. Nothing is older 
than our modes of fun. Even in seeking the origin of Punch, investigators 
lose themselves groping in the dim light of the most remote antiquity. 

How readily the Roman satirists ran into caricature all their readers know, 
except those who take the amusing exaggerations of Juvenal and Horace as 
statements of fact. During the heat of our antislavery contest, Dryden's trans- 
lation of the passage in Juvenal which pictures the luxurious Roman lady or- 
dering her slave to be put to death was used by the late Mr. W. H. Fry, in the 
New York Tribune, with thrilling effect: 

" Go drag that slave to death ! You reason, Why 

Should the poor innocent be doomed to die? 

What proofs ? For, when man's life is in debate, 

The judge can ne'er too long deliberate. 

Call'st thou that slave a man ? the wife replies. 

Proved or unproved the crime, the villain dies. 

I have the sovereign power to save or kill, 

And give no other reason but my will." 

This is evidently caricature. Not only is the whole of Juvenal's sixth 
satire a series of the broadest exaggerations, but with regard to this particular 
passage we have evidence of its burlesque character in Horace (Satire III., 
Book I.), where, wishing to give an example of impossible folly, he says, "If a 


man should crucify a slave for eating some of the fish which he had been 
ordered to take away, people in their senses would call him a madman." Ju- 
venal exhibits the Roman matron of his period undergoing the dressing of her 
hair, giving the scene the same unmistakable character of caricature: 

" She hurries all her handmaids to the task ; 
Her head alone will 1 twenty dressers ask. 
Psecas, the chief, with breast and shoulders hare, 
Trembling,, considers every sacred hair : 
If any straggler from his rank be found, 
A pinch must for the mortal sin compound. 

"With curls on curls they build her head.before, 
And mount it with a formidable tower. 
A giantess she seems j but look behind, 
And then she dwindles to the Pigmy kind. 
Duck-legged, short-waisted, such a dwarf she is 
That she must rise on tiptoe for a kiss. 
Meanwhile her husband's whole estate is spent ; 
He may go bare, while she receives his rent." 

The spirit of caricature speaks in these lines. There are passages of Hor- 
ace, too, in reading which the picture forms itself before the mind ; and the 
poet supplies the very words which caricaturists usually employ to make their 
meaning more obvious. In the third satire of the second book a caricature is 
exhibited to the mind's eye without the intervention of pencil. We see the 
miser Opimius, " poor amid his hoards of gold," who has starved himself into 
a lethargy ; his heir is scouring his coffers in triumph ; but the doctor devises 
a moxle of rousing his patient. He orders a table to be brought into the room, 
upon which he causes the hidden bags of money to be poured out, and several 
persons to draw near as if to count it. Opimius revives at this maddening 
spectacle, and the doctor urges him to strengthen himself by generous food, 
and so balk his rapacious heir. "Do you hesitate?" cries the doctor. " Come, 
now, take this preparation of rice." " How much did it cost?" asks the miser. 
" Only a trifle." " But how much ?" " Eightpence." Opimius, appalled at 
the price, whimpers, "Alas ! what does it matter whether I die of a disease, or 
by plunder and extortion?" Many similar examples will arrest the eye of one 
who turns over the pages of this master of satire. 

The great festival of the Roman year, the Saturnalia, which occurred in the 
latter half of December, we may almost say was consecrated to caricature, so 
fond were the Romans of every kind of ludicrous exaggeration. This festival, 
the merry Christmas of the Roman world, gave to the Christian festival many 
of its enlivening observances. During the Saturnalia the law courts and 
schools were closed ; there was a general interchange of presents, and universal 
feasting; there Avere fantastic games, processions of masked figures in extrav- 
agant costumes, and religious sacrifices. For three days the slaves were not 
merely exempt from labor, but they enjoyed freedom of speech, even to the 



abusing of their masters. In one of his satires, Horace gives us an idea of the 
manner in which slaves burlesqued their lords at this jocund time. He reports 
some of the remarks of his own slave, Davus, upon himself and his poetry. 
Davus, it is evident, had discovered the histrionic element in literature, and 
pressed it home upon his master. "You praise the simplicity of the ancient 
Romans; but if any god were to reduce you to their condition, you, the same 
man that wrote those fine things, would beg to be let off. At Rome you long 
for the country ; and when you are in the country, you praise the distant city 
to the skies. When you are not invited out to supper, you extol your homely 
repast at home, and hug yourself that you are not obliged to drink with any 
body abroad. As if you ever went out upon compulsion ! But let Maecenas 
send you an invitation for early lamp-light, then what do we hear? Will no 
one bring the oil quicker? Does any body hear me? You bellow and storm 
with fury. You bought me for five hundred drachmas, but what if it turns 
out that you are the greater fool of the two ?" And thus the astute and witty 
Davus continues to ply his master with taunts and jeers and wise saws, till 
Horace, in fury, cries out, " Where can I find a stone ?" Davus innocently 
asks, " What need is there here of such a thing as a stone ?" " Where can I 
get some javelins?" roars Horace. Upon which Davus quietly remarks, " This 
man is either mad or making verses." Horace ends the colloquy by saying, 
" If you do not this instant take yourself off, I'll make a field-hand of you on 
my Sabine estate !" 

That Roman satirists employed the pencil and the brush as well as the sty- 
lus, and employed them freely and con- 
stantly, we should have surmised if the 
fact had not been discovered. Most of 
the caricatures of passing events speed- 
ily perish in all countries, because the 
materials usually employed in them are 
perishable. To preserve so slight a thing 
as a chalk sketch on a wall for eighteen 
centuries, accident must lend a hand, as 
it has in the instance now given. 

This picture was found in 1857 upon 
the wall of a narrow Roman street, which 
was closed up and shut out from the 
light of day about A.D-IOO, to facilitate 
an extension of the imperial palace. The 
wall when uncovered was found scratch- 
ed all over with rude caricature draw- 
ings in the style of the specimen given. 
This one immediately arrested attention, and the part of the wall on which it 
was drawn was carefully removed to the Collegio Romano, in the museum of 



which it may now be inspected. The Greek words scrawled upon the picture 
may be translated thus: "Alexamenos is worshiping his god." 

These words sufficiently indicate that the picture was aimed at some mem- 
ber, to us unknown, of the despised sect of the Christians. It is the only allu- 
sion to Christianity which has yet been found upon the walls of the Italian cit- 
ies ; but it is extremely probable that the street artists found in the strange 
usages of the Christians a very frequent subject. 

We know well what the educated class of the Romans thought of the 
Christians, when they thought of them at all. They regarded them as a sect 
of extremely absurd Jews, insanely obstinate, and wholly contemptible. If the 
professors and students of Harvard and Yale should read in the papers that a 
new sect had arisen among the Mormons, more eccentric and ridiculous even 
than the Mormons themselves, the intelligence would excite in their minds 
about the same feeling that the courtly scholars of the Roman Empire mani- 
fest when they speak of the early Christians. Nothing astonished them so 
much as their "obstinacy." "A man," says the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, 
"ought to be ready to die when the time comes; but this readiness should be 
the result of a calm judgment, and not be an exhibition of mere obstinacy, as 
with the Christians." The younger Pliny, too, in his character of magistrate, 
was extremely perplexed with this same obstinacy. He tells us that when peo- 
ple were brought before him charged with being Christians, he asked them the 
question, Are you a Christian? If they said they were, he repeated it twice, 
threatening them with punishment; and if they persisted, he ordered them to 
be punished. If they denied the charge, he put them to the proof by requir- 
ing them to repeat after him an invocation to the gods, and to offer wine and 
incense to the emperor's statue. Some of the accused, he says, reviled Christ; 
and this he regarded as a sure proof of innocence, for people told him there 
was no forcing real Christians to do an act of that nature. Some of the ac- 
cused owned that they had been Christians once, three years ago or more, and 
some twenty years ago, but had returned to the worship of the gods. These, 
however, declared that, after all, there was no great offense in being Chris- 
tians. They had merely met on a regular day before dawn, addressed a form 
of prayer to Christ as to a divinity, and bound themselves by a solemn oath 
not to commit fraud, theft, or other immoral act, nor break their word, nor 
betray a trust; after which they used to separate, then re-assemble, and eat 
together a harmless meal. 

All this seemed innocent enough; but Pliny was not satisfied. "I judged 
it necessary," he writes to the emperor," to try to get at the real truth by put- 
ting to the torture two female slaves who were said to officiate at their relig- 
ious rites ; but all I could discover was evidence of an absurd and extravagant 
superstition." So he refers the whole matter to the emperor, telling him that 
the "contagion" is not confined to the cities, but has spread into the villages 
and into the country. Still, he could be checked : nay, it had been 


checked; for the temples, which had'b'een almost abandoned, were beginning 
to be frequented again, and there was also " a general demand for victims for 
sacrifice, which till lately had found few purchasers." The wise Trajan ap- 
proved the course of his representative. He tells him, however, not to go out 
of his way to look for Christians ; but if any were brought before him, why, 
of course he must inflict the penalty unless they proved their innocence by in- 
voking the gods. The remains of Roman literature have nothing so interest- 
ing for us as these two letters of Pliny and Trajan of the year 103. We may 
rest assured that the walls of every Roman town bore testimony to the con- 
tempt and aversion in which the Christians were held, particularly by those 
who dealt in "victims" and served the altars a very numerous and important 
class throughout the ancient world. 



REECE was the native home of all that we now call art. Upon looking 
over the two hundred pages of art gossip in the writings of the elder 
Pliny, most of which relates to Greece, we are ready to ask, Is there one thing 
in painting or drawing, one school, device, style, or method, known to us which 
was not familiar to the Greeks? They had their Landseers men great in 
dogs and all animals; they had artists renowned in the "Dutch style" ages 
before the Dutch ceased to be amphibious artists who painted barber-shop 
interiors to a hair, and donkeys eating cabbages correct to a fibre ; they had 
cattle pieces as famous throughout the classic world as Rosa Bonheur's " Horse 
Fair" is now in ours; they had Rosa Bonheurs of their own famous women, 
a list of whose names Pliny gives; they had portrait-painters too good to be 
fashionable, and portrait-painters too fashionable to be good ; they had artists 
who excelled in flesh, others great in form, others excellent in composition ; 
they took plaster casts of dead faces ; they had varnishers and picture-clean- 
ers. Noted pictures were spoken of as having lost their charm through an 
unskillful cleaner. They had their " life school," and used it as artists now do, 
borrowing from each model her special beauty. Zeuxis, as Pliny records, was 
so scrupulously caref ul in the execution of a religious painting that " he had 
the young maidens of the place stripped for examination, and selected five of 
them, in order to adopt in his picture the most commendable points in the 
form of each." And we may be sure that every maiden of them felt it to be 
an honor thus to contribute perfection to a Juno, executed by the first artist 
of the world, which was to adorn the temple of her native city. 

They played with art as men are apt to play with the implements of which 
they are masters. Sosus, the great artist in mosaics, executed at Pergamus 
the pavement of a banqueting-room which presented the appearance of a floor 
strewed with crumbs, fragments and scraps of a feast, not yet swept away. It 
was renowned as the"Unswept Hall of Pergamus." And what a pleasing 
story is that of the contest between Zeuxis and his rival, Parrhasius ! On the 
day of trial Zeuxis hung in the place of exhibition a painting of grapes, and 
Parrhasius a picture of a curtain. Some birds flew to the grapes of Zeuxis, 
and began to pick at them. The artist, overjoyed at so striking a proof of his 
success, turned haughtily to his rival, and demanded that the curtain uhould be 



drawn aside and the picture revealed^ But the curtain was the picture. He 
owned himself surpassed, since he had 
only deceived birds, but Parrhasius had 
deceived Zeuxis. 

Could comic artists and caricatur- 
ists be wanting in Athens? Strange 
to say, it was the gods and goddesses 
whom the caricaturists of Greece as 
well as the comic writers chiefly select- 
ed for ridicule. All their works have 
perished except a few specimens pre- 
served upon pottery. We show one 
from a Greek vase, a rude burlesque of 
one of Jupiter's love adventures, the 
father of gods and men being accom- 
panied by a Mercury ludicrously unlike 
the light and agile messenger of the 

gOdS. Ihe Story goes that the Jrnn- BUBLEB<JUK OF JUIUTRK'S WOINO~OF THE 

cess Alcmena, though betrothed to a ALCMENA. 

lover, vowed her hand to the man who should avenge her slaughtered broth- 
ers. Jupiter assumed the form and face of the lover, and, pretending to have 
avenged her brothers' death, gained admittance. Pliny describes a celebrated 
burlesque painting of the birth of Bacchus from Jupiter's thigh, in which the 
god of the gods was represented wearing a woman's cap, in a highly ridicu- 
lous posture, crying out, and surrounded by goddesses in the character of mid- 
wives. The best specimen of Greek caricature that has come down to us 
burlesques no less serious a theme than the great oracle of Apollo at Delphos, 
given on page 30. 

This remarkable work owes its preservation to the imperishable nature of 
the material on which it was executed. It was copied from a large vessel 
used by the Greeks and Romans for holding vinegar, a conspicuous object 
upon their tables, and therefore inviting ornament. What audacity to bur- 
lesque an oracle to which kings and conquerors humbly repaired for direction, 
and which all Greece held in awe ! Croesus propitiated this oracle by the gift 
of a solid golden lion as large as life, and the Phocians found in its coffers, and 
carried off, a sum equal to nearly eleven millions of dollars in gold. Such was 
the general belief in its divine inspiration ! But in this picture we see the 
oracle, the god, and those who consult them, all exhibited in the broadest bur- 
lesque: Apollo as a quack doctor on his platform, with bag, bow, and cap; 
Chiron, old and blind, struggling up the steps to consult him, aided by Apollo 
at his head and a friend pushing behind ; the nymphs surveying the scene 
from the heights of Parnassus ; and the manager of the spectacle, who looks 
on from below. How strange is this ! 



But the Greek literature is also full of this wild license. Lucian depicts 
the gods in council ludicrously discussing the danger they were iu from the 
philosophers. Jupiter says, " If men are once persuaded that there are no 
gods, or, if there are gods, that we take no care of human affairs, we shall have 
no more gifts or victims from them, but may sit and starve on Olympus with- 
out festivals, holidays, sacrifices, or any pomp or ceremonies whatever." The 
whole debate is in this manner, and is at the same time a burlesque of the 
political discussions at the Athenian mass-meetings. What can be more ludi- 
crous than the story of Mercury visiting Athens in disguise in order to dis- 
cover the estimation in which he was held among mortals? He enters the 
shop of a dealer in images, where he inquires the price first of a Jupiter, then 


of an Apollo, and, lastly, with a blush, of a Mercury. " Oh," says the dealer, 
" if you take the Jupiter and the Apollo, I will throw the Mercury in." 

Nor did the witty, rollicking Greeks confine their satire to the immortals. 
Of the famous mirth -provokers of the world, such as Cervantes, Ariosto, 
Moliere, Rabelais, Sterne, Voltaire, Thackeray, Dickens, the one that had most 
power to produce mere physical laughter, power to shake the sides and cause 
people to roll helpless upon the floor, was the Greek dramatist Aristophanes. 
The force of the comic can no farther go than he has carried it in some of the 
scenes of his best comedies. Even to us, far removed as we are, in taste as 
well as in time, from that wonderful Athens of his, they are still irresistibly di- 
verting. This master of mirth is never so effective as when he is turning into 


ridicule the philosophers and poets for whose sake Greece is still a dear, ven- 
erable name to all the civilized world. In his comedy of "The Frogs" he sends 
Bacchus down into Hades with every circumstance of riotous burlesque, and 
there he exhibits the two great tragic poets, ^Eschylus and Euripides, standing 
opposite each other, and competing for the tragic throne by reciting verses in 
which the mannerism of each, as well as familiar passages of their plays, is 
broadly burlesqued. Nothing in literature can be' found more ludicrous or 
less becoming, unless we look for it in Aristophanes himself. In his play of 
"The Clouds" occurs his caricature of Socrates, of infinite absurdity, but not 
ludicrous to us, because we read it as part of the story of a sublime and affect- 
ing martyrdom. It fills our minds with wonder to think that a people among 
whom a Socrates could have been formed could have borne to see him thus 
profaned. A rogue of a father, plagued by an extravagant son, repairs to the 
school of Socrates to learn the arts by which creditors are argued out of their 
just claims in courts of justice. Upon reaching the place, the door of the 
" Thinking Shop " opens, and behold ! a caricature all ready for the artist's 
pencil. The pupils are discovered with their heads fixed to the floor, their 
backs uppermost, and Socrates hanging from the ceiling in a basket. The vis- 
itor, transfixed with winder, questions his companion. He asks why they pre- 
sent that portion of their bodies to heaven. " It is getting taught astrono- 
my alone by itself." " And who is this man in the basket ?" " HIMSELF." 
"Who's Himself?" "Socrates!" The visitor at length addresses the master 
by a diminutive, as though he had said, " Socrates, dear little Socrates." The 
philosopher speaks: "Why callest thou me, thou creature of a day?" "Tell 
me, first, I beg, what you are doing up there." " I am walking in the air, and 
speculating about the sun ; for I should never have rightly learned celestial 
things if I had not suspended the intellect, and subtly mingled Thought with 
its kindred Air." All this is in the very spirit of caricature. Half of Aris- 
tophanes is caricature. In characterizing the light literature of Greece we 
are reminded of Juvenal's remark upon the Greek people, " All Greece is a 




TT^GYPTIAN art was old when Grecian art was young, and it remained 
J-^ crude when the art of Greece had reached its highest development. But 
not the less did it delight in caricature and burlesque. In the Egyptian collec- 
tion belonging to the New York Historical Society there is a specimen of the 
Egyptians' favorite kind of burlesque picture which dates back three thousand 
years, but which stands out more clearly now upon its slab of limestone than 
we cau engrave it here. 


Dr. Abbott, who brought this specimen from Thebes, interpreted it to be a 
representation of a lion seated upon a throne, as king, receiving from a fox, 
personating a high-priest, an offering of a goose and a fan. It is probably a 
burlesque of a well-known picture ; for in one of the Egyptian papyri in the 
British Museum there is a drawing of a lion and unicorn playing chess, which 
is a manifest caricature of a picture frequently repeated upon the ancient mon- 
uments. It was from Egypt, then, that the classic nations caught this childish 
fancy of ridiculing the actions of men by picturing animals performing similar 
ones ; and it is surprising to note how fond the Egyptian artists were of this 
simple device. On the same papyrus there are several other interesting speci- 
mens : a lion on his hind-legs engaged in laying out as a mummy the dead 
body of a hoofed animal; a tiger or wild cat driving a flock of geese to rn:ir- 



ket; another tiger carrying a hoe on one shoulder and a bag of seed on the 
other; an animal playing on a double pipe, and driving before him a herd of 
small stags, like a shepherd ; a hippopotamus washing his hands in a tall wa- 
ter-jar; an animal on a throne, with another behind him as a fan-bearer, and a 
third presenting him with a bouquet. No place was too sacred for such play- 
ful delineations. In one of the royal sepulchres at Thebes, as Kenrick relates, 
there is a picture of an ass and a lion singing, accompanying themselves on 
the phorminx and the harp. There is also an elaborate burlesque of a battle 
piece, in which a fortress is attacked by rats, and defended by cats, which are 
visible on the battlements. Some rats bring a ladder to the walls and prepare 
to scale them, while others, armed with spears, shields,, and bows, protect the 
assailants. One rat of enormous size, in a chariot drawn by dogs, has pierced 
several cats with arrows, and is swinging round his battle-axe in exact imita- 
tion of Rameses, in a serious picture, dealing destruction on his enemies. On 
a papyrus at Turin there is a representation of a cat with a shepherd's crook 
watching a flock of geese, while a cynocephalus near by plays upon the flute. 
Of this class of burlesques the most interesting example, perhaps, is the one 
annexed, representing a Soul 
doomed to return to its earth- 
ly home in the form of a pig. 
This picture, which is of 
such antiquity that it was an 
object of curiosity to the Ro- 
mans and the Greeks, is part 

of the decoration of a kind's A CONDEMNED SOUL, EGYPTIAN CARICATURE. 


tomb. In the original, Osiris, the august judge of departed spirits, is repre-' 
sented on his throne, near the stern of the boat, waving away the Soul, which 
he has just weighed in his unerring scales and found wanting; while close to 
the shore a man hews away the ground, to intimate that all communication is 
cut off between the lost spirit and the abode of the blessed. The animals that 
execute the stern decree are the dog-headed monkeys, sacred in the mythology 
of Egypt. 

That the ancient Egyptians were a jovial people who sat long at the wine, 
we might infer from the caricatures which have been discovered in Egypt, if 

we did not know it 
from other sources of 
information. Repre- 
sentations have been 
found of every part 
of the process of 
wine -making, from 
the planting of the 





ing-away of the wine-jars. In the valuable works of Sir Gardner Wilkinson* 
many of these curious pictures are given: the vineyard and its trellis-work; 
men frightening away the birds with slings ; a vineyard with a water-tank for 
irrigation; the grape harvest; baskets full of grapes covered with leaves; kids 
browsing upon the vines; trained monkeys gathering grapes; the wine-press 
in operation; men pressing grapes by the natural process of treading; pour- 
ing the wine into jars; and rows of jars put away for future use. The same 
laborious author favors us with ancient Egyptian caricatures which serve to 
show that wine was a creature as capable of abuse thirty centuries ago as it 
is now. 

Pictures of similar character are not unfrequent upon the ancient frescoes, 
and many of them are far more extravagant than this, exhibiting men dancing 
wildly, standing upon their heads, and riotously fighting. From Sir Gai'dner 
Wilkinson's disclosures we may reasonably infer that the arts of debauchery 
have received little addition during the last three thousand years. Even the 
seductive cocktail is not modern. The ancient Egyptians imbibed stimulants 
to excite an appetite for wine, and munched the biting cabbage-leaf for the 
same purpose. Beer in several varieties was known to them also ; veritable 
beer, made of barley and a bitter herb ; beer so excellent that the dainty Greek 
travelers commended it as a drink only inferior to wine. Even the Egyptian 
ladies did not always resist the temptation of so many modes of intoxication. 

Nor did they escape the cari- 
caturist's pencil. 

This unfortunate lady, as 
Sir Gardner conjectures, after 
indulging in potations deep of 
the renowned Egyptian wine, 
had been suddenly overtaken 
by the consequences, and had 
called for assistance too late. 
Egyptian satirists did not 
spare the ladies, and they aim- 
ed their shafts at the same foi- 
bles that have called forth so 
many efforts of pencil and pen in later times. Whenever, indeed, we look 
closely into ancient life, we are struck with the similarity of the daily routine 
to that of our own time. Every detail of social existence is imperishably re- 
corded upon the monuments of ancient Egypt, even to the tone and style and 
mishaps of a fashionable party. We see the givers of the entertainment, the 
master and mistress of the mansion, seated side by side upon a sofa; the 


* "A Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians," by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, 2 vols., 
Harper & Brothers, 1854. 


guests coming up as they arrive to salute them ; the musicians and dancers 
bowing low to them before beginning to perform ; a pet monkey, a dog, or a 
gazelle tied to the leg of the sofa; the youngest child of the family sitting 
on the floor by its mother's side, or upon its father's knee ; the ladies sitting 
in groups, conversing upon the deathless, inexhaustible subject of dress, and 
showing one another their trinkets. 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson gives us also the pleasing information that it was 
thought a pretty compliment for one guest to offer another a flower from his 
bouquet, and that the guests endeavored to gratify their entertainers by point- 
ing out to one another, with expressions of admiration, the tasteful knickknacks, 
the boxes of carved wood or ivory, the vases, the elegant light tables, the chairs, 
ottomans, cushions, carpets, and furniture with which the apartment was pro- 
vided. This too transparent flattery could not escape such inveterate carica- 
turists as the Egyptian artists. In a tomb at Thebes may be seen a ludicrous 
representation of scenes at a party where several of the guests had been lost in 
rapturous admiration of the objects around them. A young man, either from 
awkwardness or from having gone too often to the wine-jar, had reclined 
against a wooden column placed in the centre of the room to support a tempo- 
rary ornament. There is a crash ! The ornamental structure falls upon some 
of the absorbed guests. Ladies have recourse to the immortal privilege of 
their sex they scream. All is confusion. Uplifted hands ward off the fall- 
ing masses. In a few moments, when it is discovered that no one is hurt, peace 
is restored, and all the company converse merrily over the incident. 

It is strange to find such pictures in a tomb. But it seems as if death arid 
funerals and graves, with their elaborate paraphernalia, were provocative of 
mirthful delineation. In one noted royal tomb there is a representation of the 
funeral procession, part of which was evidently designed to excite merriment. 
The Ethiopians who follow in the train of the mourning queen have their hair 
plaited in most fantastic fashion, and their tunics of leopard's skin are so ar- 
ranged that a preposterously enormous tail hangs down behind for the next 
man to step upon. One of the extensive colored plates of Sir Gardner Wilkin- 
son's larger work presents to our view a solemn and stately procession of fu- 
neral barges crossing the Lake of the Dead at Thebes on its way to the place 
of burial. The first boat contains the coffin, decorated with flowers, a high- 
priest burning incense before a table of offerings, and the female relatives of 
the deceased lamenting their loss ; two barges are filled with mourning friends, 
one containing only women and the other only men ; two more are occupied by 
professional persons the undertaker's assistants, as we should call them em- 
ployed to carry offerings, boxes, chairs, and other funeral objects. It was in 
drawing one of these vessels that the artist could not refrain from putting in a 
little fun. One of the barges having grounded upon the shore, the vessel be- 
hind comes into collision with her, upsetting a table upon the oarsmen and 
causing much confusion. It is not improbable that the picture records an in- 
cident of that particular funeral. 



IF we go farther back into antiquity, it is India which first arrests and long- 
est absorbs our attention India, fecund mother of tradition, the source of 
almost all the rites, beliefs, and observances of the ancient nations. When we 
visit the collections of the India House, the British Museum, the Mission 
Rooms, or turn over the startling pages of " The Hindu Pantheon " of Major 
Edward Moor, we are ready to exclaim, Here all is caricature ! This brazen 
image, for example, of a partly naked man with an elephant's head and trunk, 
seated upon a huge rat, and feeding himself with his trunk from a bowl held 
in his hand surely this is caricature. By no means. It is an image of the 
most popular of the Hindoo deities Ganesa, god of prudence and policy, in- 
voked at the beginning of all enterprises, and over whose head is written the 
sacred word Aum, never uttered by a Hindoo except with awe and veneration. 
If a man begins to build a house, he calls on Ganesa, and sets up an image of 
him near the spot. Mile-stones are fashioned in his likeness, and he serves as 
the road-side god, even if the pious peasants who place him where two roads 
cross can only afford the rudest resemblance to an elephant's head daubed with 
oil and red ochre. Rude as it may be, a passing traveler will occasionally hang 
upon it a wreath of flowers. Major Moor gives us a hideous picture of Maha- 
Kala, with huge mouth and enormous protruding tongue, squat, naked, upon 
the ground, and holding up a large sword. This preposterous figure is still 
farther removed from the burlesque. It is the Hindoo mode of representing 
JSternity, whose vast insatiate maw devours men, cities, kingdoms, and will at 
length swallow the universe ; then all the crowd of inferior deities, and finally 
itself, leaving only JBrahm, the One Eternal, to inhabit the infinite void. Hun- 
dreds of such revolting crudities meet the eye in every extensive Indian col- 

But the element of fun and burlesque is not wanting in the Hindoo Pan- 
theon. Krishna is the jolly Bacchus, the Don Juan, of the Indian deities. 
Behold him on his travels mounted upon an elephant, which is formed of the 
bodies of the obliging damsels who accompany him ! 

There is no end to the tales related of the mischievous, jovial, irrepressible 
Krishna. The ladies who go with him everywhere, a countless multitude, are 
so accommodating as to wreathe and twist themselves into the form of anv 




creature he may wish to ride ; sometimes into that of a horse, sometimes into 
that of a bird. 

In other pictures 
he appears riding in 
a palanquin, which is 
likewise composed of 
girls, and the bearers 
are girls also. In the 
course of one advent- 
ure, being in great dan- 
ger from the wrath of 
his numerous enemies, 
he created an enormous 
snake, in whose vast 
interior his flocks, his 
herds, his followers, 
and himself found ref- 
uge. At a festival held 
in his honor, which was 
attended by a great 
number of damsels, he 





the midst of the company and proposed a dance; and, that each of them might 
be provided with a partner, he divided himself into as many complete and 
captivating Krishnas as there were ladies. One summer, when he was pass- 
ing the hot season on the sea- shore with his retinue of ladies, his musical 
comrade, Nareda, hinted to him that, since he had such a multitude of 
wives, it would be no great stretch of generosity to spare one to a poor 
musician who had no wife at all. "Court any one you please," said the 
merry god. So Nareda went wooing from house to house, but in every house 
he found Krishna perfectly domesticated, the ever -attentive husband, and 
the lady quite sure that she had him all to herself. Nareda continued his 
quest until he had visited precisely sixteen thousand and eight houses, in 
each and all of which, at one and the same time, Krishna was the established 
lord. Then he gave it up. One of the pictures which illustrate the endless 
biography of this entertaining deity represents him going through the cere- 
mony of marriage with a bear, both squatting upon a carpet in the prescribed 
attitude, the bear grinning satisfaction, two bears in attendance standing on 
their hind -feet, and two priests blessing the union. This picture is more 
spirited, is more like art, than any other yet copied from Hindoo originals. 

To this day, as the missionaries report, the people of India are excessively 
addicted to every kind of jesting which is within their capacity, and delight 
especially in all the monstrous comicalities of their mythology. No matter 
how serious an impression a speaker may have made upon a village group, 
let him but use a word in a manner which suggests a ludicrous image or ridic- 
ulous pun, and the assembly at once breaks up in laughter, not to be gathered 


In late years, those of the inhabitants of India who read the language of 
their conquerors have had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with their 
humor. Wherever a hundred English officers are gathered, there is the pos- 
sibility of an illustrated comic periodical, and, accordingly, we find one such 
in several of the garrisoned places held by the English in remote parts of the 
world. Calcutta, as the Athenaeum informs us, "has its Punch, or Indian 
Charivari" which is not unworthy of its English namesake. 



MR. ROBERT TOMES, American consul, a few years ago, at the French 
city of Rheiras, describes very agreeably the impression made upon his 
mind by the grand historic cathedral of that ancient place.* Filled with a 
sense of the majestic presence of the edifice, he approached one of the chief 
portals, to find it crusted with a most uncouth semi-burlesque representation, 
cut in stone, of the Last Judgment. The trump has sounded, and the Lord 
from a lofty throne is pronouncing doom upon the risen as they are brought 
up to the judgment-seat by the angels. Below him are two rows of the 
dead just rising from their graves, extending to the full width of the great 
door. Upon many of the faces there is an expression of amazement, which the 
artist apparently designed to be comic, and several of the attitudes are ex- 
tremely absurd and ludicrous. Some have managed to push off the lid of 
their tombs a little way, and are peeping out through the narrow aperture, 
others have just got their heads above the surface of the ground, and others 
are sitting up in their graves; some have one leg out, some are springing into 
the air, and some are running, as if in wild fright, for their lives. Though the 
usual expression upon the faces is one of astonishment, yet this is varied. 
Some are rubbing their eyes as if startled from a deep sleep, but not yet aware 
of the cause of alarm; others are utterly bewildered, and hesitate to leave their 
resting-place ; some leap out in mad excitement, and others hurry off as if fear- 
ing to be again consigned to the tomb. An angel is leading a cheerful com- 
pany of popes, bishops, and kings toward the Saviour, while a hideous demon, 
with a mouth stretching from ear to ear, is dragging off a number of the con- 
demned toward the devil, who is seen stirring up a huge caldron boiling and 
bubbling with naked babies, dead before baptism. On another part of the 
wall is a carved representation of the vices which led to the destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah. These were so monstrously obscene that the authori- 
ties of the cathedral, in deference to the modern sense of decency, have caused 
them to be partly cut away by the chisel. 

The first cut on the next page is an example of burlesque ornament. The 
artist apparently intended to indicate another termination of the interview 

* "The Champagne Country," p. 34, by Robert Tomes, London, 1867. 



than the one recorded by Msop between the wolf and the stork. The old 
cathedral at Strasburg, destroyed a hun- 
dred years ago, was long renowned for its -> = 
sculptured burlesques. We give two of \ 5=^== ~=^J 
several capitals exhibiting the sacred rites 
of the Church travestied by animals. 

It marks the change in the feelings and 
manners of men that, three hundred years 
after those Strasburg capitals were carved, 
with the sanction of the chapter, a book- 
seller, for only exhibiting an engraving of 
some of them in his shop window, was con- 
victed of having committed a crime " most 
scandalous and injurious to religion." His 
sentence was "to make the amende hono- 
rable, naked to his shirt, a rope round his 
neck, holding in his hand a lighted wax-candle weighing two pounds, before 
the principal door of the cathedral, whither he will be conducted by the execu- 
tioner, and there, on his knees, with uncovered head," confess his fault and ask 
pardon of God and the king. The pictures were to be burned before his eyes, 
and then, after paying all the costs of the prosecution, he was to go into eter- 
nal banishment. 

Other American consuls besides Mr. Tomes, and multitudes of American 



citizens not so fortunate as to study mediaeval art at their country's expense, 
have been profoundly puzzled by this crust of crude burlesque on ecclesias- 
tical architecture. The objects in Europe which usually give to a susceptible 
American his first and his last rapture are the cathedrals, those venerable enig- 
mas, the glory and shame of the Middle Ages, which present so complete a 


contrast to the toy- temples, new, cabinet-finished, upholstered, sofa-seated, of 
American cities, not to mention the consecrated barns, white-painted and tree- 
less, of the rural districts. And the cathedrals are a contrast to every thing 
in Europe also, if only from their prodigious magnitude. A cathedral town 
generally stands in a valley, through which a small river winds. When the 
visitor from any of the encompassing hills gets his first view of the compact 
little city, the cathedral looms up in the midst thereof so vast, so tall, that the 
disproportion to the surrounding structures is sometimes even ludicrous, like a 
huge black elephant with a flock of small brown sheep huddling about its feet. 
But when at last the stranger stands in its shadow, he finds the spell of its 
presence irresistible ; and it is a spell which the lapse of time not unfrequently 
strengthens, till he is conscious of a tender, strong attachment to the edifice, 
which leads him to visit it at unusual times, to try the effect upon it of moon- 
light, of storm, of dawn and twilight, of mist, rain, and snow. He finds him- 
self going to it for solace and rest. On setting out upon a journey, he makes a 
detour to get another last look, and, returning, goes, valise in hand, to see his 
cathedral before he sees his companions. Many American consuls have had 
this experience, have truly fallen in love with the cathedral of their station, 
and remained faithful to it for years after their return, like Mr. Howells, whose 
heart and pen still return to Venice and San Carlo, so much to the delight of 
his readers. 

This charm appears to lie in the mere grandeur of the edifice as a work of 
art, for we observe it to be most potent over persons who are least in sympa- 
thy with the feeling which cathedrals embody. Very religious people are as 
likely to be repelled as attracted by them; and, indeed, in England and Scot- 
land there are large numbers of Dissenters who have avoided entering them 
all their lives on principle. It is Americans who enjoy them most; for they 
see in them a most captivating assemblage of novelties vast magnitude,, solid- 
ity of structure only inferior to nature's own work, venerable age, harmonious 
and solemn magnificence all combined in an edifice which can not, on any 
principle of utility, justify its existence, and does not pay the least fraction of 
its expenses. Little do they know personally of the state of feeling which 
made successive generations of human beings willing to live in hovels and 
inhale pollution in order that they might erect those wondrous piles. The cost 
of maintaining them of which cost the annual expenditure in money is the 
least important part does not come home to us. We abandon ourselves 
without reserve to the enjoyment of stupendous works wholly new to our ex- 

It is Americans, also, who are most baffled by the attempt to explain the 
contradiction between the noble proportions of these edifices and the decora- 
tions upon some of their walls. How could it have been, we ask in amaze- 
ment, that minds capable of conceiving the harmonies of these fretted roofs, 
these majestic colonnades, these symmetrical towers, could also have permitted 




their surfaces to be profaned by sculptures so absurd and so abominable that 
by no artifice of cir- 
cumlocution can an 
idea of some of them 
be conveyed in print- 
able words? In close 
proximity to statues 
of the Virgin, and in 
chapels whose every 
line is a line of beau- 
ty, we know not how 
to interpret what JVI. 
Champfleury truly styles "deviltries and obscenities unnamable, vice and pas- 
sion depicted with gross brutality, luxury which has thrown off every disguise, 
and shows itself naked, bestial, and shameless." And these mediaeval artists 
availed themselves of the accumulated buffooneries and inonsti'osities of all the 
previous ages. The gross conceptions of India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome ap- 
pear in the ornamentation of Christian temples along with shapes hideous or 
grotesque which may have been original. Even the oaken stalls in which the 
officiating priests rested during the prolonged ceremonials of festive days are 
in many cathedrals covered with comic carving, some of which is pure carica- 
ture. A rather favorite subject was the one shown above, a whipping-scene 
in a school, carved upon an ancient stall in an English cathedral. 

It is not certain, however, that the artist had any comic intention in en- 
graving this picture of retributive justice, with which the children of former 
ages were so familiar. It was a standard subject. The troops of Flemish 
carvers who roamed over Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, offer- 
ing their services wherever a chui-ch was to be decorated, carried with them 
port-folios of stock subjects, of which this was one. Other carvings are unmis- 
takable caricatures: a monk caught making love to a nun, a wife beating her 
husband, an aged philosopher ridden by a woman, monkeys wearing bishops' 
mitres, barbers drawing teeth in ludicrous attitudes, and others less describa- 

ble. In the huge cathe- 
dral of English Win- 
chester, which abounds 
in curious relics of the 
Middle Ages, there is a 
series of painted panels 
in the chapel of Our 
Lady, one of which is 
an evident caricature of 
the devil. He is hav- 
ing his portrait painted, and the Virgin Mary is near the artist, urging him to 



paint him blacker and uglier than usual. The devil does not like this, and 
wears an expression similar to that of a rogue in a modern police station who 
objects to being photographed. Often, however, in these old pictures the 
devil is master of the situation, and exhibits contempt for his adversaries in 
indecorous ways. 

If we turn from the sacred edifices to the sacred books used in them 
those richly illuminated missals, the books of " Hours," the psalters, and other 
works of devotion we are amazed beyond expression to discover upon their 
brilliant pages a similar taste in ornamentation. The school scene on the pre- 
vious page, in which monkey-headed children are playing school, dates back to 
the thirteenth century. 

Burlesque tournaments, in the same taste, often figure in the prayer-books 
among representations of the Madonna, the crucifixion, and scenes in the lives 
of the patriarchs. The gallant hare tilts at the fierce cock of the barn-yard, or 
sly Reynard parries the thrust of the clumsy bear. 

One of the most curious relics of those religious centuries is a French 
prayer-book preserved in the British Museum, where it was discovered and 



described by Mr. Malcolm, one of the first persons who ever attempted to elu- 
cidate the subject of caricature. Besides the "Hours of the Blessed Virgin," 
it contains various prayers and collects, the office for the dead, and some 
psalms, all in Latin. It is illustrated by several brilliantly colored, well-drawn, 
but most grotesque and incomprehensible figures, designed, as has been con- 
jectured, to " expose the wicked and inordinate lives of the clergy, who were 
hated by the manuscript writers as taking away much of their business." This 
was the explanation given of these remarkable pictures to the trustees of the 
Museum by the collector of whom they bought the volume. Several of them 
are submitted to the reader's ingenuity on the following page. 

Besides the specimens given, there is a wolf growling at a snake twisting 
itself I'Otmd its hind-leg; there is "a grinning-match " between a human head 
on an animal's body and a boar's head on a monkey's body; there is a creature 
like a pea-hen, with two bodies, one neck, and two dogs' heads ; there is an ani- 
mal with four bodies and one head ; there is a bearded man's face and a wom- 
an's on one neck, and the body has no limbs, but an enormous tail ; there is a 
turret, on the top of which a monkey sits, and a savage below is aiming an ar- 




row at him. In the British Museum that unequaled repository of all that is 
curious and rare there is the famous and splendid psalter of Richard II., con- 
taining many strange pictures in the taste of the period. On the second page, 
for example, along with two pictures of the kind usual in Catholic works of 
devotion, there is a third which represents an absurd combat within lists be- 
tween the court-fool and the court-giant. The fool, who is also a dwarf, is 
belaboring the giant with an instrument like those hollow clubs used in our 
pantomimes when the clown is to be whacked with great violence. The 
giant shrinks from the blows, and the king, pointing at the dwarf, seems to 
say, " Go it, little one ; I bet upon you" 

Mr. Malcolm, who copied this picture from the original, where, he says, it is 
most superbly finished, interprets it to be a caricature of the famous combat 
between David and Goliath in the presence of King Saul and his court. In 
the same mass -book there is a highly ridiculous representation of Jonah on 



board ship, with a blue Boreas with cheeks puffed out raising the tempest, and 
a black devil clawing the sail from the yard. In selecting a few of the more 
innocent pictures from the prayer-book of Queen Mary, daughter of Henry 
VIII. of England, Mr. Malcolm gives expression to his amazement at the char- 
acter of the drawings, which he dared not exhibit to a British public ! Was 
this book, he asks, made on purpose for the queen ? Was it a gift or a pur- 
chase ? But whether she bought or whether she accepted it, he thinks she 
must have "delighted in ludicrous and improper ideas," or else "her inclina- 


tion for absurdity and caricature conquered even her religion, in defense of 
which she spread ruin and desolation through her kingdom." 

As the reader has now before his eyes a sufficient number of specimens of 
the grotesque ecclesiastical ornamentation of the period under consideration, he 
is prepared to consider the question which has perplexed so many students be- 
sides Mr. Malcolm : How are we to account for these indecencies in places and 
books consecrated to devotion? A voice from the Church of the fifth century 
gives us the hint of the true answer. "You ask me," writes St. Nilus to 
Olympiodorus of Alexandria, " if it is becoming in us to cover the walls of 
the sanctuary with representations of animals of all kinds, so that we see upon 
them snares set, hares, goats, and other beasts in full flight before hunters ex- 
hausting themselves in taking and pursuing them with their dogs ; and, again, 
upon the bank of a river, all kinds of fish caught by fishermen. I answer you 
that this is a puerility with which to amuse the eyes of the faithful."* To one 
who is acquainted with the history and genius of the Roman Catholic Church, 
this very simple explanation of the incongruity is sufficient. The policy of 
that wonderful organization in every age has been to make every possible con- 
cession to ignorance that is compatible with the continuance of ignorance. It 

* Quoted in Chumpfleiiry, p. 7, from " Maxima Bibliotheca Patrnm," vol. xxvii.. p. 323. 


has sought always to amuse, to edify, to rnoi'alize, and console ignorance, but 
never to enlighten it. The mind that planned the magnificent cathedral at 
Rheims, of which Mr. Tomes was so much enamored, and the artists who 
designed the glorious San Carlo that kindled rapture in the poetical mind of 
Mr. Howells, did indeed permit the scandalous burlesques that disfigure their 
wallsj but they only permitted them. It was a concession which they had to 
grant to the ignorant multitude whose unquestioning faith alone made these 
enormous structures possible. 

We touch here the question insinuated by Gibbon in his first volume, 
where he plainly enough intimates his belief that Christianity was a lapse into 
barbarism rather than a deliverance from it. Plausible arguments in the same 
direction have been frequently made since Gibbon's time by comparing the 
best of Roman civilization with the worst of the self -torturing monkery of 
the early Christian centuries. In a debate on this subject in New York not 
long since between a member of the bar and a doctor of divinity, both of 
them gentlemen of learning, ability, and candor, the lawyer pointed to the 
famous picture of St. Jerome (A.D. 375), naked, grasping a human skull, his 
magnificent head showing vast capacity paralyzed by an absorbing terror, and 
exclaimed, "Behold the lapse from Virgil, Horace, Cicero, Seneca, the Plinys, 
and the Antonines !" The answer made by the clergyman was, " That is not 
Christianity ! In the Christian books no hint of that, no utterance justifying 
that, can be found." Perhaps neither of the disputants succeeded in express- 
ing the whole truth on this point. The vaunted Roman civilization was, in 
truth, only a thin crust upon the surface of the empire, embracing but one 
small class in each province, the people everywhere being ignorant slaves. 
Into that inert mass of servile ignorance Christianity enters, and receives from 
it the interpretation which ignorance always puts upon ideas advanced or new, 
interpreting it as hungry French peasants in 1792 and South Carolina negroes 
in 1870 interpreted modern ideas of human rights. The new leaven set the 
mass heaving and swelling until the crust was broken to pieces. The civiliza- 
tion of Marcus Aurelius was lost. From parchment scrolls poetry and philos- 
ophy were obliterated, that the sheets might be used for prayers and medita- 
tions. The system of which St. Jerome was the product and representative 
was a baleful mixture, of which nine -tenths were Hindoo and the remaining 
tenth was half Christian and half Plato. 

The true inference to be drawn is that no civilization is safe, nor even gen- 
uine, until it embraces all classes of the community ; and the promulgation of 
Christianity was the first step toward that. 

As the centuries wore on, the best of the clergy grew restive under this 
monstrous style of ornamentation. " What purpose," wrote St. Bernard, about 
A.D. 1140, "serve in our cloisters, under the eyes of the brothers and during 
their pious readings, those ridiculous monstrosities, those prodigies of beauties 
deformed or deformities made beautiful ? Why those nasty monkeys, those 


furious lions, those monstrous centaurs, those animals half human, those spot- 
ted tigers, those soldiers in combat, those huntsmen sounding the horn ? Here 
a single head is fitted to several bodies; there upon a single body there are 
several heads; now a quadruped has a serpent's tail, and now a quadruped's 
head figures upon a fish's body. Sometimes it is a monster with the fore 
parts of a horse and the hinder parts of a goat; again an animal with horns 
ends with the hind quarters of a horse. Everywhere is seen a variety of 
strange forms, so numerous and so odd that the brothers occupy themselves 
more in deciphering the marbles than their books, and pass whole days in 
studying all those figures much more attentively than the divine law. Great 
God ! if you are not ashamed of such useless things, how, at least, can you 
avoid regretting the enormity of their cost?" 

How, indeed ! The honest abbe was far from seeing the symbolical mean- 
ing in those odd figures which modern investigators have imagined. He was 
simply ashamed of the ecclesiastical caricatures; but a century or two later 
ingenious writers began to cover them with the fig-leaves of a symbolical in- 
terpretation. According to the ingenious M. Durand, who wrote (A.D. 1459) 
thirty years before Luther was born, every part of a cathedral has its spiritual 
meaning. The stones of which it is built represent the faithful, the lime that 
forms part of the cement is an emblem of fervent charity, the sand mingled 
with it signifies the actions undertaken by us for the good of our brethren, 
and the water in which these ingredients blend is the symbol of the Holy 
Ghost. The hideous shapes sculptured upon the portals are, of course, malign 
spirits flying from the temple of the Lord, and, seeking refuge in the very 
substance of the watts! The great length of the temple signifies the tireless 
patience with which the faithful support the ills of this life in expectation of 
their celestial home ; its breadth symbolizes that large and noble love which 
embraces both the friends and the enemies of God; its height typifies the 
hope of final pardon ; the roof beams are the prelates, who by the labor of 
preaching exhibit the truth in all its clearness; the windows are the Script- 
ures, which receive the light from the sun of truth, and keep out the winds, 
snows, and hail of heresy and false doctrine devised by the father of schism 
and falsehood ; the iron bars and pins that sustain the windows are the gen- 
eral councils, ecumenical and orthodox, which have sustained the holy and 
canonical Scriptures; the two perpendicular stone columns which support the 
windows are the two precepts of Christian charity, to love God and our neigh- 
bor; the length of the windows shows the profundity and obscurity of Script- 
ure, and their roundness indicates that the Church is always in harmony with 

This is simple enough. But M. Jerome Bugeaud, in his collection of 
" Chansons Populaires " of the western provinces of France, gives part of a 
catechism still taught to children, though coming down from the Middle 
Ages, which carries this quaint symbolizing to a point of the highest ab- 


surdity. The catechism turns upon thcf sacred character of the lowly animal 
that most needed any protection which priestly ingenuity could afford. Here 
are a few of the questions and answers : 

Priest. " What signify the two ears of the ass?" 

Child. " The two ears of the ass signify the two great patron saints of our 

Priest. "What signifies the head of the ass?" 

Child. "The head of the ass signifies the great bell, and the halter the 
clapper of the great bell, which is in the tower of the cathedral of the patron 
saints of our city." 

Priest. " What signifies the ass's mouth ?" 

Child. "The ass's mouth signifies the great door of die cathedral of the 
patron saints of our city." 

Priest. " What signify the four feet of the ass ?" 

Child. "The four feet of the ass signify the four great pillars of the cathe- 
dral of the patron saints of our city." 

Priest. " What signifies the paunch of the ass ?" 

Child. "The paunch of the ass signifies the great chest wherein Christians 
put their offerings to the patron saints of our cathedral." 

Priest. " What signifies the tail of the ass ?" 

Child. " The tail of the ass signifies the holy-water brush of the good dean 
of the cathedral of the patron saints of our city." 

The priest does not stop at the tail, but pursues the symbolism with a 
simplicity and innocence which do not bear translating into our blunt English 
words. As late as 1750 Bishop Burnet saw in a church at Worms an altar- 
piece of a crudity almost incredible. It represented the Virgin Mary throwing 
Christ into the hopper of a windmill, from the spout of which he was issuing 
in the form of sacramental wafers, and priests were about to distribute them 
among the people. The unquestionable purpose of this picture was to assist 
the faith and animate the piety of the people of Worms. 





IF we turn from the sacred to the secular, we find the ornamentation not 
less barbarous. Many readers have seen the two giants that stand in the 
Guildhall of London, where they, or ugly images like them, have stood from 
time immemorial. A little book sold near by used to inform a credulous pub- 
lic that Gog and Magog were two gigantic brothers taken prisoners in Corn- 
wall fighting against the Trojan invaders, who brought them in triumph to the 
site of London, where their chief chained them to the gate of his palace as por- 
ters. But, unfortunately for this romantic tale, Mr. Fairholt, in his work upon 
the giants,* makes it known that many other towns and cities of Europe cher- 
ish from a remote antiquity similar images. He gives pictures of the Salisbury 
giant, the huge helmeted giant in Antwerp, the family of giants at Douai, the 


; Gog and Magog : the Giants in Guildhall," by F.W. Fairholt, F.S.A., London, 1859. 



giant and giantess of Ath, the giants of Brussels, as well as of the mighty 
dragon of Norwich, with practicable iron jaw. 

We may therefore discard learned theories and 
sage conjectures concerning Gog and Magog, and at- 
tribute them to the poverty of invention and the bar- 
barity of taste which prevailed in the ages of faith. 

One of the subjects most frequently chosen for 
caricature during this period was that cunning and 
audacious enemy of God and man, the devil a com- 
posite being, made up of the Satan who tested Job, 
the devil who tempted Jesus, and the Egyptain Osi- 
ris who weighed souls in the balance, and claimed as 
his own those found wanting. The theory of the universe then generally ac- 
cepted was that the world was merely a field of strife between God and this 
malignant spirit; on the side of God were ranged archangels, angels, the 
countless host of celestial beings, and all the saints on earth and in heaven, 
while on the devil's side were a vast army of fallen spirits and all the de- 
praved portion of the human race. The simple souls of that period did not 
accept this explanation in an allegorical sense, but as the most literal statement 
of facts familiarly known, concerning which no one in Christendom had any 
doubt whatever. The devil was as composite in his external form as he 

was in his traditional character. All 
the mythologies appear to have con- 
tributed something to his make-up, 
until he had acquired many of the 
most repulsive features and members 
of which animated nature gives the 
suggestion. He was hairy, hoofed, 
and horned ; he had a forked tail ; he 
had a countenance which expressed 
the fox's cunning, the serpent's mal- 
ice, the pig's appetite, the monkey's 
grin. As to his body, it varied ac- 
cording to the design of the artist, 
but it usually resembled creatures 
| base or loathsome. 

In one picture there is a very 
rude but curious representation of the 
weighing of souls, superintended by 
the devil and an archangel. The dev- 
il, in the form of a hog, has won a 
prize in the soul of a wicked woman, 

\VEIOUED IN THE BALANCE. (Bas-relief of the 

Autuu Cathedral.) which he is carrying off in a highly 



disrespectful manner, while casting a backward glance to see that he has fair 
play in the next weighing. This was an exceedingly favorite subject with the 
artists of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. They delighted to picture the 




devil, in their crude uncompromising way, as an insatiate miser of human souls, 
eager to seize them, demanding a thousand, a million, a billion, all ; and when 
one appeared in the scales so void of guilt that the good angel must needs pos- 
sess it, he may be seen slyly putting a finger upon the opposite scale to weigh 
it down, and this sometimes in spite of the angel's remonstrance. In one pict- 
ure, described by M. Merimee in his " Voyage en Auvergne," the devil plays 
this trick at a moment when the archangel Michael has turned to look an- 
other way. 

It is a strange circumstance that in a large number of these representations 
the devil is exhibited triumphant, and in others the victory is at least doubt- 
ful. In a splendid psalter preserved in the British Museum there is a large 
picture (an engraving of which is given on the preceding page) of a soul 
climbing an extremely steep and high mountain, on the summit of which' a 
winged archangel stands with outstretched arms to receive him. The soul 
has nearly reached the top ; another step will bring him within the archangel's 
reach ; but behind him is the devil with a long three-pronged clawing instru- 
ment, which he is about to thrust into the hair of the ascending saint; and no 
man can tell which is to finally have that soul, the angel or the devil. M. 
Champfleury describes a capital in a French church which represents one of 
the minions of the devil carrying a lizard, symbol of evil, which he is about to 
add to the scale containing the sins; and the spectator is left to infer that 

LOST SOULS OAST INTO HELL. (From Queen Mary's Psalter.) 

fraud of this kind is likely to be successful, for underneath is written, "JEJcce 
Diabolus !" It is as if the artist had said, "Such is the devil, and this is one 
of his modes of entrapping his natural prey of human souls !" From a large 
number of similar pictures the inference is fair that, let a man lead a spotless 
life from the cradle to the grave, the devil, by a mere trick, may get his soul at 
last. Some- of the artists might be suspected of sympathizing with the devil 
in his triumphs over the weakness of man. Observe, for example, the comic 
exuberance of the above picture, in which devils are seen tumbling their im- 
mortal booty into the jaws of perdition. 



It is difficult to look at this picture without feeling that the artist must 
have been alive to the humors of the situation. It is, however, the opinion of 
students of these quaint relics that the authors of such designs honestly in- 
tended to excite horror, not hilarity. Queen Mary probably saw in this pict- 
ure, as she turned the page of her sumptuous psalter, an argument to inflame 
her bloody zeal for the ancient faith. In the writings of some of the early 
fathers we observe the same appearance of joyous exultation at the suffer- 
ings of the lost, if not a sense of the comic absurdity of their doom. Read- 
ers may remember the passage from Tertullian (A.D. 200) quoted so effectively 
by Gibbon : 

" You are fond of all spectacles," exclaims this truly ferocious Christian ; 
"expect the greatest of all spectacles, the last and eternal judgment of the uni- 
verse. How shall I rejoice, how laugh, how exult, when I behold so many 
proud monarchs and fancied gods groaning in the lowest abyss of darkness; 
so many magistrates who persecuted the name of the Lord liquefying in 
fiercer fires than they ever kindled against Christians; so many sage philoso- 
phers blushing in red-hot flames with their deluded scholars; so many cele- 

DEVILS SEIZING 1111:111 PKEY. (Bas-relief on the Portal of a Church at Troyes.) 

brated poets trembling before the tribunal; so many tragedians more tuneful 
in the expression of their own sufferings ; so many dancers 

This is assuredly not the utterance of compassion, but rather of the fierce 
delight of an unregenerate Roman, when at the amphitheatre he doomed a 
rival's defeated gladiator to death by pointing downward with his thumb. In 
a similar spirit such pictures were conceived as the one given above. 

The sculptor, it is apparent, is " with " the adversary of mankind in the 
present case. Kings and bishops carried things with a high hand during their 
mortal career, but the devils have them at last with a rope round their necks, 
crown and mitre notwithstanding ! 



The devil was not always victor. There was One whom neither his low 
cunning nor his bland address nor his blunt audacity could beguile the Son 
of God, his predestined conqueror. The passages in the Gospels which relate 
the attempts made by Satan to tempt the Lord furnished congenial subjects to 
the illuminators of the Middle Ages, and they treated those subjects with their 
usual enormous crudity. In one very ancient Saxon psalter, in manuscript, 
preserved at the British Museum, there is a colossal Christ, with one foot upon 
a devil, the other foot about to fall upon a second devil, and with his hands 
delivering from the open mouth of a third devil human souls, who hold up to 
him their hands clasped as in prayer. In this picture the sympathies of the 
artist are evidently not on the side of the evil spirits. Their malevolence is 
apparent, and their attitude is ignominious. The rescued souls are, indeed, a 
pigmy crew, of woe-begone aspect ; but their resistless Deliverer towers aloft 
in such imposing altitude that the tallest of the saints hardly reaches above 
his knees. In another picture of very early date, the Lord upon a high place 
is rescuing a soul from three scoffing devils, who are endeavoring to pull him 
down to perdition by cords twisted round his legs. This soul we are permit- 
ted to consider safe ; but below, in a cor- 
ner of the spacious drawing, a winged 
archangel is spearing a lost soul into the 
flames of hell, using the spear in the man- 
ner of a farmer handling a pitchfork. 

These ancient attempts to exhibit the 
endless conflict between good and evil 
are too rude even to be interesting. The 
specimen annexed, of later date, about 
1475, occurs in a Poor People's Bible 
(Biblia Pauperum), block - printed, in 
which it forms part of an extensive 
frontispiece. The book was once the 
property of George III., at the sale of 
whose personal effects it was bought for 
the British Museum, where it now is. It 
has the additional interest of being one 
of the oldest specimens of wood-engraving 
yet discovered. 

The mountain in the background, 
adorned by a single tree, is the height to 
which the Lord was taken by the tempter, and from which the devil urged him 
to cast hinlself down. 

A very frequent object of caricature during the ages when terror ruled the 
minds of men was human life itself its brevity, its uncertainty, and the ab- 
surd, ill-timed suddenness with which inexorable death sometimes cuts it short. 




Herodotus records that at the banquets of the Egyptians it was customary for 
a person to carry about the table the figure of a corpse lying upon a coffin, and 
to cry out, "Behold this image of what yourselves shall be; therefore eat, 
drink, and be merry." There are traces of a similar custom in the records of 
other ancient nations, among whom it was regarded as a self-evident truth that 
the shortness of life was a reason for making the most of it while it lasted. 
And their notion of making the most of it was to get from it the greatest 
amount of pleasure. This vulgar scheme of existence vanished at the pro- 
mulgation of the doctrine that the condition of every soul was fixed unaltera- 
bly at the moment of its severance from the body, or, at best, after a short 
period of purgation, and that the only way to avoid unending anguish was to 
do what the Church commanded and to avoid what the Church forbade. Ter- 
ror from that time ruled Christendom. Terror covered the earth with ecclesi- 
astical structures, gave the Church a tenth of all revenues and two-fifths of all 
property. By every possible device death was clothed with new and vivid 
terrors, and in every possible way the truth was brought home to the mind 
that the coming of death could be as unexpected as it was inevitable and un- 
welcome. The tolling of the church-bell spread the gloom of the death-cham- 
ber over the whole town ; and the 
death-crier, with bell and lantern, wear- 
ing a garment made terrible by a skull 
and cross-bones, went his rounds, by 
day or night, crying to all good people 
to pray for the soul just departed.* 

These criers did not cease to per- 
ambulate the streets of Paris until 
about the year 1690, and M. Langlois 
informs us that in remote provinces of 
France their doleful cry was heard as 
recently as 1850. 

Blessed gift of humor ! Against 
the most complicated and effective ap- 
paratus of terror ever contrived, work- 

FUENCU DKATII-CBIKR-"PBAT FOB THB SOUL -TOST e d by the most powerful Organization 


that ever existed, the sense ot the ludi- 
crous asserted itself, and saved the human mind from being crushed down 
into abject and hopeless idiocy. The readers of "Don Quixote" can not have 
forgotten the colloquy in the highway between the Knight of the Sorrowful 
Countenance and the head of the company of strollers. 

" ' Sir,' replied the Devil, politely, stopping his cart, " we are the actors of 
the company of the Evil Spirit. This morning, which is the octave of Corpus 

* " Essai sur les Dances des Morts," vol. i., p. 151, par E. H. Langlois, Paris, 18f>2. 



Christi, we have represented the play of the Empire of Death. This young 
man played Death, and this one an Angel. This woman, who is the wife of 
the author of the comedy, is the Queen. Over there is one who played the 
part of an Emperor, and the other man that of a Soldier. As to myself, I am 
the Devil, at your service, and one of the principal actors.' " 

For centuries the comedy of Death was a standard play at high festivals, 
the main interest being the rude, sudden interruption of human lives and 
joys and schemes by the grim messenger. Art adopted the theme, and the 
Dance of Death began to figure among the decorations of ecclesiastical struct- 
ures and on the vellum of il- 
luminated prayer-books. No 
sculptor but executed his Dance 
of Death ; no painter but tried 
his skill upon it ; and by whom- 
soever the subject was treated, 
the element of humor was sel- 
dom wanting. 

So numerous are the pict- 
ures and series of pictures us- 
ually styled Dances of Death, 
that a descriptive catalogue of 
them would fill the space as- 
signed to this chapter; and the 
literature to which they have 
given rise forms an important 
class of the works relating to 
the Middle Ages. Two phases 
of the subject were especially 
attractive to artists. One was 
the impartiality of Death, noted 
by Horace in the familiar pas- 
sage; and the other the incongruity between the summons to depart and the 
condition of the person summoned. When these two aspects of the subject 
had become hackneyed, artists pleased themselves sometimes with a treat- 
ment precisely the opposite, and represented Death dancing gayly away with 
the most battered, ancient, and forlorn of human kind, who had least reason to 
love life, but did not the less shrink from the skeleton's icy touch. Every one 
feels the comic absurdity of gay and sprightly Death hurrying off to the tomb 
a cripple as dilapidated as the one in the picture above. In another engraving 
we see Death, with exaggerated courtesy, handing to an open tomb an extreme- 
ly old man just able to totter. 

Another subject in the same series is Death dragging at the garment of 
a peddler, who is so heavily laden as he trudges along the highway that one 




would imagine even the rest of the grave welcome. But the peddler, too, 

makes a very wry face when he recognizes "who 
it is that has interrupted his weary tramp. 
The triumphant gayety of Death in this picture 
is in humorous contrast with the lugubrious ex- 
pression on the countenance of his victim. 

In other sei'ies we have Death dressed as a 
beau seizing a young maiden, Death taking from 
a house-maid her broom, Death laying hold of a 
washer-woman, Death taking apples from an ap- 
ple-stand, Death beckoning away a bar -maid, 
Death summoning a female mourner at a funeral, 
and Death plundering a tinker's basket. Death, 
standing in a grave, pulls the grave-digger in by 
the leg ; seated on a plow, he seizes the farmer ; 
with an ale-pot at his back, he throttles an inn- 
keeper who is adulterating his liquors ; he strikes with a bone the irksome 
"chain of matrimony, and thus sets free a couple bound by it; he mows down a 
philosopher holding a clock ; upon a miser who has thrust his body deep down 
into a massive chest he shuts the heavy lid ; he shows himself in the mirror in 
which a young beauty is looking ; to a philosopher seated in his study he enters 
and presents an hour- glass. A pope on his throne is crowning an emperor 
kneeling at his feet, with princes, cardinals, and bishops in attendance, when a 
Death appears at his side, and another in his retinue dressed as a cardinal. 
Death lays his hand upon an emperor's crown at the moment when he is doing 
justice to a poor man against a rich; but in another picture of the same series, 
Death seizes a duke while he is disdainfully turning from a poor woman with 
her qhild who has asked alms of him. The dignitaries of the Church were not 





spared. Fat abbots, gorgeous cardinals, and vehement preachers all figure in 
these series in circumstances of honor and of dishonor. In most of them the 
person summoned yields to King Death without a struggle; but in one a 
knight makes a furious resistance, laying about him with a broadsword most 
energetically. It is of no avail. Death runs him through the body with his 
own lance, though in the other picture the weapon in Death's hand was only a 
long thigh-bone. 

Mr. Longfellow, in his " Golden Legend," has availed himself of the Dance 
of Death painted on the walls of the covered bridge at Lucerne to give natural- 
ness and charm to the conversation of Elsie and Prince Henry while they are 
crossing the river. The strange pictures excite the curiosity of Elsie, and the 
Prince explains them to her as they walk : 

"Elsie. What is this picture? 

"Prince. It is a young man singing to a nun, 
Who kneels at her devotions, but in kneeling 
Turns round to look at him ; and Death meanwhile 
Is putting out the candles on the altar ! 

" Elsie. Ah, what a pity 'tis that she should listen 
Unto such songs, when in her orisons 
She might have heard in heaven the angels singing ! 

"Prince. Here he has stolen a jester's cap and bells, 
And dances with the queen. 

" Elsie. A foolish jest !. 

"Prince. And here the heart of the new-wedded wife, 
Coming from church with her beloved lord, 
He startles with the rattle of his drum. 

"Elsie. Ah, that is sad ! And yet perhaps 'tis best 
That she should die with all the sunshine on her 
And all the benedictions of the morning, 
Before this affluence of golden light 
Shall fade into a cold and clouded gray, 
Then into darkness! 

" Prince. Under it is written, 

' Nothing but death shall separate thee and me !' 

11 Elsie. And what is this that follows close upon it? 

"Prince. Death playing on a dulcimer." 

And so the lovers converse on the bridge, all covered from end to end with 
these caricatures of human existence, until the girl hurries with affright from 
what she calls " this great picture-gallery of death." 

Tournaments were among the usual subjects of caricature during the cent- 
ury or two preceding the Reformation. Some specimens have already been 
given from the illuminated prayer-books (pp. 44, 46). The device, however, 
seldom rises above the ancient one of investing animals with the gifts and 
qualities of men. Monkeys mounted upon the backs of dogs tilt at one an- 
other with long lances, or monsters utterly nondescript charge upon other mon- 
sters more ridiculous than themselves. 



All the ordinary foibles of human nature received attention. These never 
change. There are always gluttons, misers, and spendthrifts. There are al- 
ways weak men and vain women. There are always husbands whose wives 
deceive and worry them, as there are always wives whom husbands worry and 
deceive; and the artists of the Middle Ages, in their own direct rude fashion, 
turned both into caricature. The mere list of subjects treated in Brandt's 
"Ship of Fools," written when Luther was a school -boy, shows us that men 
were men and women were women in 1490. That quaint reformer of manners 
dealt mild rebuke to men who gathered great store of books and put them to 
no good use ; to women who were ever changing the fashion of their dress; to 
men who began to build without counting the cost; to "great borrowers and 
slack payers ;" to fools " who will serve two lords both together ;" to them 
who correct others while themselves are " culpable in the same fault ;" to 
" fools who can not keep secret their own counsel ;" to people who believe in 
" predestinacyon ;" to men who attend closely to other people's business, leav- 
ing their own undone ; to " old folks that give example of vice to youth ;" and 

so on through the long catalogue of 
human follies. His homely and wise 
ditties are illustrated by pictures of cu- 
rious simplicity. Observe the one sub- 
joined, in which "a foule" is weigh- 
ing the transitory things of this world 
against things everlasting, one being 
represented by a scale full of castles 
and towers, and the other by a scale 
full of stars the earthly castles out- 
weighing the heavenly bodies in the 
balance of this " foule." 

One of the quaint poems of the 
gentle priest descants upon the bad 
behavior of people at church. This 
poem has an historical interest, for it 
throws light upon the manners of the 
time, over which poetry, tradition, and 
romance have thrown a very delusive 
charm. We learn from it that while 
the Christian people of Europe were 
on their knees praying in church they were liable to be disturbed by the 
"mad noise and shout" of a loitering crowd; by knights coming in from the 
field, falcon upon wrist, with their dogs yelping at their heels ; by men chaf- 
fering and bargaining as they walked up and down; by the wanton laughter 
of girls ogled by young men ; by lawyers conferring with clients ; and by all 
the usual noises of a crowd at a fair. The author wonders 

(From " The Ship of Fools.") 


"That the false pnynyms within theyr Temples be 
To theyr ydols moche more devout than we." 

The worthy Brandt was not the only satirist of Church manners. The 
"Usurer's Paternoster," given by M. Champfleury, is more incisive than 
Brandt's amiable remonstrance. The usurer, hurrying away to church, tells 
his wife that if any one comes to borrow money while he is gone, some one 
must be sent in all haste for him. On his way he says his paternoster thus : 

"Our Father. Blessed Lord God [Beau Sire Dieu], be favorable to me, 
and give me grace to prosper exceedingly. Let me become the richest money- 
lender in the world. Who art in heaven. I am sorry I wasn't at home the 
day that woman came to borrow. Really I am a fool to go to church, where I 
can gain nothing. Hallowed be thy name. It's too bad I have a servant so 
expert in pilfering my money. Thy kingdom come. I have a mind to go 
home to see what my wife is about. I'll bet she sells a chicken while I am 
away, and keeps the money. Thy will be done. It pops into my mind that 
the chevalier who owed me fifty francs paid me only half. In heaven. Those 
damned Jews do a rushing business in lending to every one. I should like 
very much to do as they do. As on earth. The king plagues me to death in 
raising taxes so often." 

Arrived at church, the money-lender goes through part of the service as 
best he may ; but as soon as sermon time comes, off he goes, saying to him- 
self, " I must get away home : the priest is going to preach a sermon to draw 
money out of our purses." Doubtless the priest in those times of ignorance 
had to deal with many most profane and unspiritual people, who could only be 
restrained by fear, and to whose "puerility" much had to be conceded. In 
touching upon the Church manners of the Middle Ages, M. Champfleury makes 
a remark that startles a Protestant mind accustomed only to the most exact 
decorum in churches. "Old men of to-day" (1850), he says, speaking of 
France, " will recall to mind the gayety of the midnight masses, when buffoons 
from the country waited impatiently to send down showers of small torpedoes 
upon the pavement of the nave, to barricade the alcoves with mountains of 
chairs, to fill with ink the holy-water basins, and to steal kisses in out-of-the- 
way corners from girls who would not give them." These proceedings, which 
M. Champfleury styles " the pleasantries of our fathers," were among the con- 
cessions made by a worldly-wise old Church to the "puerility" of the people, 
or rather to the absolute necessity of occasional hilarious fun to healthy ex- 

Amusing and even valuable caricatures six and seven centuries old have 
been discovered upon parchment documents in the English record offices, exe- 
cuted apparently by idle clerks for their amusement when they had nothing 
else to do. One of these, copied by Mr. Wright, gives us the popular English 
conception of an Irish warrior of the thirteenth century. 


The broad-axes of the Irish were held in great terror by the English. An 
historian of Edward I.'s time, while discoursing on that 
supreme perplexity of British kings and ministers, how 
Ireland should be governed after being quite reduced to 
subjection, expresses the opinion that the Irish ought not 
to be allowed in time of peace to use " that detestable in- 
strument of destruction which by an ancient but accursed 
custom they constantly carry in their hands instead of a 
staff." The modern Irish shillalah, then, is only the resid- 
uum of the ancient Irish broad -axe the broad -axe with 
its head taken off. The humanized Irishman of to-day is 
content with the handle of "the detestable instrument." 
Other pen-and-ink sketches of England's dreaded foes, the 
Irish and the Welsh, have been found upon ancient vellum 
rolls, but none better than the specimen given has yet been 



A.D. 1280. The } as t object of caricature which can be mentioned in 

the present chapter is the Jew the odious Jew accursed by the clergy as a 
Jew, despised by good citizens as a usurer, and dreaded by many a profligate 
Christian as the holder of mortgages upon his estate. When the ruling class 
of a country loses its hold upon virtue, becomes profuse in expenditure, ceases 
to comply with natural law, comes to regard licentious living as something to 
be expected of young blood, and makes a jest of a decorous and moral conver- 
sation, then there is usually in that country a less refined, stronger class, who 
do comply with natural law, who do live in that virtuous, frugal, and orderly 
manner by which alone families can be perpetuated and states established. In 
several communities during the centuries preceding the Reformation, when the 
nobles and great merchants wasted their substance in riotous living or in in- 
sensate pilgrimages and crusades, the Jew was the virtuous, sensible, and solv- 
ent man. He did not escape the evil influence wrought into the texture of the 
character by living in an atmosphere* of hatred and contempt, nor the narrow- 
ness of mind caused by his being excluded from all the more generous and 
high avocations. But he remained through all those dismal ages temperate, 
chaste, industrious, and saving, as well as heroically faithful to the best light 
on high things that he had. Hence he always had money to lend, and he could 
only lend it to men who were too glad to think he had no rights which they 
were bound to respect. 

The caricature on the next page was also discovered upon a vellum roll in 
the Public Record Office in London, the work of some idle clerk 642 years ago, 
and recently transferred to an English work* of much interest, in which it 
serves as a frontispiece. 

* " History of Crime in England," vol. i., by Luke Owen Pike, London, 1873. 




The ridicule is aimed at the famous Jew, Isaac of Norwich, a rich money- 
lender and merchant, to whom abbots, bishops, and wealthy vicars were heav- 
ily indebted. At Norwich he had a wharf at which his vessels could receive 
and discharge their freights, and whole districts were mortgaged to him at 
once. He lent money to the king's exchequer. He was the Rothschild of his 
day. In the picture, which represents the outside of a castle his own castle, 
wrested from some lavish Christian by a money-lender's wiles the Jew Isaac 
stands above all the other figures, and is blessed with four faces and a crown, 
which imply, as Mr. Pike conjectures, that, let him look whichever way he will, 
he beholds possessions over which he holds kingly sway. Lower down, and 
nearer the centre, are Mosse Mokke, another Jewish money-lender of Norwich, 
and Madame Avegay, one of many Jewesses who lent money, between whom is 
a horned devil pointing to their noses. The Jewish nose was a peculiarly 
offensive feature to Christians, and was usually exaggerated by caricaturists. 
The figure holding up scales heaped with coin is, so far as we can guess, mere- 
ly a taunt ; and the seating of Dagon, the god of the Philistines, upon the tur- 
ret seems to be an intimation that the Jews, in their dispersion, had abandoned 
the God of their fathers, and taken up with the deity of his inveterate foes. 

So far as the records of those ages disclose, there was no one enlightened 
enough to judge the long-suffering Jews with just allowance. Luther's aver- 
sion to them was morbid and violent. He confesses, in his Table-talk, that if 
it had fallen to his lot to have much to do with Jews, his patience would have 
given way ; and when, one day, Dr. Menius asked him how a Jew ought to be 
baptized, he replied, " You must fill a large tub with water, and, having divested 
a Jew of his clothes, cover him with a white garment. He must then sit down 
in the tub, and you must baptize him quite under the water." He said further 
to Dr. Menius that if a Jew, not converted at heart, were to ask baptism at his 
hands, he would take him to the bridge, tie a stone round his neck, and hurl 
him into the river, such an obstinate and scoffing race were they. If Luther 
felt thus toward them, we can not wonder that the luxurious dignitaries of the 
Church, two centuries before his time, should have had qualms of conscience 
with regard to paying Isaac of Norwich interest upon money borrowed. 





TTTE have in this strange, rude picture* a device of contemporary carica- 
T ture to cast ridicule upon the movement of which Martin Luther was 

the conspicuous figure. It is reduced 
from a large wood-cut which appeared 
in Germany at the crisis of the lion- 
hearted reformer's career, the year of 
his appearance at the Diet of Worms, 
when he said to dissuading friends, 
" If I knew there were as many devils 
at Worms as there are tiles upon the 
houses, I would go." The intention 
of the artist is obvious ; but, in addi- 
tion to the leading purpose, he desired, 
as Mr. Chatto conjectures, to remind 
his public of the nasal drawl of the 
preaching friars of the time, for which 
they were as proverbial as the Puri- 
tans of London in Cromwell's day. 
Such is the poverty of human inven- 
tion that the idea of this caricature has 
LUTHER INSPIRED BY SATAN. been employed several times since Lu- 

ther's time even as recently as 1873, when a London draughtsman made it 
serve his turn in the contentions of party politics. 

The best humorous talent of Christendom, whether it wrought with pencil 
or with pen, whether it avowed or veiled its sympathy with reform, was on 
Luther's side. It prepared the way for his coming, co-operated with him dur- 
ing his life-time, carried on his work after he was gone, and continues it to the 
present hour. 

Recent investigators tell us, indeed, that the Reformation began in laughter, 
which the Church itself nourished and sanctioned. M. V5ollet-le-Duc, author 
of the "Dictionnaire d' Architecture," discourses upon the gradual change 

* From "A Treatise on Wood-engraving, "p. 268, by Jackson and Chatto, London, 1866. 


which church decorators of the Middle Ages effected in the figure of the devil. 
Upon edifices erected before the year 1000 there are few traces of the devil, 
and upon those of much earlier date none at all ; but from the eleventh cent- 
ury he " begins to play an important role" artists striving which should give 
him the most hideous form. No one was then audacious enough to take liber- 
ties with a being so potent, so awful, so real, the competitor and antagonist of 
the Almighty Lord of Heaven and Earth. But mortals must laugh, and famil- 
iarity produces its well-known effect. In the eyes of men of the world the 
devil became gradually less terrible and more grotesque, became occasionally 
ridiculous, often contemptible, sometimes silly. His tricks are met by tricks 
more cunning than his own; he is duped, and retires discomfited. Before 
Luther appeared on the scene, the painters and sculptors, not to mention the 
authors and poets, had made progress in reducing the devil from the grade of 
an antagonist of deity and arch-enemy of men to that of a cunning and amus- 
ing deceiver of simpletons. "The great devil," as the author just mentioned 
remarks, "sculptured over the door of the Autun Cathedral in the twelfth 
century is a frightful being, well designed to strike terror to unformed souls ; 
but the young devils carved in bas-reliefs of the fifteenth century are more 
comic than terrible, and it is evident that the artists who executed them cared 
very little for the wicked tricks of the Evil Spirit." We may be sure that the 
artist who could sketch the devil fiddling upon a pair of bel- 
lows with a kitchen dipper had outgrown the horror which 
that personage had once excited in all minds. Such a sketch 
is here reproduced from a Flemish MS. in the library of Cam- 

But this could not be said of the great mass of Christian 
people for centuries after. Luther, as the reader is aware, 
speaks of the devil with as absolute an assurance of his ex- 
istence, activity, and nearness as if he were a member of his 
own household. God, he once said, mocks and scorns the 
devil by putting under his nose such a weak creature as man ; and at other 
times he dwelt upon the hardness of the conflict which the devil has to main- 
tain. " It were not good for us to know how earnestly the holy angels strive 
for us against the devil, or how hard a combat it is. If we could see for how 
many angels one devil makes work, we should be in despair." Many devils, 
he remarks with curious certainty, are in forests, in waters, in wildernesses, in 
dark pooly places, ready to hurt and prejudice people; and there are some in 
the thick black clouds, which cause hail, lightnings, and thunderings, and poi- 
son the air, the pastures, and grounds. He derides the philosophers and phy- 
sicians who say that these things have merely natural causes ; and as to the 
witches who torment honest people, and spoil their eggs, milk, and butter, " I 
should have no compassion upon them I would burn them all." The Table- 
talk of the great reformer is full of such robust credulity. 



Luther represented, as much as he reformed, his age and country. In these 
utterances of his we discern the spirit against which the humor and gayety of 
art had to contend, and over which it has gained a tardy victory, not yet com- 
plete. Let us keep in mind also that in those twilight ages, as in all ages, 
there were the two contending influences which we now call " the world" and 
"the church." In other words, there were people who took the devil light- 
ly, as they did all invisible and spiritual things, and there were people who 
dreaded the devil in every "dark pooly place," and to whom nothing could 
be a jest which appertained to him. Humorous art has in it healing and ad- 
monition for both these classes. 

It was in those centuries, also, that men of the world learned to laugh at 
the clergy, and, again, not without clerical encouragement. In the brilliantly 
illuminated religious manuscripts of the two centuries preceding Luther, along 
with other ludicrous and absurd images, of which specimens have been given, 
we find many pictures in which the vices of the religious orders are exhibited. 
The oldest drawing in the British Museum, one of the only two that bear the 
date 1320, shows us two devils tossing a monk headlong from a bridge into a 


rough and rapid river, an act which they perform in a manner not calculated 
to excite serious thought in modern minds. 

In the old Strasburg Cathedral there was a brass door, made in 1545, upon 
which was engraved a convent with a procession of monks issuing from it 
bearing the cross and banners. The foremost figure of this procession was a 
monk carrying a girl upon his shoulders. This was not the coarse fling of an 
enemy. It was not the scoff of an Erasmus, who said once, " These paunchy 
monks are called fathers, and they take good care to deserve the name." It 
was engraved on the eternal brass of a religious edifice for the warning and 
edification of the faithful. 

Nothing more surprises the modern reader than the frequency and severity 



with which the clergy of those centuries^were denounced and satirized, as well 
by themselves as by others. A Church which showed itself sensitive to the 
least taint of what it deemed heresy appears to have beheld with indifference 
the exhibition of its moral delinquencies nay, taken the lead in exposing them. 
It was a clergyman who said, in the Council of Siena, fifty years before Luther 
was born : " We see to-day priests who are usurers, wine-shop keepers, mer- 
chants, governors of castles, notaries, stewards, and^ debauch brokers. The 
only trade which they have not yet commenced is that of executioner. The 
bishops surpass Epicurus himself in sensuality, and it is between the courses 
of a banquet that they discuss the authority of the Pope and that of the Coun- 
cil." The same speaker related that St. Bridget, being in St. Peter's at Rome, 
looked up in a religious ecstasy, and saw the nave filled with mitred hogs. 
She asked the Lord to explain this fantastic vision. "These," replied the 
Lord, " are the bishops and abbes of to-day." M. Champfleury, the first living 
authority on subjects of this nature, declares that the manuscript Bibles of the 
century preceding Luther are so filled with pictures exhibiting monks and 
nuns in equivocal circumstances that he was only puzzled to decide which 
specimens were most suitable to give his readers an adequate idea of them. 

From mere gayety of heart, from the exuberant jollity of a well-beneficed 
scholar, whose future was secure and whose time was all his own, some of the 
higher clergy appear to have jested upon themselves and their office. Two 
finely engraved seals have been found in France, one dating as far back as 
1300, which represent monkeys arrayed in the vest- 
ments of a Church dignitary. Upon one of them 
the monkey wears the hood and holds the staff of an 
abbot, and upon the other the animal appears in the 
character of a bishop. 

One of these seals is known to have been executed 
at the express order of an abbot. The other, a copy 
of which is given here, was found in the ruins of an 
ancient chateau of Picai-dy, and bears the inscription, 
NON " " The seal of the bishop of the city of Pinon." 
This interesting relic was at first thought to be the 
work of some scoffing Huguenot, but there can now 
be no doubt of its having been the merry conceit of 
the personage whose title it bears. The discovery Bl8HOP ' 8 SKAL ' A - D - im 
of the record relating to the monkey seal of the abbot, showing it to have been 
ordered and paid for by the actual head of a great monastery, throws light 
upon all the grotesque ornamentation of those centuries. It suggests to us 
also the idea that the clergy joined in the general ridicule of their order as 
much from a sense of the ludicrous as from conviction of its justice. In the 
British Museum there is a religious manuscript of the thirteenth century, 


splendidly illuminated, one of the initial letters of which represents a young 
friar drawing wine from a cask in a cellar, that contains several humorous 
points. With his left hand he holds the great wine-jug, into which the liquid 
is running from the barrel ; with his right he lifts to his lips a bowlful of the 
wine, and from the same hand dangle the large keys of the cellar. If this was 
intended as a hint to the younger brethren how they ought not to behave 
when sent to the cellar for wine, the artist evidently felt also the comic ab- 
surdity of the situation. 

The vast cellars still to be seen under ancient monasteries and priories, as 
well as the kitchens, not less spacious, and supported by archways of the most 
massive masonry, tell a tale of the habits of the religious orders which is 
abundantly confirmed in the records and literature of the time. " Capuchins," 
says the old French doggerel, " drink poorly, Benedictines deeply, Dominicans 
pint after pint, but Franciscans drink the cellar dry." The great number of 
old taverns in Europe named the Mitre, the Church, the Chapel-bell, St. Dom- 
inic, and other ecclesiastical names, point to the conclusion that the class 
that professed to dispense good cheer for the soul was not averse to good 
cheer for the body.* 

If the clergy led the merriment caused by their own excesses, we can not 
wonder they should have had many followers. In the popular tales of the 
time, which have been gathered and made accessible in recent years, we find 
the priest, the monk, the nun, the abbot, often figuring in absurd situations, 
rarely in creditable ones. The priest seems to have been regarded as the sat- 
irist's fair game, the common butt of the jester. In one of these stories a 
butcher, returning home from a fair, asks a night's lodging at the house of a 
priest, who churlishly refuses it. The butcher, returning, offers in recompense 
to kill one of his fine fat sheep for supper, and to leave behind him all the 
meat not eaten. On this condition he is received, and the family enjoy an 
excellent supper in his society. After supper he wins the favor first of the 
priest's concubine and afterward of the maid-servant by secretly promising to 
each of them the skin of the sheep. In the morning, after he has gone, a pro- 
digious uproar arises, the priest and the two women each vehemently claiming 
the skin, in the midst of which it is discovered that the butcher had stolen the 
sheep from the priest's own flock. 

From a merry tale of these ages a jest was taken which to-day forms one 
of the stock dialogues of our negro-minstrel bands. The story was apparently 
designed to show the sorry stuff of which priests were sometimes made. A 
farmer sends a lout of a son to college, intending to make a priest of him, and 
the lad was examined as to the extent of his knowledge. "Isaac had two sons, 
Esau and Jacob," said the examiner : " who was Jacob's father ?" The candi- 
date, being unable to answer this question, is sent home to his tutor with a let- 

* "History of Sign-boards," p. 819, by Lanvood and Hotten, London. 


ter relating his discomfiture. " Thou foole and ass-head !" exclaims the tutor. 
" Dost thou not know Tom Miller of Oseney ?" " Yes," answered the hope- 
ful scholar. " Then thou knowest he had two sons, Tom and Jacke : who is 
Jacke's father ?" " Tom Miller." Back goes the youth to college with a let- 
ter to the examiner, who, for the tutor's sake, gives him another chance, and 
asks once more who was Jacob's father. " Marry !" cries the candidate, " I 
can tell you now : that was Tom Miller of Oseney." 

We must be cautious in drawing inferences from the popular literature of 
a period, since there is in the unformed mind a propensity to circulate amusing 
scandal, and the satirist is apt to aim his shaft at characters and actions which 
are exceptional, not representative. In some of the less frequented nooks of 
Europe, where the tone of mind among the people has not materially changed 
since the fifteenth century, we still find priests the constant theme of scandal. 
The Tyrolese, for example, as some readers may have observed, are profuse in 
their votive offerings, and indefatigable in their pilgrimages, processions, and 
observances the most superstitious people in Europe; but a recent writer 
tells us that they " have a large collection of anecdotes, humorous and scandal- 
ous, about their priests, and they take infinite delight in telling them." They 
are not pious, as the writer remarks, "but magpious." The Tyrolese may 
judge their priests correctly, but a person who believes in magpious humbug 
may be expected to lend greedy ears to comic scandal, and what the Tyrolese 
do to-day, their ancestors may have done when Luther was a school-boy. 

But of late years the exact, methodical records of the past, the laws, law- 
books, and trials, which are now recognized to be among the most trustworthy 
guides to a correct interpretation of antiquity, have been diligently scrutinized, 
and we learn from them that it was among the commonest of criminal events 
for clergymen, in the time of Edward III. of England, to take part in acts of 
brigandage. A band of fifty men, for example, broke into the park and war- 
ren of a lady, the Countess of Lincoln, killed her game, cut down two thousand 
pounds' worth of timber, and carried it off. In the list of the accused are the 
names of two abbots and a prior. Several chaplains were in a band of knights 
and squires who entered an inclosure belonging to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, drove off his cattle, cut down his trees, harvested his wheat, and marched 
away with their booty. In a band of seventy who committed a similar out- 
rage at Carlton there were five parsons. Two parsons were accused of assist- 
ing to break into the Earl of Northampton's park and driving off his cattle. 
The prior of Bollington was charged with a robbery of horses, cattle, sheep, 
and pigs. Five clergymen were in the band that damaged the Bishop of Dur- 
ham's park to the extent of a thousand pounds. These examples and others 
were drawn from a single roll of parchment of the year 1348; and that roll, 
itself one of three, is only one of many sources of information. The author of 
the " History of Crime " explains that the rolls of that year consist of more 
than one hundred and twenty skins of parchment, among which there are few 


that do not contain a reference to some lawless act committed by knights or 
priests, or by a band consisting of both.* 

This is record, not gossip, not literature ; and it may serve to indicate the 
basis of truth there was for the countless allusions to the dissoluteness of the 
clergy in the popular writings and pictures of the century that formed Luther 
and the Lutherans. 

It is scarcely possible in the compass of a chapter to convey an idea of the 
burst of laughter that broke the long spell of superstitious terror, and opened 
the minds of men to receive the better light. Such works as the "Decam- 
eron " of Boccaccio, which to modern readers is only interesting as showing 
what indecency could be read and uttered by fine ladies and gentlemen on a 
picnic in 1350, had one character that harmonized with the new influence. 
Their tone was utterly at variance with the voice of the priest. The clergy, 
self-indulgent, preached self-denial; practicing vice, they exaggerated human 
guilt. But the ladies and gentlemen of the "Decameron," while practicing 
virtue, made light of vice, and brought off the graceful profligate victorious. 

Later was circulated in every land and 
tongue the merry tale of " Reynard the 
Fox," which children still cherish among 
the choicest of their literary treasures. 
Reynard, who appears in the sculptures 
of so many convents and in the illumi- 
nations of so many pious manuscripts, 
whom monks loved better than their 
missal, exhibits the same moral: wit- 
ty wickedness triumphant over brute 
strength. The fox cheats the wolf, de- 
ludes the bear, lies to King Lion, turns 
monk, gallops headlong up and down 
the commandments, only to be at last 
taken into the highest favor by the king 
and made Prime Minister. It is not 
necessary to discover allegory in this tale. What made it potent against the 
spell of priestly influence was the innocent and boisterous merriment which it 
excited,' amidst which the gloom evoked by priestly arts began to break away. 
Innocent mirth, next to immortal truth, is the thing most hostile to whatever 
is mingled with religion which is hostile to the interests of human nature. 

And "Reynard," we must remember, was only the best and gayest of a large 
class of similar fables that circulated during the childhood of Columbus and of 
Luther. In one of the Latin stories given by Mr. Wright in his " Selection," 
we have an account of the death and burial of the wolf, the hero of the tale, 

* "History of Crime in England," p. 248, by L. O. Pike, London, 1873. 


which makes a most profane use of sacred objects and rites, though it was 
written by a priest. The holy water was carried by the hare, hedgehogs bore 
the candles, goats rang the bell, moles dug the grave, foxes carried the bier, 
the bear celebrated mass, the ox read the gospel, and the ass the epistle. 
When the burial was complete, the animals sat down to a splendid banquet, 
and wished for another grand funeral. Mark the moral drawn by the priestly 
author : " So it frequently happens that when some rich man, an extortionist or 
a usurer, dies, the abbot or prior of a convent of beasts \i. e., of men living like 
beasts] causes them to assemble. For it commonly happens that in a great 
convent of black or white monks [Benedictines or Augustinians] there are 
none but beasts lions by their pride, foxes by their craftiness, bears by their 
voracity, stinking goats by their incontinence, asses by their sluggishness, 
hedgehogs by their asperity, hares by their timidity (because they were cow- 
ardly when there was no fear), and oxen by their laborious cultivation of their 
land." Unquestionably this author belonged to another order than those 
named in his tirade. 

A book with original life in it becomes usually the progenitor of a line of 
books. Brandt's " Ship of Fools," which was published when Luther was 
eleven years old, gave rise to a literature. As soon as it appeared it kindled 
the zeal of a noted preacher of Strasburg, Jacob Geiler by name, who turned 
Brandt's gentle satire into fierce invective, which he directed chiefly against 
the monks. The black friars, he said, were the devil, the white friars his 
dame, and the others were their chickens. The qualities of a good monk, he 
declared, were an almighty belly, an ass's back, and a raven's mouth. From 
the pulpit, on another occasion, he foretold a coming reformation in the 
Church, adding that he did not expect to live to see it, though some that 
heard him might. The monks taunted him with looking into the " Ship of 
Fools " for his texts instead of the Scripture ; but the people heard him ea- 
gerly, and one of his pupils gave the public a series of his homely, biting ser- 
mons, illustrated by wood-cuts, which ran through edition after edition. Ba- 
dius, a noted scholar of the time, was another who imitated the " Ship of 
Fools," in a series of satirical pieces entitled " The Boats of Foolish Women," 
in which the follies of the ladies of the period were ridiculed. 

Among the great number of works which the " Ship of Fools " suggested, 
there was one which directly and powerfully prepared the way for Luther. 
Erasmus, while residing in England, from 1497 to 1506, Luther being still a 
student, read Brandt's work, and was stirred by it to write his " Praise of 
Folly," which, under the most transparent disguise, is chiefly a satire upon the 
ecclesiastics of the day. We may at least say that it is only in the passages 
aimed at them that the author is at his best. Before Luther had begun to 
think of the abuses of the Church, Erasmus, in his little work, derided the 
credulous Christians who thought to escape mishaps all day by paying devo- 
tion to St. Christopher in the morning, and laughed at the soldiers who ex- 



pected to come out of battle with a 
whole skin if they had but taken the 
precaution to " mumble over a set 
prayer before the picture of St. Bar- 
bara." He jested upon the English 
who had constructed a gigantic figure 
of their patron saint as large as the 
images of Hercules; only the saint 
was mounted upon a horse " very glo- 
riously accoutred," which the people 
scarcely refrained from worshiping. 
But observe this passage in the very 
spirit of Luther, though written fif- 
teen years before the reformer public- 
ly denounced indulgences: 

" What shall I say of such as cry 
up and maintain the cheat of pardons 
and indulgences? who by these com- 
pute the time of each soul's residence 
in purgatory, and assign them a long- 
er or shorter continuance, according 
as they purchase more or fewer of 
these paltry pardons and salable ex- 
emptions ? . . . . By this easy way of 
purchasing pardon, any notorious high- 
wayman, any plundering soldier, or 
any bribe-taking judge shall disburse 
some part of their unjust gains, and so 
think all their grossest impieties suf- 
ficiently atoned for And what 

can be more ridiculous than for some 
others to be confident of going to 
heaven by repeating daily those seven 
verses out of the Psalms ?" 

These " fooleries," which Erasmus 
calls most gross and absurd, he says 
are practiced not merely by the vul- 
gar, but by "such proficients in relig- 
ion as one might well expect should 
have more wit." He ridicules the 
notion of each country and place be- 
ing under the special protection of a 
patron saint, as well as the kindred 


absurdity of calling upon one saint to cure a toothache, upon 
stove lost goods, upon another to pro- 
tect seamen, and upon another to guard 
cows and sheep. Nor does he refrain 
from reflecting upon the homage paid 
to the Virgin Mary, " whose blind de- 
votees think it manners now to place 
the mother before the Son." He ut- 
terly scouts and reviles the folly of 
hanging up offerings at the shrines 
of saints for their imaginary aid in 
o-ettinsc the donors out of trouble or 

O O 

danger. The responsibility of all this 
folly and delusion he boldly assigns to 
the priests, who gain money by them. 
"They blacken the darkness and pro- 
mote the delusion, wisely foreseeing g 
that the people (like cows which never - 
give down their milk so well as when g 
they are gently stroked) would part 
with less if they knew more." If any 
serious and wise man, he adds, should I 
tell the people that a pious life is the '_ 
only way of securing a peaceful death, 
that repentance and amendment alone 5- 
can procure pardon, and that the best g- 
devotion to 'a saint is to imitate his ' 
example, there would be a very differ- 
ent estimate put upon masses, fastings, 
and other austerities. Erasmus saw 
this prophecy fulfilled before many 
years had rolled over his head. 

It is, however, in his chapters upon 
the amazingly ridiculous subtleties of 
the monastic theology of his time that 
Erasmus gives us his most exquisite 
fooling. Here he becomes, indeed, the 
merry Erasmus who was so welcome at 
English Cambridge, at Paris, at Rome, 
in Germany, in Holland, wherever there 
were good scholars and good fellows. 
He pretends to approach this part of 
his subject with fear; for divines, he 

another to re- 


says, are generally very hot and passionate, and when provoked they set 
upon a man in full cry, and hurl at him the thunders of excommunication, 
that being their spiritual weapon to wound such as lift up a hand against 
them. But he plucks up courage, and proceeds to discourse upon the puer- 
ilities which absorbed their minds. Among the theological questions which 
they delighted to discuss were such as these: the precise manner in which 
original sin was derived from our first parents; whether time was an ele- 
ment in the supernatural generation of our Lord ; whether it would be a 
thing possible for the first person in the Trinity to hate the second ; whether 
God, who took our nature upon him in the form of a man, could as well have 
become a woman, a beast, an herb, or a stone ; and if he could, how could he 
have then preached the gospel, or been nailed to the cross ? whether if St. 
Peter had celebrated the eucharist at the time when our Saviour was upon 
the cross, the consecrated bread would have been transubstantiated into the 
same body that remained on the tree; whether, in Christ's corporal pres- 
ence in the sacramental wafer, his humanity was not abstracted from his God- 
head ; whether, after the resurrection, we shall carnally eat and drink as we do 
in this life ; how it is possible, in the transubstantiation, for one body to be in 
several places at the same time; which is the greater sin, to kill a hundred 
men, or for a cobbler to set one stitch in a shoe on Sunday ? Such subtleties 
as these alternated with curious and minute delineations of purgatory, heaven, 
and hell, their divisions, subdivisions, degrees, and qualities. 

He heaps ridicule also upon the public preaching of those profound theo- 
logians. It was mere stage-playing ; and their delivery was the very acme of 
the droll and the absurd. " Good Lord ! how mimical are their gestures ! 
What heights and falls in their voice ! What toning, what bawling, what 
singing, what squeaking, what grimaces, what making of mouths, what apes' 
faces and distorting of their countenances !" And their matter was even more 
ridiculous than their manner. One of these absurd divines, discoursing upon 
the name of Jesus, subtly pretended to discover a revelation of the Trinity in 
the very letters of which the name was composed. It was declined only in 
three cases. That was one mysterious coincidence. Then the nominative 
ended in S, the accusative in M, and the ablative in U, which obviously indi- 
cated Summus, the beginning ; Medius, the middle ; and Ultimus, the end of all 
things. Other examples he gives of the same profound nature. Nor did the 
different orders of monks escape his lash. He dwelt upon the preposterous 
importance they attached to trifling details of dress and ceremonial. " They 
must be very critical in the precise number of their knots, in the tying -on of 
their sandals, of what precise colors their respective habits should be made, 
and of what stuff; how broad and long their girdles, how big and in what 
fashion their hoods, whether their bald crowns be of the right cut to a hair's- 
breadth,how many hours they must sleep, and at what minute rise to prayers." 

In this manner he proceeds for many a sprightly page, rising from monks 


to bishops and cardinals, and from them to popes, "who pretend themselves 
Christ's vicars," while resembling the Lord in nothing. Luther never went 
farther, never was bolder or more biting, than Erasmus in this essay. But 
all went for nothing with the great leader of reform, because Erasmus refused 
to abandon the Church, and cast in his lot openly with the reformers. La- 
ther calls him " a mere Momus," who laughed at Catholic and Protestant alike, 
and looked upon the Christian religion itself very rriuch as Lucian did upon 
the Greek. " Whenever I pray," said Luther once, " I pray for a curse upon 
Erasmus." It was certainly a significant fact that in the heat of that con- 
test Erasmus should have given the world a translation of Lucian. But he 
was a great, wise, genial soul, whose fame will brighten as that age becomes 
more justly and familiarly known to us. 

The first place in the annals of such a warfare belongs of right to the sol- 
diers who took their lives in their hands and went forth to meet the foe in the 
open field, braving torture, infamy, and death for the cause. Such were Lu- 
ther and his followers. But there is a place in human memory for the phi- 
losopher and the humorist who first made the contest possible, and then ren- 
dered it shorter and easier. 




WHEN Luther began the immortal part of his public career in 1517 by 
nailing to the church door his ninety -five theses against the sale of in- 
dulgences, wood-engraving was an art which had been practiced nearly a cent- 
ury. He found also, as we have seen, a public accustomed to satirical writings 
illustrated by wood-cuts. The great Holbein illustrated Erasmus's "Praise 
of Folly." Brandt's " Ship of Fools," as well as the litter of works which it 
called forth, was even profusely illustrated. Caricatures as distinct works, 
though usually accompanied with abundant verbal commentary, were familiar 
objects. Among the curiosities which Luther himself brought from Rome 
in 1510, some years before he began his special work, was a caricature 
suggested by the " Ship of Fools," showing how the Pope had " fooled the 
whole world with his superstitions and idolatries." He showed it to the 
Prince Elector of Saxony at the time. The picture exhibited a little ship 
filled with monks, friars, and priests casting lines to people swimming in the 
sea, while in the stern sat comfortably the Pope with his cardinals and bishops, 
overshadowed and covered by the Holy Ghost, who was looking up to heaven, 
ant 1 through whose help alone the drowning wretches were saved. 

In talking about the picture many years after, Luther said, " These and the 
like fooleries we then believed as articles of faith." He had not reached the 
point when he could talk at his own table of the cardinals as " peevish milk- 
sops, effeminate, unlearned blockheads, whom the Pope places in all kingdoms, 
where they lie lolling in kings' courts among the ladies and women." 

Finding this weapon of caricature ready-made to his hands, he used it 
freely, as did also his friends and his foes. He was himself a caricaturist. 
When Pope Clement VII. seemed disposed to meet the reformers half-way, 
and proposed a council to that end, Luther wrote a pamphlet ridiculing the 
scheme, and, to give more force to his satire, he " caused a picture to be 
drawn" and placed in the title-page. It w r as not a work describable to the 
fastidious ears of our century, unless we leave part of the description in Latin. 
The Pope was seated on a lofty throne surrounded by cardinals having foxes' 
tails, and seeming " sursum et deorsum repurgare" In the " Table-talk " we 
read also of a picture being brought to Luther in which the Pope and Judas 
were represented hanging to the purse and keys. " 'Twill vex the Pope hor- 



ribly," said Luther, " that he whom emperors and kings have worshiped should 
now be figured hanging upon his own pick- 
locks." The picture annexed, in which the 
Pope is exhibited with an ass's head perform- 
ing on the bagpipes, was entirely in the taste 
of Luther. "The Pope's decretals," he once 
said, "are naught; he that drew them up was 
an ass." No word was too contemptuous for 
the papacy. " Pope, cardinals, and bishops," 
said he, "are a pack of guzzling, stuffing 
wretches; rich, wallowing in wealth and lazi- 
ness, resting secure in their power, and never 
thinking of accomplishing God's will." 

The famous pamphlet of caricatures pub- 
lished in 1521 by Luther's friend and follower, 
Lucas Cranach, contains pictures that we could 
easily believe Luther himself suggested. The p APA , DOOTOK TUEOLOGUS ET MAGISTEB 
object was to exhibit to the eyes of the people FlDEI> 

of Germany the contrast between the religion "A long-eared ass can with the Bagpipe* 


inculcated by the lowly Jesus and the pompous AS well as with Theology the Pope." 
worldliness of the papacy. There was a pict- GEBMANY, 1545. 

ure on each page which nearly filled it, and at the bottom there were a few 
lines in German of explanation ; the engraving on the page to the left repre- 
senting an incident in the life of Christ, and the page to the right a feature of 
the papal system at variance with it. Thus, on the first page was shown Jesus, 

in humble attitude and simple raiment, 
refusing honors and dignities, and on the 
page opposite the Pope, cardinals, and 
bishops, wit.h warriors, cannon, and forts, 
assuming lordship over kings. On an- 
other page Christ was seen crowned with 
thorns by the scoffing soldiers, and on 
the opposite page the Pope wearing his 
triple crown, and seated on his throne, 
an object of adoration to his court. On 
another was shown Christ washing the 
feet of his disciples, in contrast to the 
Pope presenting his toe to an emperor 
to be kissed. At length we have Christ 
ascending to heaven with a glorious es- 
cort of angels, and on the other page the 
Pope hurled headlong to hell, accompa- 
TUB POPE OAST INTO HELL. (Lucas Crauach, leal.) nied by devils, with some of his own 


monks already in the flames waiting to receive him. This concl-.uli :<.: picture 
may serve as a specimen of a series that must have told powerfully on the side 
of reform.* 

These pictorial pamphlets were an important part of the stock in trade of 
the colporteurs who pervaded the villages and by-ways of Germany during 
Luther's life-time, selling the sermons of the reformers, homely satiric verses, 
and broadside caricatures. The simplicity and directness of the caricatures 
of that age reflected perfectly both the character and the methods of Luther. 
One picture of Hans Sachs's has been preserved, which was designed as an 
illustration of the words of Christ : " I am the door. He that entereth not by 
the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a 
thief and a robber." The honest Sachs shows us a lofty, well-built barn, with 
a very steep roof, on the very top of which sits the Pope crowned with his 
tiara. To him cardinals and bishops are directing people, and urging them to 
climb up the steep and slippery height. Two monks have done so, and are 
getting in at a high window. At the open door of the edifice stands the Lord, 
with a halo round his head, inviting a humble inquirer to enter freely. Noth- 
ing was farther from the popular caricaturists of that age than to allegorize a 
doctrine or a moral lesson ; on the contrary, it was their habit to interpret alle- 
gory in the most absurdly literal man- 
ner. Observe, for example, the treat- 
ment of the subject contained in the 
words, "How wilt thou say to thy 
brother, Let me pull out the mote out 
of thine eye, and, behold, a beam is in 
thine own eye ?" 

The marriage of Luther in 1525 
was followed by a burst of caricature. 
The idea of a priest marrying excited 
then, as it does now in a Catholic mind, 
a sense of ludicrous incongruity. It is 
as though the words "married priest" 
were a contradiction in terms, and the 
relation implied by them was a sort of 
manifest incompatibility, half comic, 
half disgusting. The spectacle occa- 
sion ally presented in a Protestant church 
of a clergyman ordained and married in 
the same hour is so opposed to the Cath- 
olic conception of the priesthood that some Catholics can only express their 
sense of it by laughter. Equally amazing and equally ludicrous to them is the 

"THE BEAK TIIA.T is IN THINE own EYE," A.D. 1540. 

* From "A History of Caricature, "p. 254, by Thomas Wright, London, 1864. 



LUTHER TBIUMPHAHT. (Paris, 1535.) 

more frequent case of missionaries coming home to be married, or young mis- 
sionaries married in the evening and setting out for their station the next 
morning. We observe that some of Luther's nearest friends nay, Luther 
himself saw something both ridiculous and contemptible in his marriage, par- 
ticularly in the haste with which it was concluded, and the disparity in the 
ages of the pair, Luther being forty-two and his wife twenty-six. " My mar- 
riage," wrote Luther, " has made me so despicable that I hope my humiliation 
will rejoice the angels and vex the devils." And Melanchthon, while doing his 
best to restore his leader's self-respect, expressed the hope that the "accident" 
might be of use in humbling Luther a little in the midst of a success perilous 
to his good sense. Luther was not long abased. We find him soon justifying 
the act, which was among the boldest and wisest of his life, as a tribute of obe- 
dience to his aged father, who " required it in hopes of issue," and as a practi- 
cal confirmation of what he had himself taught. He speaks gayly of " my rib, 
Kate," and declared once that he would not exchange his wife for the kingdom 
of France or the wealth of Venice. 

But the caricaturists were not soon weary of the theme. Readers at all 
familiar with the manners of that age do not need to be told that few of the 
efforts of their free pencils will bear reproduction now. Besides exhibiting 
the pair carousing, dancing, romping, caressing, and in various situations sup- 
posed to be ridiculous, the satirists harped a good deal upon the old prophecy 
that Antichrist would be the offspring of a monk and a nun. " If that is the 
case," said Erasmus, " how many thousands of Antichrists there are in the 
world already !" Luther was evidently of the same opinion, for he gave full 
credit to the story of six thousand infants' skulls having been found at the 
bottom of a pond near a convent, as well as to that of " twelve great pots, in 


each of which was the carcass of an infant," discovered under the cellars of an- 
other convent. But, then, Luther was among the most credulous of men. 

The marriage of the monk and the nun gave only a brief advantage to the 
enemies of reform. The great German artists of that generation were friends 
of Luther. No name is more distinguished in the early annals of German art 
than Albert Diirer, painter, engraver, sculptor, and author. He did not em- 
ploy his pencil in furtherance of Luther's cause, nor did he forsake the com- 
munion of the ancient Church, but he expressed the warmest sympathy with 
the objects of the reformer. A report of Luther's death in 1521 struck horror 
to his soul. "Whether Luther be yet living," he wrote, "or whether his ene- 
mies have put him to death, I know not; yet certainly what he has suffered has 
been for the sake of truth, and because he has reprehended the abuses of un- 
christian papacy, which strives to fetter Christian liberty with the incumbrance 
of human ordinances, that we may be robbed of the price of our blood and 
sweat, and shamefully plundered by idlers, while the sick and needy perish 
through hunger." These words go to the heart of the controversy. 

Holbein, nearly thirty years younger than Diirer, only just coming of age 
when Luther nailed his theses to the castle church, did more, as the reader has 
already seen, than express in words his sympathy with reform. The fineness 
and graphic force of the two specimens of his youthful talent given on pages 
72, 73,* every reader must have remarked. Only three copies of these pict- 
ures are known to exist. They appeared at the time when Luther had kindled 
a general opposition to the sale of indulgences, as well as some ill feeling to- 
ward the classic authors so highly esteemed by Erasmus. They are in a pecul- 
iar sense Lutheran pictures, and they give expression to the reformer's preju- 
dices and convictions. A third wood-cut of Holbein's is mentioned by Wolt>- 
mrmn, dated 1524, in which the Pope is shown riding in a litter surrounded 
by an armed escort, and on the other side Christ is seen on an ass, accompa- 
nied by his disciples. These three works were Holbein's contribution to the 
earlier stage of the movement. 

This artist was soon drawn away to the splendid court of Henry VIII. of 
England, where, among other works, he executed his renowned paintings, 
"The Triumph of Riches" arid "The Triumph of Poverty," in both of which 
there is satire enough to bring them within our subject. Of these stupendous 
works, each containing seventeen or more life-size figures, every trace has per- 
ished except the artist's original sketch of " The Triumph of Riches." But 
they made a vivid impression upon the two generations which saw them, and 
we have so many engravings, copies, and descriptions of them that it is almost 
as if we still possessed the originals. Holbein's sketch is now in the Louvre 
at Paris. It will convey to the reader some idea of the harmonious grandeur 

* From "Holbein and his Time," p. 241-243, by Alfred Woltmann ; translated by F. E. 
Bunnett, London, 1872. 



of the painting, and 
some notion of 
the ingenious and 
friendly nature of 
its satire upon hu- 
man life. 

In accordance 
with the custom of 
the age, the paint- 
ing bore an explan- 
atory motto in Lat- 
in: "Gold is the 
father of lust and 
the son of sorrow. 
He who lacks it 
laments; he who H 
has it fears." Plu- ; 
tus, the god of 2 
wealth, is an old, \ 
old man, long past 
enjoyment; but his J? 
foot rests upon g 
sacks of super flu- -g 

ous coin, and an f: 


open vessel before =' 
him, heaped with g 
money, affords the H 
only pleasures left J 
to him the sight 
and conscious pos- 
session of the 
wealth he can nev- 
er use. Below him 
Fortuna, a young 
and lovely wom- 
an, scatters money 
among the people 
who throng about 
her, among whom 
are the portly Si- 
choeus, Dido's hus- 
band, the richest of 
his people; Themis- 


tocles, who stooped to accept wealth from the Persian king; and many others 
noted in classic story for the part gold played in their lives. Croesus, Midas, 
and Tantalus follow on horseback, and, last of all, the unveiled Cleopatra. 
The careful driver of Plutus's chariot is Ratio reason. " Faster !" cries one 
of the crowd, but the charioteer still holds a tight rein. The unruly horses 
next the chariot, named Interest and Contract, are led by the noble maidens 
Equity and Justice; and the wild pair in front, Avarice and Deceit, are held in 
by Generosity and Good Faith. In the rear, hovering over the triumphal 
band, Nemesis threatens. 

The companion picture, " The Triumph of Poverty," had also a Latin 
motto, to the effect that, while the rich man is ever anxious, " the poor man 
fears nothing, joyous hope is his portion, and he learns to serve God by the 
practice of virtue." In the picture a lean and hungry -looking old woman, 
Poverty, was seen riding in the lowliest of vehicles, a cart, drawn by two don- 
keys, Stupidity and Clumsiness, and by two oxen, Negligence and Indolence. 
Beside her in the cart sits Misfortune. A meagre and forlorn crowd surround 
and follow them. But the slow-moving team is guided by the four blooming 
girls, Moderation, Diligence, Alertness, and Toil, of whom the last is the one 
most abounding in vigor and health. The reins are held by Hope, her eyes 
toward heaven. Industry, Memory, and Experience sit behind, giving out to 
the hungry crowd the means of honorable plenty in the form of flails, axes, 
squares, and hammers. 

These human and cheerful works stand in the waste of that age of wrath- 
ful controversy and irrational devotion like green islands in the desert, a rest 
to the eye and a solace to the mind. 

When Luther was face to face with the hierarchy at the Diet of Worms, 
Calvin, a French boy of twelve, was already a sharer in the worldly advantage 
which the hierarchy could bestow upon its favorites. He held a benefice in 
the Cathedral of Noyon, his native town, and at seventeen he drew additional 
revenue from a curacy in a neighboring parish. The tonsured boy owed this 
ridiculous preferment to the circumstance that his father, being secretary to 
the bishop of the diocese, was sure to be at hand when the bishop happened to 
have a good thing to give away. In all probability Jean Calvin would have 
died an archbishop or a cardinal if he had remained in the Church of his an- 
cestors, for he possessed the two requisites for advancement fervent zeal for 
the Church and access to the bestowers of its prizes. At Paris, however, 
whither he was sent by his father to pursue his studies, a shy, intense, devout 
lad, already thin and sallow with fasting and study, the light of the Reforma- 
tion broke upon him. Like Luther, he long resisted it, and still longer hoped 
to see a reformation in the Church, not outside of its pale. The Church never 
had a more devoted son. Not Luther himself loved it more. " I was so ob- 
stinately given to the superstitions of popery," he said, long after, " that it 
seemed impossible I should ever be pulled out of the deep mire." 



He struggled out at length. Observe one of the results of his conversion 
in this picture, in which a slander of the 
day is preserved for our inspection.* 

Gross and filthy calumny was one of the 
familiar weapons in the theological contests 
of that century. Both sides employed it 
Luther and Calvin not less than others for 
it belonged to that age to hate, and hence 
to misinterpret, opponents. " Search the 
records of the city of Noyon, in Picardie," 
wrote Stapleton, an eminent controversial- 
ist on the Catholic side, and professor in a 
Catholic college of Calvin's own day, "and 
read again that Jean Calvin, convicted of a 
crime " (infamous and unmentionable), " by 
the very clement sentence of the bishop and 
magistrate was branded with an iron lily 
on the shoulders." The records have been 
searched ; nothing of the kind is to be 
found in them ; but the picture was drawn 
and scattered over France. Precisely the 
same charge was made against Luther. 
That both the reformers died of infamous diseases was another of the scandals 
of the time. In reading these controversies, it is convenient to keep in mind 
the remark of the collector of the Calvin pictures: "When two theologians 
accuse one another, both of them lie." One of these calumnies drew from 
Calvin a celebrated retort. " They accuse me," said he, " of having no chil- 
dren. In every land there are Christians who are my children." 

Another caricature, shown on the following page, representing Calvin at 
the burning of Servetus, had only too much foundation in truth. 

The reformer was not indeed present at the burning, but he caused the 
arrest of the victim, drew up the charges, furnished part of the testimony that 
convicted him, consented to and approved his execution. Servetus was a 
Spanish physician, of blameless life and warm convictions, who rejected the 
doctrine of the Trinity. Catholic and Protestant equally abhorred him, and 
Protestant Geneva seized the opportunity to show the world its attachment 
to the true faith by burning a man whom Rome was also longing to burn. It 
was a hideous scene a virtuous and devoted Unitarian expiring in the flames 
after enduring the extremest anguish for thirty minuses, and crying, from the 
depths of his torment, " Jesus, thou Son of the eternal God, have mercy on 
me !" But it was not Calvin who burned him. It was the century. It was 


* From "Musee de la Caricature en France," Paris, 1834. 



imperfectly developed human nature. Man had not reached the civilization 
which admits, allows, welcomes, and honors disinterested conviction. It were 
as unjust to blame Calvin for burning Servetus as it is to hold the Roman 
Catholic Church of the present day responsible for the Inquisition of three 
centuries ago. It was Man that was guilty of all those stupid and abominable 
cruelties. Luther, the man of his period, honestly declared that if he were the 
Lord God, and saw kings, princes, bishops, and judges so little mindful of his 
Son, he would "knock the world to pieces." If Calvin had not burned Serve- 


tus, Servetus might have burned Calvin, and the Pope would have been happy 
to burn both. 

One of the best caricatures perhaps the very best which the Reforma- 
tion called forth was suggested by the dissensions that arose between the fol- 
lowers of Luther and Calvin when both of them were in the grave. It might 
have amused the very persons caricatured. We can fancy Lutherans, Calvin- 
ists, and Catholics all laughing together at the spectacle of the two reformers 
holding the Pope by the ear, and with their other hands fighting one another, 
Luther clawing at Calvin's beard, and Calvin hurling a Bible at Luther's head. 

On the same sheet in the original drawing a second picture was given, in 
which a shepherd was seen on his knees, surrounded by his flock, addressing 
the Lord, who is visible in the sky. Underneath is written, " The Lord is my 
Shepherd ; he will never forsake me." The work has an additional interest 
as showing how early the French began to excel in caricature. In the Ger- 



man and English caricatures of that period there are no existing specimens 
which equal this one in effective simplicity. 

Perhaps the all -per- 
vading influence of Rabe- 
lais in that age may have 
made French satire more 
good-humored. After all 
efforts to discover in the 
works of Rabelais hidden 
allusions to the great per- 
sonages and events of his 
time, we must remain of 
the opinion that he was a 
fun -maker pure and sim- 
ple, a court -fool to his 
century. The anecdote 
related of his convent life 
seems to give us the key 
both to his character and 
his writings. The inci- 
dent has often been used 
in comedy since Rabelais 
employed it. On the fes- 
tival of St. Francis, to 
whom his convent was 
dedicated, when the coun- 
try people came in, laden 
with votive offerings, to 
pray before the image of 
the saint, young Rabelais 
removed the image from its dimly lighted recess and mounted himself upon 
the pedestal, attired in suitable costume. Group after group of awkward 
rustics approached and paid their homage. Rabelais at length, overcome by 
the ridiculous demeanor of the worshipers, was obliged to laugh, whereupon 
the gaping throng cried out, "A miracle ! a miracle ! Our good lord St. Fran- 
cis moves !" But a cunning old friar, who knew when miracles might and 
might not be rationally expected in that convent, ran into the chapel and drew 
out the merry saint, and the brothers laid their knotted cords so vigorously 
across his naked shoulders that he had a lively sense of not being made of 
wood. That was Rabelais ! He was a natural laugh-compeller. He laughed 
at every thing, and set his countrymen laughing at every thing. But there 
were no men who oftener provoked his derision than the monks. "How is 
it?" asks one of his merry men, "that people exclude monks from all good 



companies, calling them feast-troublers, marrers of mirth, and disturbers of all 
civil conversation, as bees drive away the drones from their hives?" The hero 
answers this question in three pages of most Rabelaisan abuse, of which only 
a very few lines are quotable. " Your monk," he says, " is like a monkey in 
a house. He does not watch like a dog, nor plow like the ox, nor give wool 
like the sheep, nor carry like the horse; he only spoils and defiles all things. 
Monks disquiet all their neighborhood with a tingle- tangle jangling of bells, and 
mumble out great store of psalms, legends, and paternosters without thinking 
upon or apprehending the meaning of what they say, which truly is a mocking 
of God." There is no single theme to which Rabelais, the favorite of bish- 
ops, oftener returns than this, and his boisterous satire had its effect upon the 
course of events in Europe, as well as upon French art and literature. 

The English caricatures that have come down to us from the era of the 
Reformation betray far more earnestness than humor or ingenuity. There is 
one in the British Museum which figures in so many books, and continued to 
do duty for so many years, that the inroads of the worms in the wood-cut can 
be traced in the prints of different dates. It represents King Henry VIII. 
receiving a Bible from Archbishop Cranmer and Lord Cromwell. The burly 
monarch, seated upon his throne, takes the book from their hands, while he 
tramples upon Pope Clement, lying prostrate at his feet, the tiara broken and 
fallen off, the triple cross lying on the ground. Cardinal Pole, with the aid of 
another dignitary, is trying to get the Pope on his feet again. A monk is 
holding the Pope's horse, and other monks stand dismayed at the spectacle. 
This picture was executed in 1537, but, as we learn from the catalogue, the 
deterioration of the block and " the working of worms in the wood " prove 
that the impression in the Museum was taken in 1631.* 

The martyrdom of the reformers in 1555, under Queen Mary of bloody 
memory, furnished subjects for the satiric pen and pencil as soon as the acces- 
sion of Elizabeth made it safe to treat them. But there is no spirit of fun in 
the pictures. They are as serious and grim as the events that suggested 
them. In one we see a lamb suspended before an altar, which the Bishop of 
Winchester (Gardiner), with his wolf's head, is beginning to devour; and on 
the ground lie six slain lambs, named ffouperus, Cranmerus, Bradfordus, 
Rydlertis, Rogerus, and Latimerus. Three reformers put a rope round Gar- 
diner's neck, saying, " We will not this feloue to raigne over us/ 1 and on the 
other side of him two- bishops with wolves' heads mitred, and having sheep- 
skins on their shoulders, are drinking from chalices. Behind Gardiner are 
several men attached by rings through their noses to a rope round his waist. 
The devil appears above, holding a scroll, on which is written, " Ybue are my 
verye chyldren in that youe have slayne the proplietes. For even I from the 

* "Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum," Division I., vol. i., p. 2. Lon- 
don, 1870. 


begynning was a murtherer" On the altar lie two books, one open and the 
other shut. On the open book \ve read, "Christ alone is not sufficient without 
our sacrifice" The only window in the edifice, a small round one, is closed 
and barred. Many of the figures in this elaborate piece utter severe animad- 
version upon opponents ; but none of them is scurrilous and indecent, except 
the mitred wolf, who is so remarkably plain-spoken that the compiler of the 
catalogue was obliged to suppress several of his words. 

The English caricaturists of that age seem to have felt it their duty to ex- 
hibit the entire case between Catholic and Protestant in each broadside, with 
all the litigants on both sides, terrestrial and celestial, all the points in both 
arguments, and sometimes the whole history of the controversy from the be- 
ginning. The great expanse of the picture was obscured with the number of 
remarks streaming from the mouths of .the persons depicted, and there was 
often at the bottom of the engraving prose and verse enough to fill two or 
three of these pages. Such extensive works call to mind the sermons of the 
following century, when preachers endeavored on each occasion to declare, as 
they said, " the whole counsel of God ;" so that if one individual present had 
never heard the Gospel before, and should never hear it again, he would hear 
enough for salvation in that one discourse. 

Another of these martyrdom prints may claim brief notice. Two compa- 
nies of martyrs are seen, one composed of the bishops, and the other of less 
distinguished persons, between whom there is a heap of burning fagots. 
Nearly all the figures say something, and the space under the picture is filled 
with verses. Cranmer, with the Bible in his left hand, holds his right in the 
fire, exclaiming, "Burne, unworthie right hand!" Latimer cries, "Lord, 
Lord, receive my spirit!" Philpot, pointing to a book which he holds, says, 
"I will pay my vowes in thee, Smithfield !" The other characters utter 
their dying words. The verses are rough, but full of the resolute enthusiasm 
of the age : 

"First, Christian Cranmer, who (at first tho foild), 

And so subscribing to a recantation, 
God's grace recouering him, hee, quick recoil'd, 

And made his hand ith flames make expiation. 
Saing, burne faint-hand, burne first, 'tis thy due merit. 
And dying, cryde, Lord Jesus take my spirit. 

"Next, lovely Latimer, godly and grave, 

Himselfe, Christs old tride souldier, plaine displaid, 

Who stoutly at the stake did him behave, 
And to blest Ridley (gone before) hee saide, 

Goe on blest brother, for I followe, neere, 

This day wee'le light a light, shall aye burne cleare. 

"Whom when religious, reverend Ridley spide, 

Deere heart (saves hee) bee cheerful in y r Lord ; 


Who never (yet) his helpe to his denye'd, 
& hee will us support & strength afford, 
Or suage y e flame, thus, to the stake fast tide, 
They, constantly Christs blessed Martyres dyde. 

" Blest Bradford also comming to the stake, 

Cheerfully tooke a faggott in his hand : 
Kist it, &, thus, unto a young-man spake, 

W ch with him, chained, to y e stake did stand, 
Take courage (brother) wee shal haue this night, 
A blessed supper w th the Lord of Light. 

" Admir'd was Doctor Tailers faith & grace, 

Who under-went greate hardship spight and spleene ; 
One, basely, threw a Faggot in his face, 

W ch made y e blood ore all his face bee seene ; 
Another, barberously beate out his braines, 
Whilst, at y e stake his corps was bound w th cha:nes." 

In many of the English pictures of that period, the intention of the 
draughtsman is only made apparent by the explanatory words at the bot- 
tom. In one of these a friar is seen holding a chalice to a man who stretches 
out his hands to receive it. From the chalice a winged cockatrice is rising. 
There is also a man who stabs another while embracing him. The quaint 
words below explain the device : " The man which standeth lyke a Prophet 
signifieth godliness ; the Fryer, treason ; the cup with the Serpent, Poyson ; 
the other which striketh with the sworde, Murder; and he that is wounded is 
Peace." In another of these pictures we see an ass dressed in a judge's robes 
seated on the bench. Before him is the prisoner, led away by a priest and 
another man. At one side a friar is seen in conversation with a layman. No 
one could make any thing of this if the artist had not obligingly appended 
these words : " The Asse signifieth Wrathf ull Justice ; the man that is drawn 
away, Truth; those that draweth Truth by the armes, Flatterers; the Frier, 
Lies; and the associate with the Frier, Perjury." In another drawing the 
artist shows us the Pope seated in a chair, with his foot on the face of a pros- 
trate man, and in his hand a drawn sword, directing an executioner who is in 
the act of beheading a prisoner. In the distance are three men kneeling in 
prayer. The explanation is this : " The Pope is Oppression ; the man which 
killeth is Crneltie ; those which are a-killing, Constant Religion ; the three 
kneeling, Love, Furtherance, and Truth to the Gospel." In one of these crude 
productions a parson is exhibited preaching in a pulpit, from which two eccle- 
siastics are dragging him by the beard to the stake outside. Explanation in 
this instance is not so necessary, but we have it, nevertheless : " He which 
preacheth in the pulpit signifieth godly zeale and a furtherer of the gospel; 
and the two which are plucking him out of his place are the enemies of God's 
Word, threatening by fire to consume the professors of the same ; and that 



company which (sit) still are JSTullifidians, such as are of no religion, not re- 
garding any doctrine, so they may bee quiet to live after their owne willes 
and mindes." Another picture shows us a figure seated on a rainbow, the 
world at his feet, up the sides of which a pope and a cardinal are climbing. 
In the middle is the devil tumbling off headlong. The world is upheld by- 
Death, who sits by the mouth of hell. This is the explanation: "He which 
sitteth on the raynebowe signifieth Christ, and the sworde in his hand sjgni- 
fieth his wrath against the wycked ; the round compasse, the worlde; and 
those two climing, the one a pope, the other a cardinall, striving who shall 
be highest ; and the Divell which falleth headlong downe is Lucifer, whiche 
through pride fel ; he whiche holdeth the world is Death, standing in the en- 
trance of hell to receyve all superbious livers." 

In another print is represented a Roman soldier riding on a boar, and bear- 
ing a banner, on which is painted the Pope with his insignia. A man stabs 
himself and tears his hair, and behind him is a raving woman. This picture 
has a blunt signification : " The bore signifieth Wrath, and the man on his back 

O O 7 

Mischief; the Pope in the flag Destruction, and the flag TJncertaine Religion, 
turning and chaunging with every blaste of winde ; the man killing himselfe, 
Desperation ; the woman, Madness." 

There are fourteen specimens in this quaint manner in the collection of the 
British Museum, all executed and published in the early part of the reign of 
Elizabeth. As art, they are naught. As part of the record of a great age, 
they have their value. 

Germany, England, and France fought the battle of the Reformation two 
victors and one van- ' 

quished. From Italy 
in that age we have 
one specimen of cari- 
cature, but it was ex- 
ecuted by Titian. He 
drew a burlesque of 
the Laocoon to ridi- 
cule a school of art- 
ists in Rome, who, as 
he thought, extolled 
too highly the ancient 
sculptures, and, be- 
cause they could not 

, . . 

succeed in coloring, 
insisted that correctness of form was the chief thing in art. Since Titian's 
day, parodies of the Laocoon have been among the stock devices of the carica- 
turists of all nations. 





THE annexed picture,* a favorite with the Protestants of England, Holland, 
and Germany for more than a century, is composed of twenty-two articles 

and objects, most of which are em- 
ployed in the Roman Catholic wor- 
ship. A church -ball forms the hat, 
which is decorated by crossed daggers 
and holy -water brushes. A herring 
serves for a nose. The mouth is an 
open wine-flagon. The eye is a chal- 
ice covered by the holy wafer, and the 
cheek is a paten, or plate used in the 
communion service. The great vol- 
ume that forms the shoulders is the 
mass-book. The front of the bell-tiara 
is adorned by a mitred wolf devouring 
a lamb, and by a goose holding a rosa- 
ry in its bill ; the back, by a spectacled 
ass reading a book, and by a boar wear- 
ing a scholar's cap. At the bottom of 
the engraving the pierced feet of Christ 
are seen resting upon two creatures 
called by the artist "the Queen's 
badges." The whole figure of Christ 
is supposed to be behind this mass of 

THE PAPAL GORGON. (Reign of Elizabeth, 1581.) 

human inventions; for in the original 
these explanatory words are given, "Christ Covered." 

It was by this device that Master Batman, at the beginning of the Puritan 
period, sought to present to the eye a summary of what the Reformation had 
accomplished, and what it had still to fear. Half a century before, Henry 
VIII. being still the Defender of the Faith, the various articles used in Master 

* From "Malcolm's Caricaturing," plate 2, and p. 23. See, also, "Catalogue of the Prints 
and Drawings in the British Museum," Division I., vol. ii., p. 177. 


Batman's satirical picture were objects of religious veneration throughout 
Great Britain. They had now become the despised but dreaded rattle-traps 
of a suppressed idolatry. From the field of strife one of the victors gathered 
the scattered arms and implements, the gorgeous ensigns and trappings of the 
defeated, and piled them upon the plain, a trophy and a warning. 

There is no revolution that does not sweep away much that is good. The 
reformation in religion, chiefly wrought by Wycliffe^Huss, Luther, and Calvin, 
was a movement of absolute necessity to the further progress of our race. 
The intelligence of Christendom had reached a development which was incom- 
patible with respect for the assumptions of the papacy, and with a belief in the 
fictions which the papacy had invented or adopted. The vase must have bro- 
ken, or the oak planted in it must have ceased to grow. Nevertheless, those 
fictions had their beauty and their use. There was a good and pleasing side 
to that system of fables and ceremonies, which amused, absorbed, and satisfied 
the people of Europe for a thousand years. If we could concede that the 
mass of men must remain forever ignorant and very poor, we could also ad- 
mit that nothing was ever invented by man better calculated to make them 
thoughtlessly contented with a dismal lot than the Roman Catholic Church 
as it existed in the fifteenth century, before the faith of the people had been 
shaken in its pretensions. There was something in it for every faculty of 
human nature except the intellect. It gave play to every propensity except 
the propensity of one mind in a thousand to ask radical questions. It re- 
lieved every kind of distress except that which came of using the reason. 
All human interests were provided for in it except the supreme interest of 
human advancement. 

One must have been in a Catholic community, or else lived close to an im- 
portant Catholic church, in order to form an idea of the great part the Church 
once played in the lives and thoughts of its members the endless provision 
it made for the entertainment of unformed minds in the way of festivals, fasts, 
processions, curious observances, changes of costume, and special rites. There 
was always something going on or coming off. There was not a day in the 
year nor an hour in the day which had not its ecclesiastical name and charac- 
ter. In our flowery observance of Easter and in our joyous celebration of 
Christmas we have a faint traditional residue of festivals that once made all 
Christendom gay and jocund. And it was all so adapted to the limited abili- 
ties of our race ! In an average thousand men, there is not more than one 
man capable of filling creditably the post of a Protestant minister, but there 
are a hundred who can be drilled into competent priests. 

Consider, for example, a procession, which was formerly the great event of 
many of the Church festivals, gratifying equally those who witnessed and those 
who took part in it. In other words, it gratified keenly the whole community. 
And yet how entirely it was within the resources of human nature ! Not a 
child so young, not a woman so weak, not a man so old, but could assist or 


enjoy it. The sick could view it from their windows, the robust could carry 
its burdens, the skillful could contrive its devices, and all had the feeling that 
they were engaged in enhancing at once the glory of God, the fame of their 
saint, the credit of their town, and the good of their souls. It was pleasure; it 
was duty ; it was masquerade ; it was devotion. Some readers may remember 
the exaltation of soul with which Albert Diirer, the first of German artists in 
Luther's age, describes the great procession at Antwerp, in 1520, in honor of 
what was styled the "Assumption" of the Virgin Mary. One of the pleasing 
fictions adopted by the old Church was that on the 15th of August, A.D. 45, 
the Virgin Mary, aged seventy -five years, made a miraculous ascent into 
heaven. Hence the annual festival, which was celebrated throughout Europe 
with pomp and splendor. The passage in the diary of Diirer has a particular 
value, because it affords us a vivid view of the bright side of the ancient 
Church just before the reformers changed its gorgeous robes into the Puri- 
tan's plain black gown, and substituted the long prayer and interminable ser- 
mon for the magnificent ceremonial and the splendid procession. 

Albert Dttrer was in sympathy with Luther, but his heart swelled within 
him as he beheld, on that Sunday morning in Antwerp, the glorious pageantry 
that filed past for two hours in honor of the " Mother of God's " translation. 
All the people of the city assembled about the Church of " Our Lady," each 
dressed in gayest attire, but each wearing the costume of his rank, and exhib- 
iting the badge of his guild or vocation. Silver trumpets of the old Frankish 
fashion, German drums and fifes, were playing in every quarter. The trades 
and guilds of the city goldsmiths, painters, masons, embroiderers, statuaries, 
cabinet-makers, carpenters, sailors, fishermen, butchers, curriers, weavers, bak- 
ers, tailors, shoe-makers, and laborers all marched by in order, at some dis- 
tance apart, each preceded by its own magnificent cross. These were fol- 
lowed by the merchants, shop-keepers, and their clerks. The " shooters " came 
next, armed with bows, cross-bows, and firelocks, some on horseback and some 
on foot. The city guard followed. Then came the magistrates, nobles, and 
knights, all dressed in their official costume, and escorted, as our artist records, 
" by a gallant troop, arrayed in a noble and splendid manner." There were 
a number of women in the procession, belonging to a religious order, who 
gained their subsistence by labor. These, all clad in white from head to foot, 
agreeably relieved the splendors of the occasion. After them marched "a 
number of gallant persons and the canons of Our Lady's Church, with all the 
clergy and scholars, followed by a grand display of characters." Here the 
enthusiasm of the artist kindles, as he recalls the glories of the day: 

"Twenty men carried the Virgin and Christ, most richly adorned, to the 
honor of God. In this part of the procession were a number of delightful 
things represented in a splendid manner. There were several wagons, in 
which were representations of ships and fortifications. Then came a troop 
of characters from the Prophets, in regular order, followed by others from 


the New Testament, such as the Annunciation, the Wise Men of the East rid- 
ing great camels and other wonderful animals, and the Flight into Egypt, all 
very skillfully appointed. Then came a great dragon, and St. Margaret with 
the image of the Virgin at her girdle, exceedingly beautiful; and last, St. 
George and his squire. In this troop rode a number of boys and girls very 
handsomely arrayed in various costumes, representing so many saints. This 
procession, from beginning to end, was upward of two hours in passing our 
house, and there were so many things to be seen that I could never describe 
them all even in a book." 

In some such hearty and picturesque manner all the great festivals of the 
Church were celebrated age after age, the entire people taking part in the 
show. There was no dissent, because there was no thought. But the re- 
formers preached, the Bible was translated into the modern tongues, the intel- 
ligence of Christendom awoke, and all that bright childish pageantry vanished 
from the sight of the more advanced nations. The reformers discovered that 


there was no reason to believe that the aged Virgin Mary, on the 15th of 
August, A.D. 45, was borne miraculously to heaven ; and in a single generation 
many important communities, by using their reason even to that trifling extent, 
grew past enjoying the procession annually held in honor of the old tradition. 
All the old festivals fell under the ban. It became, at length, a sectarian punc- 
tilio not to abstain from labor on Christmas. The Puritan Sunday was gradu- 
ally evolved from the same spirit of opposition, and life became intense and 

For it is not in a single generation, nor in ten, that the human mind, after 
having been bound and confined for a thousand years, learns to enjoy and safe- 
ly use its freedom. Luther the reformer was only a little less credulous than 
Luther the monk. He assisted to strike the fetters from the reason, but the 
prisoner only hobbled from one cell into another, larger and cleaner, but still 
a cell. No one can become familiar with the Puritan period without feeling 
that the bondage of the mind to the literal interpretation of some parts of the 
Old Testament was a bondage as real, though not as degrading nor as hope- 
less, as that under which it had lived to the papal decrees. You do not make 
your canary a free bird by merely opening the door of its cage. It has to ac- 
quire slowly, with anguish and great fear, the strength of wing, lungs, and eye, 
the knowledge, habits, and instincts, which its ancestors possessed before they 
were captured in their native islands. It is only in our own day that we are 
beginning really to enjoy the final result of Luther's heroic life a tolerant and 
modest freedom of thought for it is only in our own day that the conse- 
quences of peculiar thinking have anywhere ceased to be injurious. 

If there are any who can not yet forgive the Puritans for their intolerance 
and narrowness, it must be they who do not know the agony of apprehension 
in which they passed their lives. It is the Puritan age that could be properly 
called the Reign of Terror. It lasted more than a century, instead of a few 



months, and it was during that long period of dread and tribulation that they 
acquired the passionate abhorrence of the papal system which is betrayed in 
the pictures and writings of the time. There was a fund of terror in their 
own belief, in that awful Doubt which hung over every soul, whether it was or 
was not one of the Elect ; and, in addition to that, it seemed to them that the 
chief powers of earth, and all the powers of hell, were united to crush the true 

Examine the two large caricatures, " Rome's Monster " and " Spayne and 
Rome Defeated," in the light of a mere catalogue of dates. The Field of the 
Cloth of Gold, which we may regard as the splendid close of the old state of 
things, occurred in 1520, three years after Luther nailed up his theses. Henry 



SPAYNE AND ROME DEFEATED. (London and Amsterdam, 1621.) 

VIII. defied the Pope in 1533 ; and twenty years after, Bloody Mary, married 
to Philip of Spain, was burning bishops at Smithfield. Elizabeth's reign began 
in 1558, which changed, not ended, the religious strife in England. The mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew occurred in 1572, on that 24th of August which, as 
Voltaire used to say, all the humane and the tolerant of our race should ob- 
serve as a day of humiliation and sorrow for evermore. In 1579 began the 
long struggle between the New and the Old, which is called the Thirty Years' 
War. The Prince of Orange was assassinated in 1584, in the midst of those 
great events which Mr. Motley has made familiar to the reading people of both 
continents. Every intelligent Protestant in Europe felt that the weapon which 
slew the prince was aimed at his own heart. The long dread of the Queen 
of Scots' machinations ended only with her death in 1587. Soon after, the 


shadow of the coining Spanish Armada crept over Great Britain, which was 
not dispelled till the men of England defeated and the storm scattered it in 
1588. In 1605 Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot struck such terror to 
the Protestant mind, that it has not, in this year, 1877, wholly recovered from 
it, as all may know who will converse with uninstructed people in the remoter 
counties of Great Britain. Raleigh was beheaded in 1618. The civil war 
began in 1642. In 1665 the plague desolated England, and in the next year 
occurred the great fire of London, good Protestants not doubting that both 
events were traceable to the fell influence of the Beast. The accession of 
James II., a Roman Catholic, tilled the Puritans with new alarm in 1685, and 
during the three anxious years of his reign their brethren, the Huguenots, were 
fleeing into all the Protestant lands from the hellish persecution of the priests 
who governed Louis XIV. 

Upon looking back at this period of agitation and alarm, it startles the 
mind to observe in the catalogue of dates this one: "Shakspeare died 161.6." 
It shows us, what the ordinary records do not show, that there are people who 
retain their sanity and serenity in the maddest times. The rapid succession 
of the plays an average of nearly two per annum proves that there was a 
public for Shakspeare when all the world seemed absorbed in subjects least 
akin to art and humor. And how little trace we find of all those thrilling 
events in the plays ! He was a London actor when the Armada came ; and 
during the year of the Gunpowder Plot he was probably meditating the grand- 
est of all his themes, " King Lear !" 

The picture entitled " Spayne and Rome Defeated "* was one of the most 
noted and influential broadsheets published during the Puritan period. It 
may properly be termed a broadsheet, since the copy of the original in the 
British Museum measures 20f inches by 13. The Puritans of England saw 
with dismay the growing cordiality between James I. and the Spanish court, 
and watched with just apprehension the visit of Prince Charles to Spain, and 
the prospect of a marriage between the heir-apparent and a Spanish princess. 
At this alarming crisis, 1621, the .sheet was composed in England, and sent 
over to Holland to be engraved and printed, Holland being then, and for a 
hundred and fifty years after, the printing-house and type-foundry of Northern 
Europe. Some of the Pilgrim Fathers of Massachusetts, then residing at Ley- 
den, and still waiting to hear the first news of the Mayflower company, who 
had sailed the year before, may have borne a hand in the work. Pastor Rob- 
inson, we know, gained part of his livelihood by co-operating with brethren in 
England in the preparation of works designed for distribution at home. 

Besides being one of the most characteristic specimens of Puritan carica- 
ture which have been preserved, it presents to us a resume of history, as Prot- 

* From Malcolm, who copied it from the original in the British Museum. See Malcolm's 
"Caricaturing,'' plate 22. 


estants interpreted it, from the time of the Spanish Armada to that of Guy 
Fawkes 1588 to 1605. It appears to have been designed for circulation in 
Holland and Germany as well as in England, as the words and verses upon it 
are in English, Dutch, and Latin. The English lines are these : 

"In Eighty-eight, Spayne, arai'd with potent might, 
Against our peacefull Land came on to fight ; 
But windes and waves and fire in one conspire, 
To help the English, frustrate Spaynes desire. 
To second that the Pope in counsell sitts, 
For some rare stratagem they strayne their witts ; 
November's 5th, by powder they decree 
Great Brytanes state ruinate should bee. 
But Hee, whose never-slumb'ring Eye did view 
The dire intendments of this damned crew, 
Did soone prevent what they did thinke most sure. 
Thy mercyes, Lord! for evermore endure." 

This interesting sheet was devised by Samuel Ward, a Puritan preacher of 
Ipswich, of great zeal and celebrity, who dedicated it, in the fashion of the 
day, thus : 

"To God. In memorye of his double deliveraunce from y e invincible Navieandy 6 unmatche- 
able powder Treason, 1605." 

It was a timely reminder. As we occasionally see in our own day a public 
man committing the absurdity of replying in a serious strain to a caricature, 
so, in 1621, the Spanish embassador in London, Count Gondomar, called the 
attention of the British Government to this engraving, complaining that it was 
calculated to revive the old antipathy of the English people to the Spanish 
monarchy. The obsequious lords of the Privy Council summoned Samuel 
Ward to appear before them. After examining him, they remanded him to 
the custody of their messenger, whose house was a place of confinement for 
such prisoners; and there he remained. As there was yet no habeas corpus 
act known among men, he could only protest his innocence of any ill designs 
upon the Spanish monarchy, and humbly petition for release. He petitioned 
first the Privy Council; and they proving obdurate, he petitioned the king. 
He was set free at last, and he remained for twenty years a thorn in the side 
of those who dreaded " Spayne and Rome " less than they hated Puritans and 

This persecution of Samuel Ward gave his print such celebrity that several 
imitations or pirated editions of the work speedily appeared, of which four are 
preserved in the great collection of the British Museum, each differing from 
the original in details. Caricatures aimed directly at the Spanish embassador 
followed, but they are only remarkable for the explanatory words which ac- 
company them. In one we read that the residence of Count Gondomar in 
England had "hung before the eyes of many good men like a prodigious 



comet, threatening worse effects to Church and State than this other comet," 
which had recently menaced both from the vault of heaven. " No ecclipse of 
the sunne," continues the writer, " could more damnific the earth, to make it 
barraine and the best things abortive, than did his interposition." We learn 
also that when the count left England for a visit to his own country, in 1618, 
"there was an uproare and assault a day or two before his departure from 
London by the Apprentices, who seemed greedy of such an occasion to vent 
their own spleenes in doing him or any of his a mischiefe." Another picture 
exhibits the odious Gondomar giving an account of his conduct in England to 
the " Spanishe Parliament," in the course of which he attributes the British ab- 
horrence of Spain to such men as "Ward of Ipswich," whom he describes as 
" light and unstayed wits," intent on winning the airy applause of the vulgar, 
and to raise their desperate fortunes. Nor does he refrain from chuckling 
over the penalty inflicted upon that enemy of Spayne and Rome: "And I 
think that Ward of Ipswich escaped not safely for his lewed and profane pict- 
ure of '88 and their Powder Treason, one whereof, my Lord Archbishop, I sent 
you in a letter, that you might see the malice of these detestable Heretiques 
against his Holiness and the Catholic Church." This broadsheet being enti- 
tled " Vox Populi," the writer concludes his explanation by styling the embas- 
sador " Fox Populi, Count Gondomar the Great." 

Ward of Ipswich continued to be heard from occasionally during the first 
years of the reign of Charles I. Ips- 
wich itself acquired a certain celebrity 
as a Puritan centre, and the name was 
given during the life- time of Samuel 
Ward to a town in Massachusetts, which 
is still thriving. One of his sermons 
upon drunkenness was illustrated by a 
picture, of which a copy is given here,* 
designed to show the degeneracy of man- 
ners that had taken place in England in 
his day. Mr. Chatto truly remarks that 
twenty years later the picture would 
have been more appropriate with the in- 
scriptions transposed. 

The marriage of Charles I. With the FHOM TITLE PAGE TO A SERMON, ' WOE TO DRUNK- 

T> TT ., r T7\ i nnr AKD8." BY SAMUEL WARD, OF IPSWIOU, 1627. 

Princess Henrietta or trance, in 1625, 

was one of the long series of impolitic acts which the king expiated on the 
scaffold in 1649. It aggravated every propensity of his nature that was hos- 
tile to the liberties of the people. Under James I. the elite of the Puritans 
had fled to Holland, and a little company had sought a more permanent refuge 

From Chatto's "Origin and History of Playing Cards," p. 131, London, 1848. 



on the coast of New England. During the early years of the reign of Charles, 
the persecution of the Puritans by his savage bishops became so cruel and so 
vigilant as to induce men of family and fortune, like Winthrop and his friends, 
accompanied by a fleet of vessels laden with virtuous and thoughtful families, 
to cross the ocean and settle in Massachusetts. Boston was founded when 
Charles I. had been cutting off the ears and slitting the noses of Puritans for 
five years. All that enchanting shore of New England, with its gleaming 
beaches, and emerald isles, and jutting capes of granite and wild roses, now so 
dear to summer visitors an eternal holiday-ground and resting-place for the 
people of North America began to be dotted with villages, the names of 
which tell us what English towns were most renowned for the Puritan spirit 
two hundred and fifty years ago. The satirical pictures presei'ved in the Brit- 
ish Museum which relate to events in earlier reigns number ninety-nine in all; 
but those suggested by events in the reign of Charles I. are nearly seven hun- 
dred in number. Most of them, however, were not published until after the 
downfall of the king. 

Several of these prints are little more than portraits of the conspicuous 
persons of the time, with profuse accounts on the same sheet of their suffer- 
ings or misdeeds. One such records the heroic endurance of " the Reverend 
Peter Smart, rnr of Artes, minister of God's word at Durham," who, for 
preaching against popery, lost above three hundred pounds per annum, and 
was imprisoned eleven years in the King's Bench. The composer adds these 
lines : 

"Peter preach downe vaine rites with flagrant harte: 
Thy Guerdon shall be greate, though heare thou Smart." 

Another of these portrait pieces exhibits Dr. Alexander Leighton, who 
spoke of Queen Henrietta as " the daughter of Hell, a Canaanite, and an idol- 
atresse," and spared not Archbishop Laud and his confederates. For these 
offenses he was, as the draughtsman informs us, " clapt up in Newgate for 
the space of 15 weekes, where he suffered great miserie and sicknes almost to 
death, afterward lost one of his Eares on the pillorie, had one of his nosthrills 
slitt clean through, was whipt with a whip of 3 Coardes knotted, had 36 lashes 
therewith, was fined 1000W., and kept prisoner in the fleet 12 yeares, where he 
was most cruelly used a long time, being lodged day and night amongst the 
most desperately wiked villaines of y e whole prison." He was also branded 
on the cheek with the letters S. S. sower of sedition. Several other prints 
of the time record the same mark of attention paid by the " martyred " king 
to his Catholic wife. By-and-by, the crowned and mitred ruffians who did 
such deeds as these being themselves in durance, Parliament set Dr. Leighton 
free, and made him a grant of six thousand pounds. 

A caricature of the same bloody period is entitled, "Archbishop Laud din- 
ing on the Ears of Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton." We see Laud seated at 
dinner, having an ear on the point of his knife and three more ears in the plate 


before him, the three victims of hi's cruelty standing about, and two armed 
bishops at the foot of the table. The dialogue below represents Laud as re- 
jecting with scorn all the dainties of his table, and declaring that nothing will 
content him but the ears of Lawyer Prynne and Dr. Bastwick. He cuts them 
off himself, and orders them to be dressed for his supper. 

" Canterbury. This I doe to make you examples,^ 
That others may be more careful to please my palate. 
Henceforth let my servants know, that what I will, I will have done, 
What ere is under heaven's Sunne." 

A burst of caricature heralded the coming triumph of the Puritans in 1640, 
the year of the impeachment of the Earl of Strafford. Many of the pictures 
recorded both the sufferings and the joyful deliverance of the Puritan clergy- 
men. Thus we have in one of them a glowing account of the return of the 
three gentlemen whose ears furnished a repast for the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. They had been imprisoned for many years in the Channel Islands, from 
which they were conveyed to Dartmouth, and thence to London, hailed with 
acclamations of delight and welcome in every village through which they 
passed. All the expenses of their long journey were paid for them, and pres- 
ents of value were thrust upon them as they rode by. Within a few miles of 
London they were met by such a concourse of vehicles, horsemen, and people 
that it was with great difficulty they could travel a mile in an hour. But 
when at length, in the evening, they reached the city, masses of enthusiastic 
people blocked the streets, 
crying, " Welcome home ! 
welcome home !" and strew- 
ing flowers and rosemary 
before them. Thousands 
of the people carried torch- 
es, which rendered the 
streets lighter than the day. 
They were three hours in 
making their way through 
the crowd from Charing 
Cross to their lodgings in 
the city, a distance of a 

It was during the exal- 
tation of the years preced- 
ing the civil war that such 
pictures appeared as the 
one here given, urging a 
union between the Church 



of Scotland against the foe of both. This is copied from an original im- 
pression in the collection of the New York Historical Society. 

The caricaturists pursued Laud and Strafford even to the scaffold. The 
archbishop was the author of a work entitled "Canons and Institutions Ec- 
clesiastical," in which he gave expression to his extreme High-church opinions. 
In 1640 the victorious House of Commons canceled the canons adopted from 
this work, and fined the clergy who had sat in the Convocation. A caricature 
quickly appeared, called "Archbishop Laud firing a Cannon," in which the can- 
non is represented as bursting, and its fragments endangering the clergymen 
standing neai\ Laud's committal to the Tower was the occasion of many 
broadsheets, one of which exhibits him fastened to a staple in a wall, with a 
long string of taunting stanzas below : 

' ' Reader, I know thou canst not choose but smile 
To see a Bishop tide thus to a ring ! 
Yea, such a princely prelate, that ere while 
Could three at once in Limbo patrum fling ; 
Suspend by hundreds where his worship pleased, 
And them that preached too oft by silence eas'd ; 

" Made Laws and Canons, like a King (at least) ; 
Devis'd new oaths ; forc'd men to sweare to lies ! 
Advanc'd his lordly power 'bove all the rest. 
And then our Lazie Priests began to rise ; 
But painfull ministers, which plide their place 
With diligence, went downe the wind apace. 

"Our honest Round heads too then went to racke ; 
The holy sisters into corners fled ; 
Cobblers and Weavers preacht in Tubs for lacke 
Of better Pulpits ; with a sacke instead 
Of Pulpit-cloth, hung round in decent wise, 
All which the spirit did for their good devise. 

' ' Barnes, Cellers, Cole-holes, were their meeting-places, 
So sorely were these babes of Christ abus'd, 
Where he that most Church-government disgraces 
Is most esteem 'd, and with most reverence us'd. 
It being their sole intent religiously 
To rattle against the Bishops' dignity. 

"Brother, saies one, what doe you thinke, I pray, 
Of these proud Prelates, which so lofty are ? 
Truly, saies he, meere Antichrists are they. 
Thus as they parle, before they be aware, 
Perhaps a Pursuivant slips in behind, 
And makes 'em run like hares before the wind. 

"A yeere agone 'tad been a hanging matter 
T'ave writ (nay, spoke) a word 'gainst little Will ; 


But now the times are chang'd, men scorne to flatter ; 
So much the worse for Canterbury still, 
For if that truth come once to rule the roast, 
No mar'le to see him tide up to a post. 

' ' By wicked counsels faine he would have set 
The Scots and us together by the eares ; 
A Patriark's place the Levite long'd to get, f 
To sit bith' Pope in one of Peter's chaires. 
And having drunke so deepe of Babels cup, 
Was it not time, d'ee think, to chaine him up?" 

In these stanzas are roughly given the leading counts of the popular indict- 
ment against Archbishop Laud. Other prints present him to us in the Tower 
with a halter round his neck; and, again, we see him in a bird-cage, with the 
queen's Catholic confessor, the two being popularly regarded as birds of a 
feather. In another, a stout carpenter is holding Laud's nose to a grindstone, 
while the carpenter's boy turns the handle, and the archbishop cries for mercy : 

"Such turning will soon deform my face; 
Oh ! I bleed, I bleed ! and am extremely sore." 

But the carpenter reminds him that the various ears that he had caused to be 
cut off were quite as precious to their owners as his nose is to him. A Jesuit 
enters with a vessel of holy water with which to wash the extremely sore nose. 
One broadsheet represents Laud in consultation with his physician, who ad- 
ministers an emetic that causes him to throw off his stomach several heavy 
articles which had been troubling him for years. First, the " Tobacco Patent" 
comes up with a terrible wrench. As each article appears, the doctor and his 
patient converse upon it : 

"Doctor. What's this? A book? Whosoever hath bin at church may exercise lawful recrea- 
tions on Sunday. What's the meaning of this ? 

" Canterbury. 'Tis the booke for Pastimes on the Sunday, which I caused to be made. But 
hold ! here comes something. What is it ? 

"Doctor. 'Tis another book. The title is, 'Sunday no Sabbath.' Did you cause this to be 
made also ? 

"Canterbury. No; Doctor Pocklington made it; but I licensed it. 

"Doctor; But what's this? A paper 'tis; if I be not mistaken, a Star-Chamber order made 
against Mr. Prinne, Mr. Burton, and Dr. Bastwicke. Had you any hand in this? 

"Canterbury. I had. I had. All England knoweth it. But, oh, here comes up something 
that makes my very back ake ! O that it were up once ! Now it is up, I thank Heaven ! 

"Doctor. 'Tis a great bundle of papers, of presentations and suspensions. These were the in- 
struments, my lord, wherewith you created the tongue-tied Doctors, and gave them great Benefices 
in the Country to preach some twice a year at the least, and in their place to hire some journey- 
man Curate, who will only read a Sermon in the forenoone, and in the afternoone be drunke, with 
his parishioners for company." 

By the same painful process the archbishop is delivered of his " Book of 
Canons," and finally of his mitre ; upon which the doctor says, " Nay, if the 
miter be come, the Divell is not far off. Farewell, my good lord." 



There still exist in -various collections more than a hundred prints relating 
directly to Archbishop Laud, several of which give burlesque representations 
of his execution. There are some that show him asleep, and visited by the 
ghosts of those whom he had persecuted, each addressing him in turn, as the 
victims of Richard III. spoke to their destroyer on Bosworth Field. One of 
the print-makers, however, relented at the spectacle of an old rnan, seventy-two 
years of age, brought to the block. He exhibits the archbishop speaking to 
the crowd from the scaffold : 

" Lend me but one poore teare, when thow do'st see 
This wretched portraict of just miserie. 
I was Great Innovator, Tyran, Foe 
To Church and State ; all Times shall call me so. 
But since I'm Thunder-stricken to the Ground, 
Learn how to stand : insult not ore my wound." 

This one poor stanza alone among the popular utterances of the time shows 
that any soul in England was touched by the cruel fanatic's bloody end. 

During the civil war and the government of Cromwell, 1642 to 1660, nine 
in ten of all the satirical prints that have been preserved are on the Puritan 
side. A great number of them were aimed at the Welsh, whose brogue seems 
to have been a standing resource with the mirth-makers of that period, as the 

Irish is at present. The wild roystering ways of 
the Cavaliers, their debauchery and license, fur- 
nished subjects. The cruelties practiced by Prince 
Rupert suggested the annexed illustration, in 
which the author endeavored to show " the cruell 
Impieties of Blood-thirsty Royalists and blasphe- 
mous Anti-Parliamentarians under the Command 
of that inhumane Prince Rupert, Digby, and the 
rest, wherein the barbarous Crueltie of our Civill 
uncivill Warres is briefly discovered." Beneath 
the portrait of England's wolf are various narra- 
tives of his bloody deeds. One picture exhibits 
the plundering habits of the mercenaries on the 
side of the king in Ireland. A soldier is repre- 
sented armed and equipped with the utensils that 
appertain to good forage: on his head a three- 
legged pot, hanging from his side a duck, a spit 
with a goose on it held in his left hand as a mus- 
ket, a dripping-pan on his arm as a shield, a hay- 
fork in his right hand for a rest, with a string of 
sausages for a match, a long artichoke at his side for a sword, bottles of canary 
suspended from his belt, slices of toast for shoe-strings, and two black pots at 
his garters. This picture may have been called forth by an item in a news-let- 





ter of 1641, wherein it was stated that such "great store of pilidges" was 
daily brought into Drogheda that a cow could be bought there for five shil- 
linsrs and a horse for twelve. 


The abortive attempt of Charles II., after the execution of his father, to 
unite the Scots under his sceptre, aud by their aid place himself upon 
the throne of England, called 
forth the caricature annexed, 
in which an old device is put 
to a new use. A large num- 
ber of verses explain the pict- 
ure, though they begin by de- 

"This Embleme needs no learned Ex- 
position ; 

The World knows well enough the 
sad condition 

Of regal Power and Prerogative. 

Dead and dethron'd in England, now 

In Scotland, where they seeme to 
love the Lad, 

If hee'l be more obsequious than his 

And act according to Kirk Princi- 

More subtile than were Delphic Ora- 


"Presbyter. Come to the grinstone, Charles ; 'tis now too late 
To recolect, 'tis presbiterian fate. 

"King. Yon Covenant pretenders, must I bee 
The subject of your Tradgie Comedie ? 

"Jockey. I, Jockey, turne the stoue of all your plots, 
For none turnes faster than the turne-coat Scots. 

"Presbyter. We for our ends did make thee king, be sure, 
Not to rule us, we will not that endure. 

" King. You deep dissemblers, I know what you doe, 
And, for revenges sake, I will dissemble too." 

In the verses that follow there is to be found one of the few explicit jus- 
tifications of the execution of Charles I. that the lighter literature of the Com- 
monwealth affords : 

"But Law and Justice at the last being done 
On the hated Father, now they love the Son." 

The poet also taunts the Scots with having first stirred up the English to " doe 
Heroick Justice " on the late king, and then adopting the heir on condition of 
his giving their Church the same fell supremacy which Laud had claimed for 
the Church of England. 

The Ironsides of Cromwell soon accomplished the caricaturist's prediction : 

"But this religious mock we all shall see, 
Will soone the downfall of their Babel be." 

We find the pencil and the pen of the satirist next employed in exhibiting the 
young king fleeing in various ludicrous disguises before his enemies. 

An interesting caricature published during the civil wars aimed to cast 


back upon the Malignants the ridicule implied in the nickname of Roundhead 
as applied to the Puritans. It contained figures of three ecclesiastics, " Sound- 
head, Rattle -head, and Round-head." Sound -head, a minister sound in the 
Puritan faith, hands a Bible to Rattle-head, a personage meant for Laud, half 
bishop and half Jesuit. On the other side is the genuine Round-head, a monk 
with shorn pate, who presents to Rattle -head a crucifix, and points to a mon- 
astery. Rattle -head rejects the Bible, and receives the crucifix. Over the 
figures is written : 

" See heer, Malignants Foolerie 

Retorted on them properly, 

The Sound-head, Round-head, Rattle-head, 

Well placed, where best is merited." 

Below are other verses in which, of course, Rattle -head and Round -head 
are belabored in the thorough -going, root-and-branch manner of the time, 
Atheist and Arminian being used as synonymous terms : 

"See heer, the Rattle-heads most Rotten Heart, 
Acting the Atheists or Arminians part." 

In looking over the broadsheets of that stirring period, we are struck by 
the absence of the mighty Name that must have been uppermost in every 
mind and of tenest on every tongue that of the Lord Protector, Oliver Crom- 
well. A few caricatures were executed in Holland, in which " The General " 
and "Oliver" and "The Protector" were weakly satirized; but as most of the 
plates in that age were made to serve various purposes, and were frequently 
altered and redated, it is not certain that any of them were circulated in 
England during Cromwell's life-time. English draughtsmen produced a few 
pictures in which the Protector was favorably depicted dissolving the Long 
Parliament, but their efforts were not remarkable either with pen or pencil. 
.The Protector may have relished, and Banyan may ha've written, the verses 
that accompanied some of them : 

" Full twelve years and more these Rooks they have sat 

to gull and to cozen all true-hearted People ; 
Our Gold and our Silver has made them so fat 

that they lookt more big and mighty than Paul's Steeple." 

The Puritans handled the sword more skillfully than the pen, and the roy- 
alists were not disposed to satire during the rule of the Ironside chief. The 
only great writer of the Puritan age on the Puritan side was Milton, and he 
was one of the two or three great writers who have shown little sense of 




WHAT a change came over the spirit of English art and literature at the 
Restoration in 1 660 ! Forty years before, when James I. was king, who 
loathed a Puritan, there was 
occasionally published a print 
in which Puritans were treat- 
ed in the manner of Hudibras. 
There was one of 1612 in 
which a crown was half cov- 
ered by a broad-brimmed hat, 
with verses reflecting upon 
"the aspiring, factious Puri- 
tan," who presumed to " over- 
looke his king." There was 
one in 1636, in the reign of 
Charles I., aimed at " two in- 
famous upstart prophets," 
weavers, then in Newgate for 
heresy, which contains a de- 
scription of a Puritan at 
church, which is entirely in 
the spirit of Hudibras : 

" His seat in the church is 
where he may be most scene. 
In the time of the Sermon he 
drawes out his tables to take 
the Notes, but still noting who 
observes him to take them. 
At every place of Scripture 
cited he turnes over the leaves 
of his Booke, more pleased 
with the motion of the leaves CEI8 - BOBS RH ES ON i"'* CE0881C8 ' 164 - (Mnsamm, MM.) 
than the matter of the Text; For he folds downe the leaves though he finds 
not the place. Hee lifts up the whites of his eyes towards Heaven when hee 



meditates on the sordid pleasures of the earth ; his body being in God's 
Church, when his mind is in the divel's Chappell." 

Again, in 1647, two years before the execution of Charles, an extensive and 
elaborate sheet appeared, in which the ignorant preachers of the day were held 
tip to opprobrium. Each of these " erronious, hereticall, and Mechannick spir- 
its " was exhibited practicing his trade, and a multitude of verses below de- 
scribed the heresies which such teachers promulgated. 

"Oxford and Cambridge make poore Preachers; 
Each shop affordeth better Teachers : 
Oh blessed Reformation ! " 

Among the " mechannick spirits " presented in this sheet we remark " Bar- 
bone, the Lether- seller," who figures in many later prints as "Barebones." 
There are also " Bulcher, a Chicken man ;" " Henshaw, a Confectioner, alias an 
Infectioner ;" " Duper, a Cowkeeper;" "Lamb, a Sope-boyler," and a dozen 

Such pictures, however, were few and far between during the twenty years 
of Puritan ascendency. But when the rule of the Sound-head was at an end, 
and Rattle-head had once more the dispensing of preferment in Church and 
State, the press teemed with broadsheets reviling the Puritan heroes. The 
gorgeous funeral of the Protector his body borne in state on a velvet bed, 
clad in royal robes, to Westminster Abbey, where a magnificent tomb rose 
over his remains was still fresh in the recollection of the people of London 
when they saw the same body torn from its resting-place, and hung on Tyburn 
Hill from nine in the morning until six in the evening, and then cast into a 
deep pit. Thousands who saw his royal funeral looked upon his body swing- 
ing from the gallows. The caricatures vividly mark the change. Cromwell 
now appears only as tyrant, antichrist, hypocrite, monster. Charles I. is the 
holy martyr. His son's flight in disguise, the hiding in the oak-tree, and other 
circumstances of his escape are no longer ignominious or laughable, but grace- 
ful and glorious. 

A cherished fiction appears frequently in the caricatures that no man came 
to a good end who had had any hand in the king's execution, not even the ex- 
ecutioner nor the humblest of his assistants. On one sheet we read of a cer- 
.tain drum-maker, named Tench, who "provided roapes, pullies, and hookes (in 
case the king resisted) to compel and force him down to the block." "This 
roague is also haunted with a Devill, and consumes away." There was the 
confession, too, of the hangman, who, being about to depart this life, declared 
that he had solemnly vowed not to perform his office upon the king, but had 
nevertheless dealt the fatal blow, trembling from head to foot. Thirty pounds 
had been his reward, which was paid him in half-crown pieces within an hour 
after the execution the dearest money, as he told his wife, that he had ever 
received, for it would cost him his life, " which propheticall words were soon 



made manifest, for it appeared that, ever since, he had been in a most sad con- 
dition, and lay raging and swearing, and still pointing at one thing or another 
which he conceived to appear visible before him." 

Richard Cromwell was let off as easily by the caricaturist as he was by the 
king. He is depicted as "the meek knight," the mild incapable, hardly worth 
a parting kick. In one very good picture he is a cooper hammering away 
with a mallet at a cask, from which a number of owls escape, most of which, 
as they take their flight, cry out, "J&ngf" Richard protests that he knows 
nothing of this trade of cooper, for the more he hammers, the more the barrel 


breaks up. Elizabeth, the wife of the. Protector, figured in a ludicrous manner 
upon the cover of a cookery-book published in the reign of Charles II., the 
preface of which contained anecdotes of the kitchen over which she had pre- 

Among other indications of change in the public feeling, we notice a few 
pictures conceived in the pure spirit of gayety, designed to afford pleasure to 
every one, and pain to no one. Two of these are given here Shrove-tide and 
Lent tilting at one another which were thought amazingly ingenious and 
cornic two hundred years ago. They are quite in the taste of the period that 




produced them. Shrove- 
tide, in the calendar of 
Rome, is the Tuesday be- 
fore Lent, a day on which 
many people gave them- 
selves up to revelry and 
feasting, in anticipation 
of the forty days' fast. 
Shrove-tide accordingly is 
mounted on a fat ox, and 
his sword is sheathed in 
a pig and piece of meat, 
with capons and bottles 
of wine about his body. 
His flag, as we learn from 
the explanatory verses, is 
"a cooke's foule apron 
fix'd to a broome," and his 
helmet " a brasse pot." 
Lent, on the contrary 
flings to the breeze a fish- 
ing-net, carries an angling-rod for a weapon, and wears upon his head " a boyl- 
ing kettle." Thus accoutred, these mortal foes approach one another, and Lent 
lifts up his voice and proclaims his intention : 

" I now am come to mundifie and cleare 
The base abuses of tbis last past yeare : 
Thou puff-paunch'd monster (Shrovetyde), thou art he 
That were ordain'd the latter end to be 
Of forty-five weekes' gluttony, now past, 
Which I in seaven weekes come to cleanse at last : 
Your feasting I will turn to fasting dyet ; 
Your cookes shall have some leasure to be quiet ; 
Your masques, pomps, playes, and all your vaine expence, 
I'll change to sorrow, and to penitence." 

Shrove-tide replies valiantly to these brave words: 

"What art thou, thou leane-jawde anottamie, 
All spirit (for I no flesh upon thee spie) ; 
Thou bragging peece of ayre and smoke, that prat'st, 
And all good-fellowship and friendship hat'st; 
You'le turn our feasts to fasts ! when, can you tell ? 
Against your spight, we are provided well. 
Thou sayst thou'lt ease the cookes! the cookes could wish 
Thee boyl'd or broyl'd with all thy froth} 1 fish ; 
For one fish-dinner takes more paines and cost 
Than three of flesh, bak'd, roast, or boyl'd, almost." 



This we are compelled to regard as about the best fun our ancestors of 
1660 were capable of achieving with pencil and pen. Nor can we claim much 
for their pictures which aim to satirize the vices. 

The joy of the English people at the restoration of the monarchy, which 
seemed at first to be as universal as it was enthusiastic, was of short dura- 
tion. The Stuarts were the Bourbons of England, incapable of being taught 
by adversity. Within two years Charles II. alarmed Protestant England by 
marrying a Portuguese princess. The great plague of 1665, that destroyed 
in London alone sixty-eight thousand persons, was followed in the very next 
year by the great fire of London, which consumed thirteen thousand two hun- 
dred houses. At a moment when the public mind was reduced to the most 
abject credulity by such events as these, the scoundrel Titus Gates appeared, 
declaring that the dread . calamities which had afflicted England, and others 
then imminent, were only parts of an awful Popish Plot, which aimed at the 
destruction of the king and the restoration of the Catholic religion. A short 
time after, 1678, Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey, the magistrate before whom Titus 
Gates made his deposition, was found 
dead in a field near London, the victim 
probably of some fanatic assassin of 
the Catholic party. The kingdom was 
thrown into an ecstacy of terror, from 
which, as before observed, it has not to 
this day wholly recovered. Terror may 
lurk in the blood of a race ages after 
the removal of its cause, as we find our 
sensitive horses shying from low- lying 
objects at the road-side, though a thou- 
sand generations may have peacefully 
labored and died since their ancestors 
crouched from the spring of a veritable 
wild beast. The broadsheets of that 
year, 1678, and of the troublous years 
following, even until William of Or- 
ange was seated on the throne of En- 
gland, in 1690, have, we may almost say, 
but one topic the Popish Plot. The 


" It is a foolish sheep that makes the wolf her con- 
fessor." (1685.) 

spirit ot that period lives in those sheets. 

It had been a custom in England to celebrate the 17th of November, the 
day, as one sheet has it, on which the unfortunate Queen Mary died, and " that 
Glorious Sun, Queen Elizabeth, of happy memory, arose in the English horizon, 
and thereby dispelled those thick fogs and mists of Romish blindness, and re- 
stored to these kingdoms their just Rights both as men and Christians." The 
next recurrence of this anniversary after the murder of Godfrey was seized by 


the Protestants of London to arrange a procession which was itself a striking 
caricature. A pictorial representation of the procession is manifestly impossi- 
ble here, but we can copy the list of objects as given on a broadsheet issued a 
few days after the event. This device of a procession, borrowed from Catho- 
lic times, was continually employed to promulgate and emphasize Protestant 
ideas down to a recent period, and has been used for political objects in our 
own day. How changed the thoughts of men since Albert Diirer witnessed 
the grand and gay procession at Antwerp, in honor of the Virgin's Assump- 
tion, one hundred and fifty-nine years before! The 17th of November, 1679, 
was ushered in, at three o'clock in the morning, by a burst of bell-ringing all 
over London. The broadsheet thus quaintly describes the procession : 

"About Five o'clock in the Evening, all things being in readiness, the Sol- 
emn Procession began, in the following Order : I. Marched six Whiflers to 
clear the way, in Pioneers Caps and Red Waistcoats (and carrying torches). 
II. A Bellman Ringing, who, with a Loud and Dolesom Voice cried all the 
way, JRemember Justice Godfrey. III. A Dead Body representing Sir Ed- 
mundbury Godfrey, in the Habit he usually wore, the Cravat wherewith he 
was murdered about his Neck, with spots of Blood on his Wrists, Shirt, and 
white Gloves that were on his hands, his Face pale and wan, riding on a White 
Horse, and one of his Murderers behind him to keep him from falling, repre- 
senting the manner how he was carried from Somerset House to Primrose Hill. 
IV. A Priest in a Surplice, with a Cope Embroidered with Dead mens Bones, 
Skeletons, Skuls, &c., giving pardons very freely to those who would murder 
Protestants, and proclaiming it Meritorious. V. A Priest alone, in Black, with 
a large Silver Cross. VI. Four Carmelite Friers in White and Black Habits. 
VII. Four Grey Friars in their proper Habits. VIII. Six Jesuits with Bloody 
Daggers. IX. A Consort of Wind-musick, call'd the Waits. X. Four Popish 
Bishops in Purple and Lawn Sleeves, with Golden Crosses on their Breasts. 
XI. Four other Popish Bishops in their Pontificalibus, with Surplices, Rich 
Embroydered Copes, and Golden Miters on their Heads. XII. Six Cardinals 
in Scarlet Robes and Red Caps. XIII. The Popes Chief Physitian with Jes- 
uites Powder in one hand, and a in the other. XIV. Two Priests in Sur- 
plices, with two Golden Crosses. Lastly, the Pope in a Lofty Glorious Pag- 
eant, representing a Chair of State, covered with Scarlet, the Chair richly em- 
broydered, fringed, and bedeckt with Golden Balls and Crosses; at his feet a 
Cushion of State, two Boys in Surplices, with white Silk Banners and Red 
Crosses, and Bloody Daggers for Murdering Heritical Kings and Princes, 
painted on them, with an Incense-pot before them, sate on each side censing 
his Holiness, who was arrayed in a rich Scarlet Gown, Lined through with 
Ermin, and adorned with Gold and Silver Lace, on his Head a Triple Crown 
of Gold, and a Glorious Collar of Gold and precious stones, St. Peters Keys, 
a number of Beads, Agnus Dei's and other Catholick Trumpery ; at his Back 
stood his Holiness's Privy Councellor, the Devil, frequently caressing, hugging, 


and whispering, and oft-times instructing him aloud, to destroy His Majesty, 
to forge a Protestant Plot, and to fire the City again; to which purpose he 
held an Infernal Torch in his hand. The whole Procession was attended with 
150 Flambeaus and Torches by order; but so many more came in Voluntiers 
as made up some thousands. Never were the Balconies, Windows and Houses 
more numerously filled, nor the Streets closer throng'd with multitudes of Peo- 
ple, all expressing their abhorrence of Popery with -continual Shouts and Ac- 

With slow and solemn step the procession marched to Temple Bar, then 
just rebuilt, and there it halted, while a dialogue in verse was sung in parts 
by " one who represented the English Cardinal Howard, and one the people 
of England." We can imagine the manner in which the crowd would come 
thundering in with 

"Now God preserve Great Charles our King, 

And eke all honest men ; 
And Traytors all to justice bring, 
Amen! Amen! Amen!" 

Fire -works succeeded the song, after which "his Holiness was decently 
tumbled from all his grandeur into the impartial flames," while the people 
gave so prodigious a shout that it was. heard " far beyond Somerset House." 
For many years a similar pageant was given in London on the same day. 

As an additional illustration of the feeling which then prevailed in Puritan 
circles, I will copy the rude and doleful rhymes which accompany a popular 
print of 1680, called "The Dreadful Apparition; or, the Pope haunted with 
Ghosts." Coleman, Whitebread, and Harcourt, who figure among the ghosts, 
had been recently executed as " popish plotters." The picture shows the Pope 
in bed, to whom the devil conducts Coleman, and an angel leads the spirit of 
Sir Edmundsbury Godfrey. Whitebread and Harcourt are in shrouds. A 
bishop, a cardinal, and other figures are seen. A label issuing from the 
mouth of each of the persons represented contains the rhymes which follow: 


"Away ! Away ! am not I Pope of Rome, 
torment me not before my time is Come." 


' ' Your Sevt S r ! Ned Coleman doth appeare 
he'll tell you all, therefore I brought him here." 


' ' S r you are Cause of my Continuall paine, 
My Soul is Lost, for your Ambitious gaine." 


"Repent great S r and be for ever blest, 
in Heaven with me that happy place of rest." 



"0 Chariety I who mercy craves for those: 
With Bluddy hands that ware his Cruell foes" 


" / am perplexed with perpetuall fright ; 
but who is this apeares this dreadful night." 


' ' ' Tis Godfrey 's Ghost I wish all things be well 
that we may have our Pope of Rome in hell." 


" Let us depart and Shun their cruellfate, 
and all repent before it is to late." 


" Come let usflie with all the Speed we may, 
Ye Devil els will take us all away." 

Below the picture are the verses subjoined : 

" Horrors and Death ! what dismal Sights Invade 
His Nightly Slumbers, who in Blood does Trade. 
The Ghostly Apparitions of the Dead ; 
The Bless d by Angels ; Damrid by Demons Lead ; 
'Tis sure, Romes Conclave must Amazed stand, 
When Souls Complaining, thus against them band; 
Who All but One to please Ambitious ROME, 
Have Gaiu'd Damnation for Their Final DOOM. 
Hear how They Curse Him all, but He who fell. 
Great Brittains Sacrifice by Imps of Hell ; 
Who shew'd Their Bloody Vengeance in the Strife, 
To Murther Him, who Business had for Life." 

' How do my Eye-Balls Roul, and Blood run back, 
What Tortures at this sight my Conscience Rack ; 
Oh! Mountains now fall on me, some Deep Cave 
Pitty me once, and prove my speedy Grave. 
Involved in Darkness, from the Seated Light, 
Let Me abscond in Everlasting Night. 
Torment me not ; you Shades, before my time, 
I do confess, your Downfalls was my Crime ; 
To Satiate my Ambition and Revenge, 
I push' d you on to this Immortal Change. 
But Ah! fresh Horrors, Ah! my Power's grown weak, 
What art thou Fiend ? from whence ? or where ? O Speak ; 


That in this Frightful Form, a Dragon's hew 
Presents One Sainted, to my Trembling View ?" 

" By Hells Grim KING'S Command, on whom I waif, 
I've brought your Saint his Story to relate ; 
Who from the black Tartarian-Fire below, 
So long beg'd Absence as to let you know 
His Torments, and the Horrid Cheat condole, 
You fix'd on him to Rob him of his Soul." 

"O! spare my Ears, I'll no such Horrors hear ;" 


"You must, and know your own Damnation's near: 
You must ere long be Plung'd in Grizly Flame, 
Which I shall laugh to see, tho, rack'd with pain 
Thou Grand Deceiver of the Nations All, 
Contriver of my Wretched Fate and Fall: 
Thou who didst push me on to Murther Kings 
Persuading me for it on Angels, Wings 
I should Transcend the Clouds, be ever Blest, \ 
And be of Al that Heav'n cou'd yield, possest, > 
But these I mist, got Torment without Rest : ) 
For whilst on Earth I stand, a Hell within 
Distracts my Conscience, pale with horrid Sin : 
Instead of Mortals Pardon, One on High, 
I must your Everlasting Martyr Fry ; 
Whilst Name of Saint I bear on Earth, below 
It stirs the flames, and much Augments my Woe.'' 


"Horrors! 'tis Dismal, I can hear no more, 
! Hell and Furies, how / have lost my Pow'r. '' 



''See Sir this Crimson Stain, this baleful Wound 
See Murther'd me, with Joys Eternal Crown'd ; 
Though by the Darkest Deed of Night I fell, 
Which shook Three Kingdoms, and Astonish 'd Hell : 
Yet rap'd above the Skyes to Mansion bright, 
There to Converse with Everlasting Light ; 
Thence got I leave to View thy Wretched Face, 
And find my Death thy Hell-born PLOTS did race, 
And next to the Almighty Arm did Save 
Great Albion's Glory from its yawning Grave ; 
From Sacred Bliss my Swift- Wing'd Soul did glide, 
Conducted Hither by my Angel-Guide, 
To let thee know thy Sands were almost run, 
And that thy Thread of Life is well-nigh Spun ; 


Repent you then, Wash off the Bloody Stain, 
Or You'll be Doom'd to Everlasting Pain." 

" Come Worthy of Seraphick Joys Above, 
Worthy Our Converse, and Our Sacred Love ; 
Who hast Implor'd the Great Jehove for One ) 

Who Shed thy Blood, to Snatch thy Princes Throne \ 
In this thy Saviour's Great Examples shown : j 

Come let Fs hence, and leave Him to his Fate, 
When Divine Vengeance shall the Business State." 


" Chill Horror seizes me, I cannot flye ; 
Oh Ghastly ! yet more Apparitions nigh ?" 


" Thus wandering through the Gloomy Shades, at last 
I've found Thee, Traytor, that my Joys did Blast, 
Whose Dam'd Jnjunctions, Dire Damnation Seal'd, 
And Torments that were never yet Reveal'd : 
Mirrihords of Plagues, Chains, Racks, Tempestuous Fire, 
Sulpherian Lakes that Burn and ner Expire, 
Deformed Demons, Uglier far than Hell, 
The Half what We Endure, no Tongue can Tell ; 
This for a Bishoprick I Undergo, 
But Now would give Earth's Empire wer't not so." 

"Retire, Good Ghosts, or I shall Dye with Fear." 


"Nay stay Sir, first You must my Story Hear: 
How could you thus Delude your Bosome- Friend? 
Your Foes to Heaven, and Fs to Hell thus send ; 
Damnation seize You for't ; ere long You'll be 
Plung'd Headlong into vast Eternity ; 
There for to Howl, whilst We some Comfort gain, 
To see You welter in an endless Pain, 
And without Pitty, justly there Complain." 

"Ho! Cardinals and Bishops, haste with speed, 
Bell, Book, and Candle fetch, let me befree'd: 
Ah! 'tis too late, by Fear Intranc'd I lye." 

" Heard you that Groan ? with speed from hence let's flye. 


" The Fiend has got Him, doubtless, lets away, 
And in this Ghastly place no longer stay." 



' ' Dread Horrors seize me, Fly, for Mercy call, 
Least Divine Vengeance over- whelm Vs all.'' 

It was in this crude and lucid way that the forerunners of Gillray, Nast, 
Tenniel, and Leech satirized the murderous follies of their age. A volume 
larger than this would not contain the verse andf prose that covered the 
broadsheets in the same style which appeared in London during the reign 
of Charles II. This specimen, however, suffices for any reader who is not 
making a special study of the period. To students and historians the col- 
lection of these prints in the British Museum is beyond price ; for they show 
" the very age and body of the time, his form and pressure." Perhaps no 
other single source of information respecting that period is more valuable. 

From the accession of William and Mary we notice a change in the sub- 
jects treated by caricaturists. If religion continued for a time to be the prin- 
cipal theme, there was more variety in its treatment. Sects became more 
distinct; the Quakers arose; the divergence between the doctrines of Luther 
and Calvin was more marked, and gave rise to much discussion; High Church 
and Low Church renewed their endless contest ; the Baptists became an im- 
portant denomination; deism began to be the whispered, and became soon the 
vaunted faith of men of the world ; even the voice of the Jew was occasionally 
heard, timidly asking for a small share of his natural rights. It is interesting 
to note in the popular broadsheets and 
satirical pictures how quickly the hu- 
man mind began to exert its powers 
when an overshadowing and immedi- 
ate fear of pope and king in league 
against liberty had been removed by 
the flight of James II. and the happy 
accession of William III. 

Political caricature rapidly assumed 
prominence, though, as long as Louis 
XIV. remained on the throne of France, 
the chief aim of politics was to create 
safeguards against the possible return 
of the Catholic Stuarts. The acces- 
sion of Queen Anne, the career of 
Bolingbroke and Harley, the splendid 
exploits of Marlborough, the early con- 
flicts of Whig and Tory, the attempts - 


sion of George I. all these are exhib- 
ited in broadsheets and satirical prints still preserved in more than one col- 



lection. Louis XIV., his pomps and his vanities, his misfortunes ami his mis- 
tresses, furnished subjects for hundreds of caricatures both in England and 
Holland. It was on a Dutch caricature of 1695 that the famous retort oc- 
curs of the Due de Luxembourg to an exclamation of the Prince of Orange. 
The prince impatiently said, after a defeat, " Shall I, then, never be able to 
beat that hunchback?" Luxembourg replied to the person reporting this, 
"How does he know that my back is hunched? He has never seen it." In- 
terspersed with political satires, we observe an increasing number upon social 
and literary subjects. The transactions of learned societies were now impor- 


tant enough to be caricatured, and the public was entertained with burlesque 
discourses, illustrated, upon " The Invention of Samplers," " The Migration of 
Cuckoos," "The Eunuch's Child," "A New Method of teaching Learned Men 
how to write Unintelligibly." There was an essay, also, " proving by argu- 
ments philosophical that Millers, though falsely so reputed, yet in reality are 
not thieves, with an intervening argument that Taylors likewise are not so." 

A strange episode in the conflict between Whig and Tory was the career 
of Sacheverell, a clergyman who preached such extreme doctrines concerning 


royal and ecclesiastical prerogative that he was formally censured by a Whig 
Parliament, and thus lifted into a preposterous importance. During his tri- 
umphal tour, which Dr. Johnson remembered as one of the events of his ear- 
liest childhood, he was escorted by voluntary guards that numbered from one 
thousand to four thousand mounted men, wearing the Tory badges of white 
knots edged with gold, and in their hats three leaves of gilt laurel. The pict- 
ure of the Quaker meeting reflects upon the alliance alleged to have existed 
between the high Tories and the Quakers, both having an interest in the re- 
moval of disabilities, and hence making common cause. A curious relic of 
this brief delirium is a paragraph in the Grub Street Journal of 1736, which 
records the death of Dame Box, a woman so zealous for the Church that when 
Sacheverell was relieved of censure she clothed herself in white, kept the 
clothes all her life, and was buried in them. As long as Dr. Sacheverell lived 
she went to London once a year, and carried a present of a dozen larks to 
that " high-flying priest." 

The flight of the Huguenots from France, in 1685 and 1686, enriched Hol- 
land, England, and the American colonies with the elite of the French people. 
Holland being nearest to France, and honored above all lands for nearly a 
century as the refuge of people persecuted for opinions' sake, received at first 
the greatest number, especially of the. class who could live by intellectual pur- 
suits. The rarest of all rarities in the way of caricature, " the diamond of the 
pictorial library," is a series of burlesque portraits, produced in Holland in 
1686, of the twenty-four persons most guilty of procuring the revocation of 
the wise edict of Henry IV., which secured to French Protestants the right 
to practice their religion. The work was entitled "La Procession Monacale 
conduite par Louis XIV. pour la Conversion des Protestans de son Royaume." 
The king, accordingly, leads the way, his face a sun in a monk's cowl, in allu- 
sion to his adoption of the sun as a device. Madame De Mainterion, his mar- 
ried mistress, hideously caricatured, follows. Pere la Chaise, and all the eccle- 
siastics near the court who were reputed to have urged on the ignorant old 
king to this superlative folly, had their place in the procession. Several of the 
faces are executed with a freedom and power not common in any age, but at 
that period only possible to a French hand. Two specimens are given on the 
following page. 

Louis XIV., as the caricature collections alone would suffice to show, was 
the conspicuous man of that painful period. The caricaturists avenged human 
nature. No man of the time called forth so many efforts of the satiric pencil, 
nor was there ever a person better adapted to the satirist's purpose, for he fur- 
nished precisely those contrasts which satire can exhibit most effectively. He 
stood five feet four in his stockings, but his shoe- maker put four inches of 
leather under his heels, and his wig -maker six inches of other people's hair 
upon his head, which gave him an imposing altitude. The beginning of his 
reign was prosperous enough to give some slight excuse for the most richly 



developed arrogance seen in the world since Xerxes lashed the Hellespont, but 
the last third of his reign was a collapse that could easily be made to seem 
ludicrous. There were very obvious contrasts in those years between the 
splendors of his barbaric court and the disgraceful defeats of his armies, be- 
tween the opinion he cherished of himself and the contempt in which he was 
held abroad, between the adulations of his courtiers and the execrations of 
France, between the mass-attending and the morals of the court. 

. The caricaturists made the most of these points. Every town that he 
lost, every victory that Marlborough won, gave them an opportunity which 

DIES THAN TO THE POPS. (Holland, 1686. By 
au Exiled Huguenot.) 

186. After the Expulsion of the Huguenots.) 

they improved. We have him as- a huge yellow sun, each ray of which bears 
an inscription referring to some defeat, folly, or shame. We have him as a 
jay, covered with stolen plumage, which his enemies are plucking from him, 
each feather inscribed with the name of a lost city or fortress. We have 
him as the Crier of Versailles, crying the ships lost in the battle of La Hogue, 
and offering rewards for their recovery. He figures as the Gallic cock flying 
before that wise victorious fox of England, William III., and as a pompons 
drummer leading his army, and attended by his ladies and courtiers. He is 
an old French Apollo driving the sun, in wig and spectacles. He is a tiger 
on trial before the other beasts for his cruel depredations. He is shorn and 
fooled by Maintenon ; he is bridled by Queen Anne. He is shown drinking 
a goblet of human blood. We see him in the stocks with his confederate, 
the Pope, and the devil standing behind, knocking their heads together. He 
is a sick man vomiting up towns. He is a sawyer, who, with the help of the 
King of Spain, saws the globe in two, Maintenon sitting aloft assisting the 
severance. As long as he lived the caricaturists continued to assail him ; and 
when he died, in 1715, he left behind him a France so demoralized and im- 
poverished that he still kept the satirists busy. 



Rex. Ludoncua. Ludovicus Rex. 


Even in our own time Louis XIV. has suggested one of the best carica- 
tures ever drawn, and it is accompanied by an explanatory essay almost 
unique among prose satires for bitter wit and blasting truth. The same hand 
wielded both the pen and the pencil, and it was the wonderful hand of Thack- 
eray. " You see at once," he says, in explanation of the picture, " that majes- 
ty is made out of the wig, the high-heeled shoes, and cloak, all fleurs-de-lis be- 
spangled Thus do barbers and cobblers make the gods that we wor- 





IT was the bubble mania of 1719 and 1720, brought upon Europe by John 
Law, which completed the " secularization " of caricature. Art, as well as 
literature, learning, and science, was subservient to religion during the Middle 
Ages, and drew its chief nourishment from Mother Church. Since the Refor- 
mation they have all been obliged to pass through a painful process of wean- 
ing, and each in turn to try for an independent existence. The bubble frenzy, 
besides giving an impulse to the caricaturist's art it had not before received, 

withdrew attention from 
ecclesiastical subjects, and 
supplied abundant material 
drawn from sources pure- 
ly mundane. 

Above all, the pictures 
which that mania called 
forth assisted to form the 
great satiric artist of his 
time and country, William 
Hogarth. He was a Lon- 
don apprentice carving 
coats of arms on silver 
plate when the early symp- 
toms of the mania appear- 
ed ; and he was still a very 
young man, an engraver, 
feeling his way to the ca- 
reer that awaited him, 
when the broadsheets sat- 
irizing John Law began to 

o o 

be " adapted " from Dutch 
originals, and shown in the 
shop -windows of London. 
Doubtless he inspected the 
picture of the "" Night NACHT-WTND- 


The Night Share-ciier and his Magic Lantern. A Caricature of John 
Law and his Bubble Schemes. (Amsterdam, 1720.) 


Share-crier," opposite, and noticed the cock's feather in his hat (indicating the 
French origin of the delusion), and the windmill upon the top of his staff. 
The Dutch pictures were full of that detail and by-play of which Hogarth was 
such a master in later years. 

Visitors to New York who saw tumultuous Wall Street during the worst 
of our inflation period, and, following the crowd up-town, entered the Gold- 
room, where the wild speculation of the day was continued till midnight, may 
have flattered themselves that they were looking upon scenes never before ex- 
hibited in this world. What a strange intensity of excitement there was in 
those surging masses of young men ! What fierce outcries ! What a melan- 
choly waste of youthful energies, so much needed elsewhere ! But there was 
nothing new in all this, except that we passed the crisis with less loss and less 
demoralization than any community ever before experienced in circumstances 
at all similar. 

When Louis XIV. died in 1715, after his reign of seventy-two years, he 
left the finances of France in a condition of inconceivable disorder. For four- 
teen years there had been an average annual deficit of more than fourteen mill- 
ions of francs, to meet which the king had raised money by every paper de- 
vice that had then been discovered. Having previously sold all the offices 
for which any pretext could be invented, he next sold annuities of all kinds, 
for one life, for two lives, for three lives, and in perpetuity. Then he issued 
all known varieties of promises to pay, from rentes perpetuelles to treasury- 
notes of a few francs, payable on demand. But there was one thing he did 
not do reduce the expenditure of his enormous and extravagant court. In 
the midst of that deficit, when his ministers were at their wits' end to carry 
on the government from day to day, and half the lackeys of Paris held the 
depreciated royal paper, the old king ordered one more of those magnificent 
fetes at Fontainebleau which had, as he thought, shed such lustre on his reign. 
The fete would cost four millions, the treasury was empty, and treasury-notes 
had fallen to thirty-five. While an anxious minister was meditating the situ- 
ation, he chanced to see in his inner office two valets slyly scanning the papers 
on his desk, for the purpose, as he instantly conjectured, of getting news for 
the speculators. He conceived an idea. The next time those enterprising val- 
ets found themselves alone in the same cabinet, they were so happy as to dis- 
cover on the desk the outlines of a royal lottery scheme for the purpose of 
paying off a certain class of treasury-notes. The news was soon felt in the 
street. Those notes mysteriously rose in a few days from thirty -five to eighty- 
five; and while they were at that point the minister, anticipating the Fiskian 
era, slipped upon the market thirty millions of the same notes. The king had 
his fete ; and when next he borrowed money of his subjects, for every twenty- 
five francs of coin he was obliged to give a hundred-franc note.* 

* "Law, son Systeme et son Epoque," p. 2, par P. A. Cochut, Paris, 1853. 



Two years after, the foolish old king died, leaving, besides a consolidated 
debt of bewildering magnitude, a floating debt, then due and overdue, of seven 
hundred and eighty-nine millions, equivalent, as M. Cochut computes, to about 
twice the amount in money of to-day. Coin had vanished ; the royal paper 
was at twenty-five; the treasury was void; prices were distressingly high; 
some provinces refused to pay taxes; trade languished; there were vast num- 
bers of workmen unemployed; and during the winter after the king's death a 
considerable number of persons died in Paris of cold and hunger. The only 
prosperous people were Government contractors, farmers of the revenue, bro- 
kers, and speculators in the king's paper ; and these classes mocked the misery 
of their fellow-citizens by an ostentatious and tasteless profusion. 

The natural successor of a king bigoted is a prince dissolute. The regent, 

"Picture of the very famous Island of Madhead. Situated in Share Sea, and inhabited by a multitude of 
all kinde of people, to which is given the general name of Shareholders." (Amsterdam, 1720.) 

who had to face this state of things on behalf of his nephew, Louis XV.. a 
child of five, had at least the virtue and good sense to reject with indignant 
scorn the proposition made in his council by one member to declare France 
bankrupt and begin a new reign by opening a clean set of books. We, too, 
had our single repudiator, who fared no better than his French predecessor. 
But the regent's next measures were worthy of a prodigal. He called in the 
various kinds of public paper, and offered in exchange a new variety, called 
billets d'etat, bearing interest at four per cent. But the public not responding 
to the call, the new bills fell to forty in twenty-four hours, and drew down 


all other public paper, until in a few days the royal promise to pay one hun- 
dred francs was worth twenty francs. The regent's coffers did not fill. That 
scarred veterans could not get their pensions paid was an evil which could 
be borne ; but the regent had mistresses to appease ! 

Then he tried a system of squeezing the rich contractors and others of the 
vermin class who batten on a sick body-politic. As informer! were to have 
half the product of the squeeze, an offended lackey -had only to denounce his 
master, to get him tried on a charge of having made too much money. Woe 
to the plebeian who was convicted of this crime ! Besides being despoiled of 
his property, Paris saw him, naked to the shirt, a rope round his neck, a peni- 
tential candle in his handcuffed hands, tied to a dirty cart and dragged to the 
pillory, carrying on his back a large label, " PLUNDERER OP THE PEOPLE." 
The French pillory was a revolving platform, so that all the crowd had an 
equal chance to hurl mud and execration at the fixed and pallid face. Judge 
if there was not a making haste to compound with a government capable of 
such squeezing ! There was also a mounting in hot haste to get out of such a 
France. One lucky merchant crossed the frontier, dressed as a peasant, driv- 
ing a cart-load of straw, under which was a chest of gold. A train of fourteen 
carts loaded with barrels of wine was stopped, and in each barrel a keg of gold 
was found, which was emptied into the royal treasury. 

The universal consternation and the utter paralysis of business which re- 
sulted from these violent spoliations may be imagined. Six thousand persons 
were tried, who confessed to the possession of twelve hundred millions of 
francs. The number of the condemned was four thousand four hundred and 
ten, and the sum extorted from them was, nominally, nearly four hundred 
millions, of which, however, less than one hundred millions reached the treas- 
ury. It was easy for a rich man to compound. A person condemned to dis- 
gorge twelve hundred thousand francs was visited by a "great lord." "Give 
me three hundred thousand francs," said the great lord, " and you won't be 
troubled for the rest." To which the merchant replied, " Really, my lord, you 
come too late, for I have already made a bargain with madame, your wife, for 
a hundred and fifty thousand." Thus the business of busy and frugal France 
was brought to a stand without relieving the Government. The royal coffers 
would not fill ; the deficit widened ; the royal paper still declined ; the poor 
were hungry; and, oh, horror ! the regent's mistresses pouted. The Govern- 
ment debased the coin. But that, too, proved an aggravation of the evil. 

Such was that ancien regime which still has its admirers; such are the 
consequences of placing a great nation under the rule of the greatest fool in it; 
and such were the circumstances which gave the Scotch adventurer, John Law, 
his opportunity to madden and despoil France, so often a prey to the alien. 

Two hundred years ago, when John Law, a rich goldsmith's son, was a boy 
in Edinburgh, goldsmiths were dealers in coin as well as in plate, and hence 
were bankers and brokers as well as manufacturers. They borrowed, lent, ex- 


changed, and assayed money, and therefore possessed whatever knowledge of 
finance there was current in the world. It was in his father's counting-room 
that John Law acquired that taste for financial theories and combinations 
which distinguished him even in his youth. But the sagacious and practical 
goldsmith died when his son was fourteen, and left him a large inheritance in 
land and money. The example of Louis XIV. and Charles II. having brought 
the low vices into high fashion throughout Europe, it is not surprising that 
Law's first notoriety should have been owing to a duel about a mistress. A 
man of fashion in Europe in Louis XIV.'s time was a creature gorgeously at- 
tired in lace and velvet, and hung about with ringlets made of horse-hair, who 
passed his days in showing the world how much there was in him of the goat, 
the monkey, and the pig. Law had the impudence to establish his mistress in 
a respectable lodging-house, which led to his being challenged by a gentleman 
who had a sister living there. Law killed his man on the field " not fairly," 
as John Evelyn records and he was convicted of murder. The king pardon- 
ed, but detained him in prison, from which he escaped, went to the Continent, 
and resumed his career, being at once a man of fashion, a gambler, and a con- 
noisseur in finance. He used to attend card - parties, followed by a footman 
carrying two bags, each containing two thousand louis-d'ors, and once during 
the life-time of the old king he was ordered out of Paris on the ground that he 
" understood the games he had introduced into the capital too well" 

Twenty years elapsed from the time of his flight from a London prison. 
He was forty-four years of age, possessed nearly a million and three-quarters 
of francs in cash, producible on the green cloth at a day's notice, and was the 
most plausible talker on finance in Europe. This last was a bad symptom, 
indeed, for it is well known that men who remain victors in finance, who really 
do extricate estates and countries from financial difficulties, are not apt to talk 
very effectively on the subject. Successful finance is little more than paying 
your debts and living within your income, neither of which affords material 
for striking rhetoric. Alexander Hamilton, for example, talked finance in a 
taking manner; but it was Albert Gallatin who quietly reduced the country's 
debt. Fifteen days after the death of the old king, Law was in Paris with all 
that he possessed, and in a few months he was deep in the confidence of the 
regent. His fine person, his winning manners, his great wealth, his constant 
good fortune, his fluent and plausible tongue, his popular vices, might not 
have sufficed to give him ascendency if he had not added to these the peculiar 
force that is derived from sincerity. That he believed in his own " system " is 
shown by his risking his whole fortune in it. And it is to his credit that the 
first use he made of his influence was to show that the spoliations, the debas- 
ing of the coin, and all measures that inspired terror, and thus tightened un- 
duly the clutch upon capital, could not but aggravate financial distress. 

His " system " was delightfully simple. Bear in mind that almost every 
one in Paris who had any property at all held the king's paper, worth one- 


quarter or one-fifth of its nominal value. Whatever project Law set on foot, 
whether a royal bank, a scheme for settling and trading with Louisiana, for 
commerce with the East Indies, or farming the revenues, any one could buy 
shares in it on terms like these : one-quarter of the price in coin, and three- 
quai-ters in paper at its nominal value. 

The system was not immediately successful, and it was only in the teeth of 
powerful opposition that he could get his first ventiire, the bank, so much as 
authorized. Mark how clearly one of the council, the Due de Saint- Simon, 
comprehended the weakness of a despotism to which he owed his personal im- 
portance. "An establishment," said he, "of the kind proposed may be in itself 
good ; but it is so only in a republic, or in such a monarchy as England, where 
the finances are controlled absolutely by those who furnish the money, and 
who furnish only as much of it as they choose, and in the way they choose. 
But in a light and changing government like that of France, solidity would 
be necessarily wanting, since a king or, in his name, a mistress, a minister, fa- 
vorites, and, still more, an extreme necessity, could overturn the bank, which 
would present a temptation at once too great and too easy." Law, therefore, 
was obliged to alter his plan, and give his bank at first a board of directors 
not connected with the Government. 

Gradually the " system " made its way. The royal paper beginning to rise 
in value, the holders were in good humor, and disposed to buy into other proj- 
ects on similar terms. The Louisiana scheme may serve as an example of 
Law's method. Six years before, a great merchant of Paris, Antoine Crozat, 
had bought from the old king the exclusive right to trade with a vast un- 
known region in North America called Louisiana ; but after five years of effort 
and loss he became discouraged, and offered to sell his right to the creator of 
the bank. Law, accepting the offer, speedily launched a magnificent scheme : 
capital one hundred millions of francs, in shares of five hundred francs, pur- 
chasable wholly in those new treasury -notes bearing four per cent, interest, 
then at a discount of seventy per cent. Maps of this illimitable virgin land 
were published. Pictures were exhibited, in which crowds of interesting 
naked savages, male and female, were seen running up to welcome arriving 
Frenchmen ; and under the engraving a gaping Paris crowd could read, " In 
this land are seen mountains filled with gold, silver, copper, lead, quicksilver ; 
and the savages, not knowing their value, gladly exchange pieces of gold and 
silver for knives, iron pots, a small looking-glass, or even a little brandy." One 
picture was addressed to pious souls ; for even at that early day, as at present, 
there was occasionally observed a curious alliance between persons engaged 
in the promotion of piety and those employed in the pushing of shares. This 
work exhibited a group of Indians kneeling before some reverend fathers of 
the Society of Jesus. Under it was written, "Indian Idolaters imploring 

The excitement, once kindled, was stimulated by lying announcements of 



the sailing of great fleets for Louisiana laden with merchandise and colonists ; 
of the arrival of vessels with freights worth " millions ;" of the establishment of 
a silk-factory, wherein twelve thousand women of the Natchez tribe were em- 
ployed; of the bringing of Louisiana ingots to the Mint to be assayed; of the 
discovery in Arkansas of a great rock of emerald, and the dispatch of Captain 
Laharpe with a file of twenty -two men to take possession of the same. In 
1718 Law sent engineers to Louisiana, who did something toward laying out 
its future capital, which he named New Orleans, in honor of his patron, the 

The royal paper rose rapidly under this new demand. Other schemes fol- 
lowed, until John Law, through his various companies, seemed about to " run" 
the kingdom of France by contract, farming all its revenues, transacting all 
its commerce, and, best of all, paying all its debts ! Madness, ruled the hour. 
The depreciated paper rose, roce, and still rose ; reached par ; went beyond 
par, until gold and silver were at a discount of ten per cent. The street named 
Quincampoix, the centre and vortex of this whirl of business, a mere lane twen- 
ty feet wide and a quarter of a mile long, was crowded with excited people 
from morning till night, and far into the night, so that the inhabitants of the 


quarter sent to the police a formal complaint that they could get no sleep. 
Nobles, lackeys, bishops, monks, merchants, soldiers, women, pickpockets, for- 
eigners, all resorted to La Hue, " panting, yelling, operating, snatching papers, 
counting crowns," making up a scene of noisy confusion unexampled. One 
man hired all the vacant houses in the street, and made a fortune by subletting 
offices and desk-room, even placing sentry-boxes on some of the roofs, and let- 
ting them at a good price. The excitement spread over France, reached Hol- 
land, and drew to Paris, as was estimated at the time, five hundred thousand 
strangers, places in the public vehicles being engaged "two months in ad- 
vance," and commanding a high premium. 

There were the most extraordinary acquisitions of fortune. People sud- 
denly enriched were called Mississippiens, and they behaved as the victims of 
sudden wealth, unearned, usually do. Men who were lackeys one week kept 
lackeys the next. A garpon of a wine- shop gained twenty millions. A cob- 
bler, who had a stall in the Rue Quincampoix made of four planks, cleared 
away his traps and let his boards to ladies as seats, and sold pens, paper, and 
ink to operators, making two hundred francs a day by both trades. Men gain- 
ed money by hiring out their backs as writing-desks, bending over while oper- 
ators wrote out their contracts and calculations. One little hunchback made 
a hundred and fifty thousand francs by. thus serving as a pupitre ambulant 
(strolling desk), and a broad-shouldered soldier gained money enough in the 
same way to buy his discharge and retire to the country upon a pretty farm. 
The general trade of the city was stimulated to such a degree that for a while 
the novel spectacle was presented of a community almost every member of 
which was prosperous beyond his hopes; for even in the Rue Quincampoix 
itself, although some men gained more money than others, no one appeared to 
lose any thing. And all this seemed the work of one man, the great, the in- 
comparable " Jean Lass," as he was then called in Paris. It was a social dis- 
tinction to be able to say, " I have seen him !" His carriage could with dif- 
ficulty force its way through the rapturous, admiring crowd. Princes and 
nobles thronged his antechamber, a duchess publicly kissed his hand, and the 
regent made him controller-general of the finances. 

This madness lasted eight months. No one needs to be told what followed 
it how a chill first came over the feverish street, a vague apprehension, not 
confessed, but inspiring a certain wish to " realize." Dread word, REALIZE ! 
The tendency to realize was adroitly checked by Law, aided by operators who 
desired to " unload ;" but the unloading, once suspected, converted the realizing 
tendency into a wild, ungovernable rush, which speedily brought ruin to thou- 
sands, and long prostration upon France. John Law, who in December, 1719, 
was the idol of Paris, ready to perish of his celebrity, escaped with difficulty 
from the kingdom in December, 1 720, hated, despised, impoverished, to resume 
his career as elegant gambler in the drawing-rooms of Germany and Italy. 

As the " system " collapsed in France, it acquired vogue in England, where, 


also, it originated in the desire to get rid of the public debt by brilliant finance 
instead of the homely and troublesome method of paying it. In London, be- 
sides the original South Sea Company which began the frenzy, there were 
started in the course of a few months about two hundred joint-stock schemes, 
many of which, as given in Anderson's " History of Commerce," are of almost 
incredible absurdity. The sum called for by these projects was three hundred 
millions of pounds sterling, which was more than the value of all the land in 
Great Britain. Shares in Sir Richard Steele's "fish -pool for bringing fresh 
fish to London" brought one hundred and sixty pounds a share! Men paid 
seventy pounds each for " permits," which gave them merely the privilege of 
subscribing to a sail-cloth manufacturing company not yet formed. There 
was, indeed, a great trade in " permits " to subscribe to companies only plan- 
ned. Here are a few of the schemes: for raising hemp in Pennsylvania; 
" Puckle's machine gun ;" settling the Bahamas ; " wrecks to be fished for on 
the Irish coast;" horse and cattle insurance; "insurance and improvement of 
children's fortunes;" "insurance of losses by servants;" "insurance against 
theft and robbery;" insuring remittances; "to make salt-water fresh;" im- 
porting walnut-trees from Virginia ; improving the breed of horses ; purchas- 
ing forfeited estates; making oil from sunflowers; planting mulberry- trees 
and raising silk- worms; extracting silver from lead; making quicksilver mal- 
leable; capturing pirates; "for importing a number of large jackasses from 
Spain in order to propagate a larger kind of mules;" trading in human hair; 
" for fatting of hogs ;" " for the encouragement of the industrious ;" perpetual 
motion ; making pasteboard ; furnishing funerals. 

There was even a company formed and shares sold for carrying out an 
" undertaking which shall in due time be revealed." The word " puts," now 
so familiar in Wall Street, appears in these transactions of 1720. "Puts and 
refusals" were sold in vast amounts. The prices paid for shares during the 
half year of this mania were as remarkable as the schemes themselves. South 
Sea shares of a hundred pounds par value reached a thousand pounds. It was 
a poor share that did not sell at five times its original price. As in France, 
so in England, the long heads, like Sir Robert Walpole and Alexander Pope, 
began to think of " realizing " when they had gained a thousand per cent, or 
so upon their ventures ; and, in a very few days, realizing, in its turn, became 
a mania; and all those paper fortunes shrunk and crumpled into nothingness. 

So many caricatures of these events appeared in Amsterdam and London 
during the year 1720 that the collection in the British Museum, after the lapse 
of a hundred and fifty-five years, contains more than a hundred specimens. I 
have myself eighty, several of which include from six to twenty-four distinct 
designs. Like most of the caricatures of that period, they are of great size, 
and crowded with figures, each bearing its label of words, with a long explana- 
tion in verse or prose at the bottom of the sheet. As a rule, they are destitute 
of the point that can make a satirical picture interesting after the occasion is 



past. In one we see the interior of an Exchange filled with merchants running 
wildly about, each uttering words appropriate to the situation: "To-day I 
have gained ten thousand!" "Who has money to lend at two per cent.?" 
"A strait- jacket is what I shall want;" "Damned is this wind business." 
This picture, which originated in Amsterdam, is called "The Wind -buyers 
paid in Wind," and it contains at the bottom three columns of explanatory 
verse in Dutch, of which the following is the purport: f 

" Come, gentlemen, weavers, peasants, tailors ! Whoever has relied on 
wind for his profit can find his picture here. They rave like madmen. See 

")fte. redemetren, >vZ is -mis J(en vihcfde I,ctph iy Jc-^is . 

JOHN LAW, WIND MONOPOLIST. (Amsterdam, 1T'20.) 

'"Laic loquitur. The wind is my treasure, cushion, and foundation. Master of the wind, I am master of 
life, and my wind monopoly becomes straightway the object of idolatry. Less rapidly turn the sails of the 
windmill on my head than the price of shares in my foolish enterprises." 

the French, the English, the Hebrew, and Jack of Bremen ! Hear what a 
scream the absurd Dutch are making on the exchange of Europe ! There is 
Fortune throwing down some charming wishes to silly mortals, while virtue, 
art, and intellect are despised and impoverished in the land ; shops and count- 
ing-houses are empty ; trade is ruined. All this is QUINCAMPOIX !" 

The Dutch caricaturists recurred very often to the windy character of the 



share business. In several of their works we see a puffy wind-god blowing up 
pockets to a great size, inflating share-bags, and wafting swiftly along vehicles 
with spacious sails. The bellows play a conspicuous and not always decorous 
part. Jean Law is exhibited as a " wind monopolist." In one picture he ap- 
pears assisting Atlas and others to bear up great globes of wind. Kites are 
flying and windmills revolving in several pictures. Pigeons fly away with 
shares in their bills. The hunchback who served as a walking desk is repeated 
many times. The Tower of Babel, the mad-house, the hospital, the whirligig, 
a garden maze, the lottery wheel, the drum, the magic lantern, the soap-bubble, 
the bladder, dice, the swing whatever typifies pretense, uncertainty, or con- 
fusion was brought into the service. One Dutch broadsheet (sixteen inches 
by twenty), now before me, contains fifty-four finely executed designs, each of 
which burlesques a scene in Law's career, or a device of his finance, the whole 
making a pack of " wind cards for playing a game of wind." 

Most of the Dutch pictures were " adapted " into English, and the adapters 
added verses which, in some instances, were better than the caricatures. A 
few of the shorter specimens may be worth the space they occupy, and give 
the reader a feeling of the situation not otherwise attainable. Of the pictures 
scarcely one would either bear or reward reduction, so large are they, so 
crowded with objects, and their style uninterestingly obsolete or boorishly in- 

On Puckla's Machine Gun : 

"A rare invention to destroy the crowd 
Of fools at home instead of foes abroad. 
Fear not, my friends, this terrible machine 
They're only wounded that have shares therein." 

On the Saltpetre Company (two and sixpence a share) : 

"Buy petre stock, let me be your adviser; 
'Twill make you, though not richer, much the wiser." 

On the German Timber Company: 

"You that are rich and hasty to be poor, 
Buy timber export from the German shore ; 
For gallowses built up of foreign wood, 
If rightly used, will do Change Alley good." 

On the Pennsylvania Company : 

" Come all ye saints that would for little buy 
Great tracts of land, and care not where they lie ; 
Deal with your Quaking Friends ; they're men of light ; 
Their spirit hates deceit and scorns to bite." 

On the Ship-building Company: 

"To raise frgsh barks must surely be amusing, 
When hundreds rot in docks for want of using." 


On Settling the Bahamas : 

" Rare, fruitful isles, where not an ass can find 
A verdant tuft or thistle to his mind. 
How, then, must those poor silly asses fare- 
That leave their native land to. settle there?" 

On a South Sea Speculator imploring Alms through his Prison Bars r 

' ' Behold a poor dejected wretch, 

'Who kept a S Sea coach, of late> 

But now is glad to humbly catch 
A penny at the prison grate. 

"What ruined numbers daily mourn 

Their groundless hopes and follies past, 
Yet see not how the tables turn, 
Or where their money flies at last! 

"Fools lost when the directors won, 
But now the poor directors lose ; 

And where the S Sea stock will run, 

Old Nick, the first projector, knows." 

On a Picture of Change Alley : 

"Five hundred millions, notes and bonds, 

Our stocks are worth in value ; 
But neither lie in goods, or lands, 

Or money, let me tell ye. 
Yet though our foreign trade is lost, 

Of mighty wealth we vapor, 
When all the riches that we boast 

Consist in scraps of paper." 

On a " Permit :" 

"You that have money and have lost your wits, 
If you'd be poor, buy National Permits ; 
Their stock's in fish, the fish are still in water, 
And for your coin you may go fish hereafter." 

On a Roomful of Ladies buying Stocks of a Jew and a Gentile: 

" With Jews and Gentiles, undismayed, 

Young tender virgins mix ; 
Of whiskers nor of beards afraid, 
Nor all their cozening tricks. 

" Bright jewels, polished once to deck 

The fair one's rising breast, 
Or sparkle round her ivory neck, 
Lie pawned in iron chest. 

" The gentle passions of the mind 

How avarice controls ! 
E'en love does now no longer find 
A place in female souls." 


On a Picture of a Man laughing at an Ass browsing : 

"A wise man laughed to see an ass 
Eat thistles and neglect good grass. 
But had the sage beheld the folly 
Of late transacted in Change Alley, 
He might have seen worse asses there 
Give solid gold for empty air, 
And sell estates in hopes to double 
Their fortunes by some worthless bubble, 
Till of a sudden all was lost 
That had so many millions cost. 
Yet ruined fools are highly pleased 
To see the knaves that bit 'em squeezed, 
Forgetting where the money flies 
That cost so many tears and sighs." 

On the Silk Stocking Company : 

"Deal not in stocking shares, because, I doubt, 
Those that buy most will ere long go without." 



THESE Dutch-English pictures William Hogarth, we may be sore, often in- 
spected as they successively courted public notice in the shops of London, 
as we see in his early works a character evidently derived from them. Dur- 
ing the bubble period of 1720, he was an ambitious young engraver and sign- 
painter (at least willing to paint signs if a job offered),* much given to pencil- 
ing likenesses and strange attitudes upon his thumb-nail, to be transferred, on 
reaching home, to paper, and stored away for future use. He was one of those 
quick draughtsmen who will sketch you upon the spot a rough caricature of 
any odd person, group, or event that may have excited the mirth of the com- 
pany ; a young fellow somewhat undersized, with an alert, vigorous frame, a 
bright, speaking eye, a too quick tongue and temper, self-confident, but honest, 
sturdy, and downright in all his words and ways. " But I was a good pay- 
master even then" he once said, with just pride, after speaking of the days 
when he sometimes walked London streets without a shilling in his pocket. 

Hogherd was the original name of the family, which was first humanized 
into Hogert and Hogart, and then softened into its present form. In West- 
moreland, where Hogarth's grandfather cultivated a farm small, but his own 
the first syllable of the name was pronounced like that of the domestic ani- 
mals which his remote ancestors may have herded. There was a vein of tal- 
ent in the family, an uncle of Hogarth's having been the song-writer and satir- 
ist of his village, and his own father emerging from remote and most rustic 
Westmoreland to settle in London as a poor school-master and laborious, ill- 
requited compiler of school-books and proof-reader. A Latin dictionary of 
his making existed in manuscript after the death of the artist, and a Latin let- 
ter written by him is one of the curiosities in the British Museum. But he 
remained always a poor man, and could apprentice his boy only to an engraver 
of the lowest grade known to the art. But this sufficed for a lad who could 
scarcely touch paper with a pencil without betraying his gift, who drew capi- 
tal burlesques upon his nail when he was fifteen, and entertained Addison's 
coffee-house with a caricature of its landlord when he was twenty-two. 

The earliest work by this greatest English artist of his century, which has 

* " Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum," Division I., vol. ii., p. 5G6. 



been preserved in the British Museum (1720), shows the bent of his genius as 
plainly as the first sketch by Boz betrays the quality of Dickens. It is called 
" Design for a Shop-bill," and was probably Hogarth's own shop-bill, his adver- 
tisement to the public that he was able and willing to paint signs. In those 
days, the school-master not having yet gone " abroad," signs were usually pic- 
torial, and sometimes consisted of the popular representation of the saint hav- 


ing special charge of the business to be recommended. In Hogarth's shop-bill 
we see a tall man holding up a newly painted sign of St. Luke with his ox and 
book, at which a group of persons are looking, while Hogarth himself appears 
to be showing the sign to them as possible customers. Along the bottom of 
the sign is engraved W. HOGARTH, PAINTER. In the background is seen an 
artist painting at an easel and a boy grinding colors. He could not even in 


this first homely essay avoid giving his work something of a narrative charac-i.X' 
ter. He must exhibit a story with humorous details. So in his caricature of 
Daniel Button, drawn to ridicule the Tory frequenters of Button's coffee-house, 
he relates an incident as well as burlesques individuals. There stands Master 
Button in his professional apron, with powdered wig and frilled shirt; and op- 
posite to him a tall, seedy, stooping scholar or poet is storming at the landlord 
with clinched fists, because he will not let him have a oup of .coffee without the 
money. There is also the truly Hogarthian incident of a dog smelling suspi- 
ciously the poet's coat tail. Standing about the room are persons whom tra- 
dition reports to have been intended as portraits of Pope, Steele, Addison, 
Arbuthnot, and others of Button's famous customers. This drawing, executed 
with a brush, is also preserved in the British Museum. Daniel Button, as Dr. 
Johnson reports, had once been a servant in the family of the Countess of War- 
wick, and was placed in the coffee-house by Addison. A writer in the Spec- 
tator alludes to this haunt of the Tories: "I was a Tory at Button's and a 
Whig at Child's." 

The South Sea delusion drew from Hogarth his first engraved caricature. 
Among the Dutch engravings of 1720, called forth by the schemes of John 
Law, there was one in which the victims were represented in a merry-go- 
round, riding in revolving cars or upon wooden horses, the whole kept in 
motion by a horse ridden by the devil. The picture presents also the usual 
multitude of confusing details, such as the Dutch mad-house in the distance, 
with a long train of vehicles going toward it. In availing himself of this de- 
vice the young Londoner showed much of that skill in the arrangement of 
groups, and that fertility in the invention of details, which marked his later 
works. His whirligig revolves higher in the air than in the Dutch picture, 
enabling him to show his figures clear of the crowd below, and instead of the 

O O / 

devil on horseback giving the motion, he assigns that work more justly to the 
directors of the South Sea Company. Thus he has room and opportunity to 
impart a distinct character to most of his figures. We see perched aloft on 
the wooden horses about to be whirled around, a nobleman with his broad rib- 
bon, a shoe -black, an old woman, a wigged clergyman, and a woman of the 
town. With his usual uncompromising humor, Hogarth places these last two 
characters next to one another, and while the clergyman ogles the woman, she 
chucks him under the chin. There is a woi'ld of accessories: a devil exhaling 
fire, standing behind a counter and cutting pieces of flesh from the body of 
Fortune and casting them to a hustling crowd of Catholic, Puritan, and Jew ; 
Self -Interest breaking Honesty upon a wheel; a crowd of women rushing 
pell-mell into an edifice gabled with horns, and bearing the words, " Raffling 
for Husbands with Lottery Fortunes in here ;" Honor in the pillory flogged 
by Villainy ; an ape wearing a sword and cap. The scene chosen by the art- 
ist for these remarkable events is the open space in which the monument 
stands, then fresh and new, which commemorates the Great Fire; but he slyly 


changes the inscription thus: "This Monument was erected in Memory of the 
Destruction of this City by the South Sea in 1720." 

Hogarth, engraver and sign-painter though lie may have been, was all him- 
self in this amusing and effective piece. If the Dutch picture and Hogarth's 
could be placed here side by side, the reader would have before him an inter- 
esting example of the honest plagiarism of genius, which does not borrow gold 
and merely alter the stamp, but converts a piece of crude ore into a Toledo 
blade. Unfortunately, both pictures are too large and crowded to admit of 
effective reduction. 

In this, his first published work, the audacious artist availed himself of an 
expedient which heightened the effect of most of his later pictures. He intro- 
duced portraits of living persons. Conspicuous in the foreground of the Soutli 
Sea caricature, among other personages now unknown, is the diminutive figure 
of Alexander Pope, who was one of the few lucky speculators of the year 1720. 
At least, he withdrew in time to save half the sum which he once thought he 
had made. The gloating rake in the first picture of the " Harlot's Progress " 
is that typical reprobate of eighteenth-century romances, Colonel Francis Char- 
teris, upon whom Arbuthnot wrote the celebrated epitaph, which, it is to be 
hoped, is itself a caricature : 

"Here continueth to rot 


who, with an INFLEXIBLE CONSTANCY and 


in spite of AGE and INFIRMITIES, 

in the practice of EVERY HUMAN VICE, 


His insatiable AVARICE exempted him from the first ; 

his matchless IMPUDENCE from the second. 

Oh, indignant, reader ! 

think not his life useless to mankind ; 

Providence connived at his execrable designs 

to give to after-ages a conspicuous 

proof and example 

of how small estimation is EXORBITANT WEALTH 

in the sight of GOD, by His bestowing it on 


Hogarth was as much a humorist in his life as he was in his works. The 
invitation to Mr. King to eta beta py, given on the next page, was one of many 
similar sportive efforts of his pencil. He once boasted that he could draw a 
sergeant carrying his pike, entering an ale-house, followed by his dog, all in 
three strokes. He produced the following, also given on next page : 

He explained the drawing thus: A is the perspective line of the door; B, 
the end of the sergeant's pike, who has gone in ; C, the end of the dog's tail. 




Nor was he too nice in his choice 
of subjects for way -side treatment. 
One of his fellow-apprentices used to 
relate an anecdote of the time when 
they were accustomed to 
make the usual Sunday ex- 
cursion into the country, 
Hogarth being fifteen years 
of age. In a tap-room row 
a man received a severe cut 
upon the forehead with a 

quart beer-pot, which brought blood, and caused him to " distort his 
features into a most hideous grin." Hogarth produced his pencil 
and instantly drew a caricature of the scene, including a most ludi- 
crous and striking likeness of the wounded man. There was of ne- 
cessity a good deal of tap-room in all humorous art and literature of 
that century, and he was perfectly at home in scenes of a beery cast. 

The "Five Days' Peregrination " of Hogarth and his friends, of which 
Thackeray discoursed to us so agreeably in one of his lectures, occurred when 
the artist was thirty-four years of age. . But it shows us the same jovial Lon- 
doner, whose manners and pleasures, as Mr. Thackeray remarked, though hon- 
est and innocent, were " not very refined." Five friends set out on foot early 
in the morning from their tavern haunt in Covent Garden, gayly singing the 
old song, "Why should we quarrel for riches?" Billingsgate was their first 
halting-place, where, as the appointed historian of the jaunt records, "Hogarth 
made the caricature of a porter, who called himself the Duke of Puddle Dock," 
which " drawing was by his grace pasted on the cellar door." At Rochester, 
" Hogarth and Scott stopped and played at hop-scotch in the colonnade under 
the Town-hall." The Nag's Head at the village of Stock sheltered them one 
night, when, after supper, "we adjourned to the door, drank punch, stood and 
sat for our pictures drawn by Hogarth." In another village the merry blades 
" got a wooden chair, and placed Hogarth in it in the street, where he made 
the drawing, and gathered a great many men, women, and children about him 
to see his performance." The same evening, over their flip, they were enter- 
taining the tap-room with their best songs, when some Harwich lobster-men 
came in and sung several sea- songs so agreeably that the Londoners were 
" quite put out of countenance." " Our St. John," records the scribe of the 
adventure, " would not come in competition, nor could PishoJcen save us from 
disgrace." Here, too, is a Hogarthian incident : " Hogarth called me up and 
told me the good-woman insisted on being paid for her bed, or having Scott 
before the mayor, which last we did all in our power to promote" And so 
they merrily tramped the country round, singing, drawing, copying comic 
epitaphs, and pelting one another with dirt, returning to London at the end 



of the five days, having expended just six guineas five shillings a day each 

His sense of humor appears in his serious writings. One illustration which 
he gives in his "Analysis of Beauty," to show the essential and exhaustless 
charm of the waving line, is in the highest degree comic: "I once heard an 
eminent dancing-master say that the minuet had been the study of his whole 
life, and that he had been indefatigable in the pursuit of its beauties, yet at 

As StaiucsinoddcrintoWurfli J? S/ 


last could only say, with Socrates, Tie knew nothing, adding that I was happy 
in my profession as a painter, in that some bounds might be set to the study 
of it." 

In his long warfare with the picture-dealers, who starved living art in En- 
gland by the manufacture of " old masters," he employed ridicule and carica- 
ture with powerful effect. His masterly caricature of " Time smoking a Pict- 
ure " was well seconded by humorous letters to the press, and by many a pass- 


ing hit in his more elaborate writings. He maintained that a painting is never 
so good as at the moment it leaves the artist's hands, time having no possible 
effect upon it except to impair its beauty and diminish its truth. There was 
penned at this period a burlesque "Bill of Monsieur Varnish to Benjamin Bis- 
ter," which is certainly Hogarthian, if it is not Hogarth's, and might well serve 
as a companion piece to the engraving. Among the items are these : 

s. d. 
To painting and canvas for a naked Mary Magdalen, in the undoubted style of 

Paul Veronese 220 

To brimstone, for smoking ditto f 2 G 

Paid Mrs. W for a live model to sit for Diana bathing, by Tintoretto 16 

Paid for 'he hire of a layman, to copy the robes of a Cardinal, for a V indyck... 050 
Paid the ."emale figure for sitting thirty minutes in a wet sheet! thai I might 

give the dry manner of that master 10 6 

The Tribute- money Rendered, with all the exactness of Quintin Metsius, the 

famed blacksmith of Antwerp 2 12 6 

The Martyrdom of St. Winifred, with a view of Holy well Bath, by old Frank. .Ill 6 
To a large allegorical altarpiece, consisting of men and angels, horses and river 

gods; 'tis thought most happily hit off for a Rubens 550 

Paid for admission into the House of Peers, to take a sketch of a great charac- 
ter, for a picture of Moses breaking the Tables of the Law, in the darkest 
manner of Rembrandt, not yet finished 026 

The idea of a wet sheet imparting the effect of dryness was taken from a 
treatise on painting, which stated that " some of the ancient masters acquired 
a dry manner of painting from studying after wet drapery." 

This robust and downright Briton, strong in the consciousness of original 
and native genius, did not object merely to the manufacture of old masters, 
but also to the excessive value placed upon the genuine productions of the 
great men of old. He could not feel it to be just or favorable to the progress 
of art that works representing a state of feeling long ago outgrown in England 
should take precedence of paintings instinct with the life of the present hour. 
In other words, he did not enjoy seeing one of his own paintings sell at auc- 
tion for fourteen guineas, and an Old Master bring a thousand. He grew 
warm when he denounced "the picture - jobbers from abroad," who import- 
ed continually "ship-loads of dead Christs, Holy Families, Madonnas, and oth- 
er dismal, dark subjects, neither entertaining nor ornamental, on which they 
scrawl the terrible cramp names of some Italian masters, and fix upon us En- 
glishmen the name of universal dupes." He imagines a scene between one of 
those old-master mongers and his customer. The victim says : 

" ' Mr. Bubbleman, that grand Venus, as you are pleased to call it, has not 
beauty enough for the character of an English cook-maid.' Upon which the 
quack answers, with a confident air : ' Sir, I find that you are no connoisseur; 
the picture, I assure you, is in Alesso Baldminetto's second and best manner, 
boldly painted, and truly sublime: the contour gracious; the air of the head 
in high Greek taste ; and a most divine idea it is.' Then spitting in an ob- 


scure place, and rubbing it with a dirty handkerchief, takes a skip to t'other 
end of the room, and screams out in raptures, ' There's an amazing touch ! A 
man should have this picture a twelvemonth in his collection before he can 
discover half its beauties !' The gentleman (though nativrally a judge of what 
is beautiful, yet ashamed to be out of the fashion by judging for himself) 






n, i^i^r <J? rr l/u^u^u 

efori J&) to fie, ti,6&y.-?d*frt, 


with this cant is struck dumb, gives a vast sum for the picture, very modestly 
confesses he is indeed quite ignorant of painting, and bestows a frame worth 
fifty pounds on a frightful thing, which, without the hard name, is not worth 
so many farthings." 

He gives picture-buyers a piece of advice which many of them have since 

* " Hogarth's Works," frontispiece to vol. iii., by Ireland and Nichols. 


taken, to the sore distress of their guests : Use your own eyes, and buy the 
pictures which they dwell upon with delight. 

In the heat of controversy, Hogarth, as usual, went too far ; but he stood 
manfully by his order, and defended resolutely their rights and his own. Art- 
ists owe him undying gratitude for two great services : he showed them a way 
to independence by setting up in business on his own account, becoming his 
own engraver and publisher, and retaining always the ownership of his own 
plates, which, indeed, constituted his estate, and supported creditably his fam- 
ily as long as any of them lived. He served all artists, too, by defending him- 
self against the pirates who flooded the market with meanly executed copies 
of his own engravings. It was William Hogarth who obtained from Parlia- 
ment the first act which secured to artists the sole right to multiply and sell 
copies of their works; and this right is the very corner-stone of a great na- 
tional painter's independence. That act made genuine art a possible profes- 
sion in England. 

Such was Hogarth, the original artist of his country, an honest, valiant citi- 
zen, who stood his ground, paid his way, cheered and admonished his genera- 
tion. He had the faults which belong to a positive character, trod on many 
toes, was often misunderstood, and had his ample share of trouble and conten- 
tion. All that is now forgotten; and. he was never so much valued, so fre- 
quently reproduced, so generally possessed, or so qarefully studied as at the 
present time. 

The generation that forms great satirists shines in the history of literature, 
but not in that of morals ; for to supply with objects of satire such masters 
of the satiric arts as Hogarth, Swift, Pope, Gay, Steele, Arbuthnot, and Foote, 
there must be deep corruption in the State and radical folly in conspicuous 
persons. The process which has since been named " secularization " had then 
fairly set in. The brilliant men of the time had learned to deride the faith 
which had been a restraining force upon the propensities of man for fifteen 
centuries, but were very far from having learned to be continent, temperate, 
and just without its aid. "Four treatises against the miracles" Voltaire 
boasted of having seen during his residence in England in 1*727 and 1728; but 
these treatises did not moderate the warmth of human passions, nor change 
any other element in the difficult problem of existence. Walpole bribed, Swift 
maligned, Bolingbroke intrigued, Charteris seduced, and Marlborough pecu- 
lated just as if the New Light had not dawned and the miracles had remained 
intact. Do we not, even in our own time, see inquiring youth, bred in strait- 
laced homes, assuming that since there are now two opinions as to the origin 
of things, it is no longer necessary to comply with the moral laws? The 
splendid personages of that period seem to have been in a moral condition 
similar to that of such a youth. It was the fashion to be dissolute ; it was 
"provincial" to obey those laws of our being from compliance with which all 
human welfare and all honest joy have come. 




Politics were still most rudimentary. The English people were fully re- 
solved on keeping out the dull and 
deadly Stuarts ; but the price they 
had to pay for this was to submit 
to the rule of the dull and difficult 
Georges, whose bodies were in 
England and their hearts in Han- 
over. Between the king and the 
people stood Sir Robert Walpole 
as good a man as could have 
held the place who went direct- 
ly to the point with members and 
writers, ascertained their price, and 
paid it. According to one of 
Pope's bitter notes on the "Dun- 
ciad," where he quotes a Parlia- 
mentary report, this minister in ten years paid to writers and publishers of 
newspapers " fifty thousand pounds eighteen shillings !" How much he paid 
to members of Parliament was a secret known only to himself and the king. 
The venality of the press was frequently burlesqued, as well as the fulsome 
pomp of its purchased eulogies. A very good specimen is that which ap- 
peared in 1735, during a ministerial crisis, when the opposition had high hopes 
of ousting the tenacious Walpoles. An "Advertisement" was published, in 
which was offered for sale a " neat and curious collection of well-chosen sim- 
iles, allusions, metaphors, and allegories from the best plays and romances, 
modern and ancient, proper to adorn a panegyric on the glorious patriots de- 
signed to succeed the present ministry." The author gave notice that "all 
sublunary metaphors of a new minister, being a Rock, a Pillar, a Bulwark, a 
Strong Tower, or a Spire Steeple, will be allowed very cheap ;" but celestial 
ones, being brought from 
the other world at a great 
expense, must be held at a 
higher rate. The author an- 
nounced that he had pre- 
pared a collection of State 
satires, which would serve, 
with little variation, to libel 
a judge, a bishop, or a prime 
minister. "N.B. The same 
satirist has collections of rea- 
sons ready by him against DDTOU NjUiBA ""- 1745 - 
the ensuing peace, though he has not yet read the preliminaries or seen one 
article of the pacification." 



There was also a burlesque " Bill of Costs for a late Tory Election in the 
West," in which we find such items as " bespeaking and collecting a mob," 
" a set of No-Roundhead roarers," " a set of coffee-house praters," " Dissenter 
clamners," "demolishing two houses," " committing two riots," " breaking win- 
dows," " roarers of the word CHURCH," " several gallons of Tory punch on 
church tombstones." It is questionable, however, if in all the burlesques of 
the period there was one more ridiculous than the narrative of an actual oc- 
currence in April, 1715, when the footmen of members of the House of Com- 
mons met outside of the House, according to established custom, to elect a 
Speaker. The Tory footmen cast their votes for " Sir Thomas Morgan's serv- 
ant," and the Whigs for " Mr. Strickland's man." A dispute arising, a fight 
ensued between the two parties, in the midst of which the House broke up, 
and the footmen were obliged to attend their masters. The next day, as soon 
as the House was in session, the fight was renewed, and, after a desperate 
struggle, the victorious Whigs carried their man three times in triumph round 
Westminster Hall, and then adjourned to a Whig ale-house, the landlord of 
which gave them a dinner, the footmen paying only for their drink. 

The caricatures of the Walpole period preserve the record of the first at- 
tempt to lessen by law the in- 
temperate drinking of gin 
the most pernicious of the 
spirituous liquors. A law 
was passed imposing upon 
this article a very heavy ex- 
cise, and prohibiting its sale 
in small quantities. But in 
1736 England had not reach- 
ed, by a century and a half, 
the development of civiliza- 
tion which admits of the ade- 
quate consideration of such a 
measure ; nor can the poor 
man's gin ever be limited by 
law while the rich man's wine 
flows free. This gin law ap- 
pears to have been killed by 
ridicule. Ballads lamenting the near decease of " Mother Gin " were sung in 
the streets; the gin-shop signs were hung with black, and there were mock 
ceremonies of " Madame Geneva's Lying in State," " Mother Gin's Wake," and 
"Madame Gin's Funeral." Paragraphs notified the public that the funeral of 
Madame Gin was celebrated with great merriment, many of both sexes "get- 
ting soundly drunk," and a mob following her remains with torches. The 
night before the measure went into operation was one of universal revel among 


" Ra, ra, rr, rot ye, 
My name is Mingotti. 
If you worship me iiotti, 
You shall all go to potti." 



the gin-drinkers, and every one, we are assured, carried off as much of the pop- 
ular liquor, for future consumption, as he could pay for. The law was evaded 
by the expedients long afterward employed in Maine, when first a serious at- 
tempt was made to enforce the " Maine Law." Apothecaries and others col- 
ored their gin, put it into phials, and labeled it " Colic Water," " Make-shift," 
"The Ladies' Delight," with printed "Directions" to take two or three spoon- 
fuls three or four times a day, " or as often as the fit takes you." Informers 
sprung into an importance never before known, and many of them invented 
snares to decoy men into violations of the law. So odious did they become 
that if one of them fell into the hands of the mob, he was lucky to escape 
with only a ducking in the Thames or a horse-trough. In short, the attempt 
was ill-considered and premature, and after an experiment of two or three 


years it was given up, having contributed something toward the growing un- 
popularity of the ministry. 

The downfall of Sir Robert Walpole, after holding office for twenty years, 
was preceded by an animated fire of caricature, in which the adherents of Wal- 
pole held their own. The specimen given above, entitled " The Motion," was 
reduced from one of the most famous caricatures of the reign of George II., 
and one of the most finely wrought of the century.* Horace Walpole, son of 
the great minister, wrote from Florence that the picture had " diverted him ex- 
tremely," and that the likenesses were " admirable." To us the picture says 
nothing until it is explained; but every London apprentice of the period rec- 
ognized Whitehall and the Treasury, toward which the Opposition was driving 
with such furious haste, and could distinguish most of the personages exhib- 
ited. A few days before this caricature appeared, Sandys, who was styled the 
motion-maker, from the frequency of his attempts to array the House of Com- 

* Thomas Wright, "Caricature History of the Georges," p. 128. 


mons against the Walpole ministry, moved once more an address to the king, 
that he would be pleased to remove Sir Robert Walpole from his presence and 
councils forever. The debate upon this motion was long and most vehement, 
and though the ministry triumphed, it was one of those bloody victories which 
presage overthrow. On the same day a similar " motion " was made in the 
House of Lords by Lord Carteret, where an equally violent discussion was fol- 
lowed by a vote sustaining the ministry. The exultati6n of the Walpole party 
inspired this famous caricature, in which we see the Opposition peers trying to 
reach office in a lordly coach and six, and the Commons trudging toward the 
same goal on foot, their leader, Pulteney, wheeling a load of Opposition news- 
papers, and leading his followers by the nose. Every politician of note on the 
side of the Opposition is in the picture : Lord Chesterfield is the postilion ; the 
Duke of Argyll the coachman; Lord Carteret the gentleman inside the coach, 
who, becoming conscious of the breakdown, cries, " Let me get out !" Bubb 
Dodington is the spaniel between the coachman's legs; the footman behind 
the coach is Lord Cobham, and the outrider Lord Lyttelton. On the side of 
the Commons there is Sandys, dropping in despair his favorite, often-defeated 
" Place Bill," and exclaiming, " I thought what would come of putting him on 
the box?" Much of the humor and point of the picture is lost to us, because 
the peculiar relations of the persons portrayed to the public, to their party, and 
to one another can not now be perfectly recalled. 

Edition after edition of "The Motion" appeared, one of which was so ar- 
ranged that it could be fitted to the frame of a lady's fan, a common device 
at the time. The Opposition retorted with a parody of the picture, whicu 
they styled "The Reason," in which Walpole figures as the coachman, driving 
the coach of state to destruction. Another parody was called " The Motive," 
in which the king was the passenger and Walpole the driver. Then followed 
"A Consequence of the Motion," "Motion upon Motion," "The Grounds," and 
others. The Walpole party surpassed their opponents in caricature ; but cari- 
cature is powerless to turn back a genuine tide of public feeling, and a year 
later Sir Robert was honorably shelved in the House of Lords. 

From this time forward the history of Europe is recorded or burlesqued 
in the comic pictures of the shop- window; not merely the conspicuous part 
played in it by ministers and kings, but the foibles, the fashions, the passions, 
the vices, the credulities, the whims, of each generation. The British rage for 
the Italian opera, the enormous sums paid to the singers, the bearish manners 
of Handel, the mania for gaming, the audacity of highwaymen, and the impo- 
sitions upon popular credulity no more escape the satirist's pencil than Brad- 
dock's defeat, the Queen of Hungary's loss of Silesia, or William Pitt's timely, 
and also his ill-timed, fits of the gout. Nor were the abuses of the Church 
overlooked. One picture, entitled "The Fat Pluralist and his Lean Curates," 
published in 1733, exhibited a corpulent dignitary of the Church in a chariot 
drawn by six meagre and wretched curates. The portly priest carries under 




one arm a large church, and a cathedral under the other, while at his feet are 
two sucking pigs, a hen, and a goose, which he has taken as tithe from a farm- 
yard in the distance. " The Church," says the pluralist, " was made for me, 
not I for the Church ;" and under the wheels of the coach is a book marked 
"The Thirty-nine Articles." One starving curate cries, piteously, " Lord, be 
merciful to us poor curates!" to which another responds, "And send us more 
comfortable livings !" It required a century of satire and remonstrance to get 
that one monstrous abuse of the Church Ring reduced to proportions ap- 
proaching decency. Corruption in the city of New York in the darkest days 

ANTIQUARIES PUZZLKD. (Loudou, 17&ti.) 

of Tweed was less universal, less systematic, less remote from remedy, than 
that of the Government of Great Britain under the least incapable of its four 
Georges. It was merely rnoi-e decorous. 

A specimen of the harmless, good-humored satire aimed at the zealous an- 
tiquaries of the last century is given above. This picture may have suggested 
to Mr. Dickens the familiar scene in "Pickwick" where the roving members 
of the Pickwick Club discover the stone commemorative of Bill Stumps. The 
mysterious inscription in the picture is, "Beneath this stone reposeth Claud 
Coster, tripe-seller of Impington, as doth his consort Jane." 



IT is part of the office of caricature to assist in destroying illusions that have 
served their turn and become obstructive. As in Luther's time it gave 
important aid to the refoi-mers in breaking the spell of the papacy, so now, 
when kingship broke down in Europe, the satiric pencil had much to do with 
tearing away the veil of fiction which had so long concealed the impotence of 
kings for nearly every thing but mischief. 

The fatal objection to the hereditary principle in the government of nations 


Explanation by Dr. Franklin : " The Colonies (that is, Britannia's limbs) being severed from her, Briuin- 
nia is seen lifting her eyes and mangled stumps to heaven ; her shield, which she is unable to wield, lies 
useless by her side ; her lance has pierced New England ; the laurel branch has fallen from the hand of 
Pennsylvania; the English oak has lost its head, and stands a bare trunk, with a few withered branches: 
briers and thorns are on the ground beneath it; the British ships have brooms at their topmast heads, de- 
noting their being on sale; and Britannia herself is seen sliding off the world (no longer able to hold its 
balauce), her fragments overspread with the label, Date obolum Bellisario" (Give a farthing to Belisarius). 

is the importance which, to use Mr. Jefferson's words, it " heaps upon idiots." 
Idiot is a harsh word to apply to a person so well disposed as George III., 
King of England, to whom the violence of the Revolutionary period was chief- 
ly due ; but when we think of the evil and suffering from which Europe could 


have been saved if he had known a little more or been a little less, we can not 
be surprised that contemporaries should have summed him up with disrespect- 
ful brevity. But for him, so far as short-sighted mortals can discern, the pe- 
riod of bloody revolution could have been a period of peaceful reform. After 
exasperating his subjects nearly to the point of rebellion, he precipitated the 
independence of the American colonies, which, in turn, brought on the French 
Revolution, and that issued in Napoleon Bonaparte, whose sins France only 
finished expiating at Sedan. 

It is true, there must have been in Great Britain myriads upon myriads of 
such heads as that of King George to make his policy possible. But suppose 
that, instead of placing himself at the head of the dull minds in his empire, 
he had given the prestige of the crown to the bright' and independent souls! 
Suppose he had taken as kindly to Chatham, Burke, Fox, Franklin, Price, 
Priestley, and Barre as he did to Bute, Dr. Johnson, Addington, and Eldon ! 

And see how this heir to the first throne in Christendom was educated. 
That period has been so laid bare by diaries and correspondence that we can 
visit the orphan boy in his home at Carlton House, and listen to his mother, 
the widowed Princess of Wales, as she describes his traits and laments the 
defects of his training. Go back to the year 1752, and imagine a drawing- 
room in a royal residence. The dinner hour then had only got as far toward 
"to-morrow" as three in the afternoon, and therefore by early candle-light of 
an October evening the drawing-room may be supposed to be inhabited. The 
Princess of Wales, born a princess of a petty German sovereignty, still a young 
mother, is dressed in mourning, her husband being but a few months dead. 
Of the duties belonging to royalty she had no ideas except those which had 
prevailed from time immemorial at the court of absolute German sovereigns. 
Her chief care was to preserve the morals of her children, and to have her 
eldest son a king in reality as well as in name. " Be king " (/Sois roi) were 
favorite words with her, often repeated in the hearing cf the heir to the throne. 
She thought it infamy in a king to allow himself to be ruled by ministers. 
There is no reason to doubt that she was an honorable lady and affectionate 
mother. Horace Walpole's insinuation that she instilled virtuous principles 
into the mind of her son because she " feared a mistress," and that her inti- 
macy with Lord Bute was a criminal intrigue, dishonors Horace Walpole and 
human nature, but not the mother of George III. 

She has company this evening Bubb Dodington, a gentleman of great 
wealth and agreeable manners, who controlled six votes in the House of Com- 
mons, and passed his life in scheming to buy a peerage with them, in which, 
a year before his death, he succeeded, but left no heir to inherit it. He was 
much in the confidence of the princess, and she had sent for him to " spend the 
day" with her. Dinner is over, the two ladies-in-waiting are present, and now 
the " children " enter to play a few games of cards with their mother before- 
going to bed. The children are seven in number, of whom the eldest was 


George, Prince of Wales a boy of fourteen, of fresh complexion, sturdy and 
stout in form, and a countenance open and agreeable, and wearing an expres- 
sion of honesty. Human nature rarely assumes a more pleasing form than 
that of a healthy, innocent English boy of fourteen. He was such a boy as 
you may still see in the play -grounds of Eton, only he was heavier, slower, 
and ruddier than the average, and much more shy in company. He loved his 
horse, and was exceedingly fond of rural sports ; but when lesson-time came 
but let his mother speak on that point. 

The old game of "comet" was the one which the lad usually preferred. 
The company play at comet for small stakes, until the clock strikes nine, when 
"the royal children "go to bed. Then the mother leaves her ladies, and with- 
draws with her guest to the other end of the room, where she indulges in a 
long, gossipy, confidential chat upon the subject nearest her heart her son, the 
presumptive heir to the throne. To show the reader how she used to talk to 
confidants on such occasions, I will glean a few sentences from her conversa- 
tions : 

" I like that the prince should amuse himself now and then at small play ; 
but princes should never play deep, both for the example, and because it does 
not become them to win great sums. George's real disposition, do you ask? 
You know him almost as well as I do. He is very honest, but I wish he was 
a little more forward and less childish at his age. I hope his preceptors will 
improve him. I really do not know what they are teaching him, but, to speak 
freely, I am afraid not much. They are in the country, and follow their diver- 
sions, and not much else that I 'can discover." 

Dodington remarked upon this that, for his part, he did not much regard 
books; what he most wished was that the prince should begin to acquire 
knowledge of the world, and be informed of the general frame and nature of 
the British Government and Constitution, and, without going into minutiae, 
get some insight into the manner of doing public business. 

" I am of your opinion," said the princess ; " and his tutor, Stone, tells me 
that when he talks with him on those subjects, he seems to give proper atten- 
tion, and makes pertinent remarks. I stick to the learning as the chief point. 
You know how backward the children were, and I am sure you do not think 
them much improved since. It may be that it is not too late to acquire a com- 
petence. I am highly sensible how necessary it is that the prince should keep 
company with men. I know that women can not inform him ; but if his edu- 
cation was in my power absolutely, to whom could I address him ? "What 
company can I wish him to keep ? What friendships can I desire him to con- 
tract ? Such is the universal profligacy, such is the character and conduct of 
the young people of distinction, that I am really afraid to have them near my 
children. I shall even be in more pain for my daughters than I am for my 
sons, for the behavior of the women is indecent, low, and much against their 
own interest by making themselves so very cheap." 


Three years passed. The prince was seventeen. Still the anxious mother 
deplored the neglect of his education. 

"His book-learning," said she to the same friend, "I am no judge of, 
though I suppose it is small or useless ; but I did hope he might have been in- 
structed in the general understanding of things. I once desired Mr. Stone to 
inform the prince about the Constitution; but he declined it to avoid giving 
jealousy to the Bishop of Norwich (official educator). I mentioned it again, 
but he still declined it as not being his province." 

" Pray, madam," asked Dodington, " what is his province ?" 

" I don't know, unless it is to go before the prince up-stairs, to walk with 
him sometimes, seldomer to ride with him, and now and then to dine with 
him. But when they do walk together, the prince generally takes that time 
to think of his own affairs and say nothing." 

The youth was, indeed, extremely indolent and stupid. At school he would 
have been simply called a dunce, for at eleven he could not read English with 
any fluency, and he could never have been induced to apply his mind to study 
except by violence. He never had the slightest notion of what Chatham, 
Burke, or Fox meant when they spoke of the Constitution. If Mr. Stone had 
not been in dread of invading the Bishop of Norwich's province, and if the 
bishop had not been a verbose and wearisome formalist, their united powers 
could not have shown this young man the unique and prodigious happiness of 
a constitutional king in governing through responsible ministers. His "gov- 
ernor " during the last few years of his minority was Lord Waldegrave, whose 
too brief memoirs confirm the excellent report which contemporaries give of 
his mind and character. Lord Waldegrave could make nothing of him. 
Speaking of the prince at nineteen, he says he was ".uncommonly full of prince- 
ly prejudices, contracted in the nursery and improved by the society of bed- 
chamber women and pages of the back-stairs." He found the heavy youth an 
insufferable bore, and he was soon, as his relation, Horace Walpole, relates, 
"thoroughly fatigued with the insipidity of his pupil." The prince derived 
from his education only two ideas, one very good and the other very bad. 
The first was that he must be a Good Boy and not keep a mistress; the sec- 
ond was that he must be a king indeed. 

An indolent and ignorant monarch who will not govern by ministers must 
govern by favorites. He has no other alternative but abdication. A favorite 
was at hand in the person of a poor Scotch lord who had married one of the 
richest heiresses in Europe, the daughter of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and 
her miserly husband. He had also, if we may believe Lord Waldegrave, " a 
good person, fine legs, and a theatrical air of the greatest importance." He 
was likewise fond of medals, engravings, and flowers ; he pensioned Dr. John- 
son and the dramatist Home; he really enjoyed some products of art, and was 
far from being either the execrable or the ridiculous personage which he was 
esteemed by men whom he kept from place. "Bute," said Prince Frederick, 


father of George III., " you would make an excellent embassador in a small, 
proud little court where there is nothing to do." He would have arranged the 
ceremonials, superintended the plays, been gracious to artists and musicians, 
smiled benignantly upon the court poet, bored the reigning prince, enchant- 
ed the reigning princess, amused her children, and ripened into a courtly and 
garrulous old Polonius, " full of wise saws and modern instances." Above all, 
he would have upheld the prerogative of the prince with stanch sincerity. 
Sois roi! 

There is something in the Scotch character that causes it to relish royal pre- 
rogative. To this hour there are in Scotland families that cherish a kind of 
sentimental attachment to the memory of the Stuarts ; and we find Scotchmen 
as eminent as Hume, Carlyle, Lockhart, Scott, Wilson men of distinguished 
liberality in some provinces of thought unable to widen out into liberal poli- 
tics. Bute was a lord as well as a Scotchman, not as ignorant nor as vulgar as 
lords in that generation usually were, but still subject to the lowering influ- 
ences that always beset a privileged order; predisposed, too, by temperament 
to the worship of the picturesque, and now the cherished sharer of the shy, 
proud, gloomy seclusion of the family upon which, the hopes of an empire were 
fixed. He showed them medals and pictures, he discoursed of music and ar- 
chitecture two of his most pronounced taster and he nourished every 
princely prejudice which a wise tutor would have striven to eradicate. 

This unfortunate youth, dull offspring of the stimulated lust of ages, was an 
apt pupil in the Jacobin theory of kingly authority. He was caught one day 
reading the book written at the instance of the dethroned James II. to justify 
his arbitrary policy; and there were so many other signs of the heir to a con- 
stitutional throne being educated in unconstitutional principles that Horace 
Walpole drew up a formal remonstrance against it in the name of the Whig 
families. This document, which was privately circulated, produced no effect. 
Sois roi! That remained the ruling thought in the mind of this ignorant, 
proud, moral young man, about to fill a place which conferred more obstructive 
power than any other in the world. If he had only been dissolute in that 
most dissolute age, he could have been ruled through his vices; but being 
strictly moral and temperate, he was, alas ! always himself; and he had at his 
back the great voiceless multitude, who know by instinct that morality is the 
first interest of civilized human nature, and who honor it supremely even in 
this crude, rudimentary form. " Your dad is safe on his throne," said some 
boon companion of George IV., " as long as he is faithful to that ugly old wom- 
an, your mother." And wise old Franklin said, " If George III. had had a bad 
private character and John Wilkes a good one, he might have turned the king 
out of his dominions." Such is the mighty power of the mere indispensable 
rudiments of virtue, its mere preliminary corporeal conditions. A chaste and 
temperate fool will carry the day nine times in ten over profligate genius. 

Riding in the park on an October day in 1760, a messenger delivered to 



the prince a note from the valet de chambre of his grandfather, George H. 
The prince had coolly arranged with this valet, while yet the king seemed firm 
in health, that at the moment of the old man's death he should send him a 
note bearing a certain mark on the outside. The king, a vigorous old man of 
seventy-seven, fell dead in his closet at seven in the morning, and this note 
bore the preconcerted announcement of the fact. The moral and steady young 
man, quietly remarking to his groom that his horse was lame, turned about 
and gently rode back to Kew. Upon dismounting he said to the man, " I 
have said this horse is lame; I forbid you to say the contrary." At twenty- 
two years of age he was king. Except that he married, a few months after, a 
pliant, adoring German princess, his accession did not much change his mode 
of life. He still lived in strict seclusion, shut in against expanding influences, 
accessible at all times only to one man him of the good legs and Jacobin 
mind, Bute, progenitor of the Pope's recent conquest, and Mr. Disraeli's hero, 

In the caricatures of the next fifty years we see the ghastly results. His 

LOED BUTE, 1768. 




first important act was to repel from his counsels humiliating superiority in 
the person of William Pitt, the darling of the nation, the first minister of the 
world, and one of the three great orators of all time. In his stead ruled a long 
monotony of servile incompetents, beginning with Bute himself, continuing 
with Grenville, and coming at last to Addington and Eldon, the king keeping 
far from his confidence every man in England who had a gleam of public 
sense, or a touch of independent spirit, or even a sound traditionary attach- 
ment to Whig principles. An immovable obstructive to the true interest of 
his country at every crisis, honoring the men whom the better sense of the 
nation did not honor, and repressing the men whom wise contemporaries loved, 
and whom posterity with unanimous voice pronounces the glory of England in 
that age, he kept the country in bad humor during most of his reign, put her 
wrong on every question of universal interest, lost the most valuable and affec- 
tionate colonies a country ever had, kept Europe in a broil for twenty -five 



years, and developed Napoleon Bonaparte into a destructive lunatic by cre- 
ating for him a succession of opportunities for the display of his talent for 
beating armies which had no generals. 

A large proportion of the very caricatures of the period have something 
savage in them. A visitor to the library of the British Museum curious in 
such matters is shown ten huge folio scrap-books full of caricatures relating to 
this reign, most of them of great size and blazing with color. From a gentle- 
man who recently inspected these volumes we learn some particulars showing 
the bad temper, bad manners, and bad morals of that time, all three aggravated 
by a king whose morals were excellent. One of the first to catch the eye of an 
American is a picture, of date about 1765, called "A New Method of Maca- 
rony-making, as practiced in Boston, North America," which represents two 
men tarring and feathering another, who has a halter round his neck. Of the 
pictures reflecting upon 
Lord Bute and the 
Princess of Wales noth- 
ing need be said except 
that they are such as 
might be expected from 
the caricaturists of that 
age. Many of the works 
of Gillray in the earlier 
years of George HI. 
were of such coarse- 
ness, extravagance, and 
brutality that the exhi- 
bition of them nowa- 
days would subject the 
vender to a prosecution 
by the Society for the 
Suppression of Vice. Our informant adds: "Their savageness and filth give 
one a very curious idea of the taste of our grandfathers and our great-grand- 
fathers, only our ancestors, male and female, could hardly have been as bad 
as they are represented. Such hideous faces, such deformed figures, such 
monstrous distortion and debasement, such general ugliness and sensuality, op- 
press one with a feeling of melancholy rather than exhilaration. You might 
as well be merry over the doings of Swift's Yahoos, who are certainly not 
more offensive than some of Gillray's men and women. Whether in home or 
foreign politics, he is equally unscrupulous." 

Charles James Fox was the bete noire of Gillray. He delighted in depicting 
him and his friends in as odious a light as possible, giving him huge beetle- 
brows, heavy jaws, and a swarthy complexion. The famous Westminster 
election, at which the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire won a vote for Fox by 

'The power behind the throne greater than the throne itself." 


giving a kiss to a butcher, supplied him with a rich source of caricature. Fox 
is drawn riding on the back of the lady; and again, sitting in a tap-room with 
the duchess on his knee ; and in another picture, hobnobbing with a coster- 
monger, while the duchess has her shoes mended by a cobbler, and pays the 
cobbler's wife with a purse of gold. Fox chops off the head of the king; he 
is a traitor, a republican, a Jacobin, a confederate with the French, a forestall- 
er, a buyer-up of corn with which to feed the enemy, a sot, a gambler every 
thing that is bad. His very death-bed forms the subject of a brutal caricature. 
The noblest traits of his political character are the points satirized. His great 
crimes apparently are that he loved freedom abroad as well as at home, that 
he strove for peace with France, and endeavored to do justice to Ireland. For 
this he is depicted as the secret ally of Bonaparte arid as the instigator of Irish 
rebellion. The ghosts of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Wolfe Tone, the Sheares 
brothers, Emmett, and other Irish martyrs are made to pass before Fox's bed, 
and point to him as the cause of their rebellion and their fate. When Burke 
went over to the Tories he then became the favorite of Gillray, who before had 
generally represented him as a Jesuit, because he demanded justice for the 
Catholics. Now he is the savior of his country, and the terror of Fox, Sheri- 
dan, and Priestley. Sheridan is depicted as a blazing meteor with an extreme- 
ly rubicund nose. There is a picture of the Titans attempting to scale heaven, 
in which George III. figures as a comical Jupiter launching his thunder-bolts 
at the Whig Opposition. Queen Charlotte is shown as a miracle of ugliness. 
The prodigality of the Prince of Wales, who first appears as a handsome 
young man with long powdered hair, totally unlike the high-shouldered, curly- 
wigged, royal Turveydrop of later days, is contrasted in companion pictures 
with the alleged parsimony of his parents. He is represented reveling with 
inordinately fat but handsome women, who get drunk, hang round his neck, 
and indulge in familiarities. The popular hope that marriage would reform 
him suggested a large drawing, in which the slumbering prince is visited by a 
descending angel in the likeness of the unhappy Caroline, at whose approach 
a ci-owd of reprobates, male and female, hurry away into darkness. Thomas 
Paine did not escape. In a picture entitled " The Rights of Man ; or, Tommy 
Paine, the Little American Taylor, taking the Measure of the Crown for a New 
Pair of Revolution Breeches," he is represented as the . traditional starveling 
tailor, ragged and slippered, and armed with an immense pair of shears. He 
crouches to take the measure of an enormous crown, while uttering much ir- 
relevant nonsense. This precious work is " humbly dedicated to the Jacobin 
clubs of France and England." 

Bound with such pictures as these are a vast number by inferior hands, 
most of which are indescribable, the standard subjects being gluttony, drunk- 
enness, incontinence, and fashion, and these in their most outrageous manifesta- 
tions. They serve to show that a stupid king in that age, besides corrupting 
Parliament and debauching the Press, could demoralize the popular branch of 


art. The visitor, turning from this collection of atrocities and ferocities, finds 
himself relenting toward the unfortunate old king, and inclined to say that he 
was, after all, only the head noodle of his kingdom. Every improvement was 
mercilessly burlesqued steam, gas, the purchase of the Elgin marbles ; pop- 
ular prejudices were nearly always flattered, seldom rebuked ; so that if the 
caricatures were of any use at all in the promulgation of truth, they served 
only as part of the ordeal that tested its vitality. 

We do not find in this or in any other collection many satirical pictures 
relating to the revolution which ended in the independence of the American 
colonies. There was, however, one gentleman in London during the earlier 
phases of the dispute who employed caricature and burlesque on behalf of 
America with matchless skill. He is described in the London Directory for 
1770 in these words, "Franklin, Benjamin, Esq., agent for Philadelphia, Craven 
Street, Strand." The effective caricature placed at the beginning of this chap- 
ter was one of the best of a long series of efforts to avert the impending con- 
flict. He loved his country with the peculiar warmth that usually animates 
citizens who live in a distant outlying province. His country, when he de- 
signed that caricature and wrote the well-known burlesques in a similar taste, 
was not Pennsylvania, nor America, nor England, but the great British Empire, 
to which William Pitt, within Franklin's own life-time, seemed to have given 
an ascendency over the nations of the earth similar to that which Rome had 
once enjoyed. It was, however, only on the coast of North America that 
Britain possessed colonies loyal and free, not won by conquest nor by diploma- 
cy, and therefore entitled to every right secured by the British Constitution. 
Franklin loved and gloried in this great country of which he was born a citi- 
zen. He deplored the measures that threatened the severance of those colonies 
from the mother country, and would have prevented the severance if the king's 
folly had been any thing short of incurable. The most wonderful thing in the 
whole controversy was that the argument, fact, and fun which Franklin wrote 
and inspired, from 1765 to 1774, had only momentary influence on the course 
of events. "Against stupidity the gods themselves contend in vain." 

His twenty " Rules for Reducing a Great Empire to a Small One," publish- 
ed three years before the caricature, inculcated the same lesson. A great em- 
pire, he remarked, was in one particular like a great cake: it could be most 
easily diminished at the edges. The person, therefore, who had undertaken the 
task of reducing it should take care to begin at the remotest provinces, and 
not till after they were lopped off cut up the central portion. His twenty 
"Rules" are merely a humorous history of the British colonial policy since the 
accession of George III. : Don't incorporate your colonies with the mother 
country, quarter troops among them, appoint for their governors broken gam- 
blers and exhausted roues, despise their voluntary grants, and harass them 
with novel taxes. By such measures as these " you will act like a wise ginger- 
bread baker, who, to facilitate a division, cuts his dough half through at the 



places where, when baked, he would have it broken to pieces." Franklin also 
wrote a shorter burlesque, pompously headed, " An Edict of the King of Prus- 
sia," in which that monarch was supposed to claim sovereign rights over Great 
Britain on the ground that the island had been colonized by Hengist, Horsa, 
and others, subjects of " our renowned ducal ancestors." The edict, of course, 
ordains and commands precisely those absurd things which the Government of 
Great Britain had ordained and commanded since the planting of the colonies. 
Iron, as the edict duly sets forth, had been discovered in the island of Great 
Britain by " our colonists there," who, "presuming that they had a natural 
right to make the best use they could of the natural productions of their coun- 
try," had erected furnaces and forges for the manufacture of the same, to the 
detriment of the manufacturers of Prussia. This must be instantly stopped, 
and all the iron sent to Prussia to be manufactured. "And whereas the art 

and mystery of making hats 
has arrived at great perfec- 
tion in Prussia," and " the 
islanders before mentioned, 
being in possession of wool, 
beaver, and other furs, have 
presumptuously conceived 
they had a right to take some 
advantage thereof by manu- 
facturing the same into hats, 
to the prejudice of our do- 
mestic manufacture," there- 
fore we do hereby forbid 
them to do so any more. 
We call this piece a bur- 


LEG IN LONDON AND THE OTUEK IN NEW YORK. (London, -176C.) iGSqne, Dllt It W3S burlesque 

only in form. Precisely such 

restrictions existed upon the industry of the American colonists. It was part 
of the protective system of the age, and not much more unjust than the parts 
of the same system to which the descendants of those colonists have since sub- 
jected themselves. 

An ignorant man at the head of a government, however honest he may be, 
is liable to make fatal mistakes in the selection of his ministers. He naturally 
dreads the close inspection of minds superior to his own. He has always to 
be on his good behavior before them, which is irksome. He shares the stock 
prejudices of mankind, one of which is a distrust of practiced politicians. But 
as the poorest company of actors will get through a comedy with less discredit 
than the best amateurs, so an administration of " party hacks " will usually car- 
ry on a government with less odious failure than an administration composed 
of better men without experience in public business. George III. had, more- 



over, a singularly unfortunate trait for a king who had to govern by party 
leaders his prejudices against individuals were inveterate. Lord Waldegrave 
remarked "a kind of unhappiness in his temper" while he was still a youth. 
"Whenever he is displeased, his anger does not break out with heat and vio- 
lence, but he becomes sullen and silent, and retires to hig closet, not to com- 
pose his mind by study and contemplation, but merely to indulge the melan- 
choly enjoyment of his own ill-humor." And when he re-appeared, it was but 
too evident that he had not forgotten the offense. He neVer forgot, he seldom 
forgave. " The same strength of memory," as Earl Russell once wrote of him, 

Fox. Lord North. 


" and the same brooding sullenness against those who opposed his will, which 
had been observed in the boy, were manifest in the man." 

This peculiarity of character always prevented the formation of a proper 
ministry, and shortened the duration of every ministry which was approxi- 
mately proper. During the first ten years of his reign his dislike of William 
Pitt, the natural chief of the Whig party, confused every arrangement; and 
during the next twenty years the most cherished object of his policy seemed 
to be to keep from power the natural successor of that minister Charles 
James Fox. The ascendency of both those leaders was such that to exclude 
them from power was to paralyze their own party, and prevent the free play 



of politics in the House of Commons. It reduced the poor king at last to pit 

against Napoleon Bonaparte a young rhetorician of defective health, William 

Pitt, the son of the great minister. 

That renowned "coalition" between Lord North and Mr. Fox in 1783, the 

theme of countless caricatures and endless invective, illustrates the confus- 
ing influence of the king. During the whole 
period of the American Revolution, Lord 
North, as the head of the ministry, was obliged 
to execute and defend the king's policy, much 
of which we now know he disapproved. Nat- 
urally he would have been an ally of Fox years 
before, and they could either have prevented or 
shortened the conflict. The spell of the royal 
closet and the personal entreaties of the king 
prevailed over his better judgment, and made 


him the antagonist 01 tox. At length, the war 

"In a committee on the sense of the 

nation, Moved, that for preventing future being at an end and North in retirement, En- 
disorders and dissensions, the heads of , , 1.1 

the Mutiny Act be brought in, and suffer- gland saw these two men, whose nightly con- 
ed to lie on the table to-morrow."-^'* flictg ha( j been the morn i n ~ ne ^ s f or ten yearg 
Motvm in Parliament, February, 1784. * 

suddenly forming a " coalition," united in the 

administration, and pledged to the same policy. As we trace the successive 
steps which led to the alliance in the memoirs and diaries of the time, we dis- 
cover that it was not so much the coalition as the previous estrangement 
that was unnatural. The public, however, could not be expected to see it in 
that light, and an uproar greeted the reconciliation that greatly aided the king 
in getting rid of the obnoxious Fox. The specimens of the caricatures to 
which it gave rise, presented on this and the two preceding pages, are two out 
of a great number still procurable. 



IN France, more conspicuously than in England, kingship broke down in that 
century. Louis XV., born in a private station, might have risen to the 
ownership of a small livery-stable, in which position his neighbors, commenting 
upon his character in the candid manner of French neighbors, would have epit- 
omized him as a cross, proud pig. Those dull kings who finished kingship in 
Europe possessed but one trait which we usually associate with the kingly 
character pride and this was the single point of resemblance between Louis 
XV. and George III. Once in his life, it is related, Louis XV. uttered a few 
words with a vivacity approaching eloquence. " Would you believe," said he 
to Madame de Pompadour, " that there is a man in my court who dares to 
lift his eyes to one of my daughters?" He was blazing with passion at the 
thought of such flagrant impiety. 

And was there ever, since sacred childhood first appealed for protection 
to the human heart, a child so unhappily placed as that baby king, an orphan, 
with a roue for a guardian, a smooth, insinuating priest for preceptor, and a 
dissolute court conspiring to corrupt him ? The priest, who represented what 
then passed for virtue, taught him virtue out of a dreary catechism, still ex- 
tant, which never yet elevated or nobly formed a human soul a dead, false 
thing, with scarcely an atom in it of sound nutrition for heart or mind. But 
Cardinal Fleury had some success with his pupil. Thirty years after, when 
Pompadour was supplying him with fresh young girls of fourteen and fifteen, 
bought from their mothers by her for this purpose, the king's conscience would 
not permit him to go to bed until he had knelt down by the side of the timid 
victim, and required her to join him in saying the prescribed prayers. 

The courtiers were not less successful in their endeavors. At the tender 
age of six years they provided for him an entertainment which gave the old 
Marquis de Dangeau the idea that they had formed the purpose of "drying up 
in him the very source of good feeling." They caused thousands of sparrows 
to be let loose in a vast hall, where they gave the boy the "divertissement" of 
seeing them shoot the birds, and covering all the floor with bloody, fluttering, 
crying victims. He doubtless enjoyed the spectacle, for at sixteen he shot in 
cold blood a pointer bred by himself, and accustomed to feed from his hand. 
So rude was he at seventeen, the chroniclers tell us, that the courtiers used all 


their arts to give him du gortt pour les femmes, hoping thereby to render him 
" more polite and tractable." The precise manner in which a bevy of illus- 
trious princesses and duchesses sought to debaucher le roi during one of the 
royal hunts is detailed in the diaries and satirized in the epigrams of the time. 

The ladies, long frustrated by the " ferocity " of the youth, who cared only 
for hunting, succeeded at last, and succeeded with the applause of all the court. 
"Every one else has a mistress," remarks Barbier, advocate and magistrate; 
"why shouldn't the king?" It was a long reign of mistresses. Changes of 
ministry, questions of peace or war, promotions and appointments of generals 
and admirals, the arrest of authors and nobles all were traceable to the will 
or caprice of a mistress. Frederick of Prussia styled Pompadour, Petticoat 
the Third, which some one was kind enough to report to her ; and when Vol- 
taire, whom she " protected," conveyed to the Prussian monarch a compliment- 
ary message, he replied, coldly, " I don't know her." Maria Theresa of Aus- 
tria, a proud and high-principled lady, stooped to recognize her existence, and 
wrote her civil notes. If there is any truth in the printed gossip of the in- 
nermost court circles of that period, it was this difference in the treatment 
of the king's mistress which made France the ally of Austria in the Seven 
Years' War. 

Would the reader like to know how affairs go on in a court governed by a 
mistress, then let him ponder this one sample anecdote, related by thefemme 
de chambre of Madame de Pompadour, showing how she,femme de chambre 
as she was, obtained a lieutenant's commission in the army for one of her re- 
lations. She first asked " madame" for the commission; but as madame was 
in full intrigue to remove the Minister of War, this application did not suc- 
ceed. " Pressed by my family," the femme de chambre relates, " who could 
not conceive that, in the position in which I was, it could be difficult for me 
to procure a trifling commission for a good soldier, I asked it directly from the 
minister himself. He received me coldly, and gave me little hope. On going 

out, the Marquis de V followed me, and said : ' You desire a commission. 

There is one vacant, which has been promised to & protege of mine; but if you 
are willing to exchange favors with me, I will yield it to you. What I desire 
is to play the part of Exempt de Police in " Tartuffe " the next time madame 
gives it in the palace before the king. It is a rdle of a few lines only. Get 
madame to assign that part to me, and the lieutenancy is yours.' I told ma- 
dame of this. The thing was done. I obtained my lieutenancy, and the mar- 
quis thanked madame for the role as warmly as if she had made him a duke." 

Generals were appointed to the command of expeditions for no better rea- 
son than this. That Pompadour drew thirty-six millions of francs from the 
" royal treasury," i. e., from the earnings of the frugal and laborious French 
people, could easily have been borne. It was government by mistresses and 
for mistresses, the government of ignorant and idle caprice, that broke down 
monarchy in France and set the world on fire. Of the evils which corrupt 



rulers bring upon communities, the waste of the people's money (though that 
is a great evil in so poor a world as ours, with such crowds of poor relations 
and so much to be done) is among the least. It is the absence of intelligence 
and public spirit in the Government that brings on ruin. 

"As long as I live," said Louis XV. one day to Madame de Pompadour, 
" I shall be the master, to do as I like. But my grandson will have trouble." 
Madame was of the same mind, but gave it neater expression : "After us the 

The world is familiar with the tragic incidents of the sudden collapse of 
the monarchy. Except during the Reign of Terror, which was short, the cari- 


"Dear objects of my care, I have assembled you to ascertain with what sauce you want to be eaten." 
"But we dou't want to be eaten at all." 
" You are departing from the question." ' 

caturists, whether with the pen or the pencil, played their usual part. It was 
almost impossible to caricature the abuses of the times, so monstrous was the 
reality. The " local hits " in Beaumarchais' " Marriage of Figaro," played with 
rapturous applause a hundred nights in 1784, were little more than the truth 
given with epigrammatic brevity. When the saucy page, Cherubin, confessed 
that he had behaved very badly, but rested his defense upon the fact that he 
had never been guilty of the slightest indiscretion in words, and so obtained 
both pardon and promotion, the audience must have felt the perfect congruity 

* Champfleuiy, "Histoire de la Caricature sous la Re'publique, " etc., p. 5. 




of the incident with the moral code of the period. In Figaro's famous dis- 
course on the English God-dam there is, indeed, a touch of caricature : "A fine 
language the English ; a little of it goes a great way. The English people, it is 
true, throw in some other words in the course of conversation, but it is very 
easy to see that God-dam is the basis of their language." When he descants 
upon politics, he rarely goes beyond the truth : "Ability advance a man in the 
Government bureaus ! My lord is laughing at me. Be commonplace and 
obsequious, and you get every thing." Figaro gives the whole art of French 
politics in a few words : " To pretend you don't know what you do know, and 
to know what you don't ; to hear what you understand, and not to hear what 

you don't understand ; and especially to 
pretend you can do a great deal more 
than you can ; often to have for a very 
great secret that there is no secret; to 
shut yourself up to mend pens and seem 
profound, when you are only empty and 
hollow ; to play well or ill the part of a 
personage; to spread abroad spies and 
pensioned traitors; to melt seals, inter- 
cept letters, and try to ennoble the pov- 
erty of the means by the importance of 
the ends may I die if that isn't all 
there is of politics." It is a good hit 
of Susan's when she says that vapors 
are " a disease of quality," only to -be 
taken in boudoirs. A poor woman 
whose cause is coming on at court 
remarks that selling judgeships is a 
great abuse. "You are right," says 
the dolt of a magistrate ; " we ought to 
get them for nothing." And how a Paris audience, in the temper of 1789, 
must have relished the hits at the hereditary principle: "It is no matter whence 
you came; the important question is, whither are you bound ?" "What have 
you done, my lord, to merit so many advantages rank, fortune, place ? You 
took the trouble to be born, nothing more." We can fancy, too, how such 
touches as this might bring down the house : " I was thought of for an office, 
but unfortunately I was fit for it. An arithmetician was wanted; a dancer 
got it." 

All men, as Mr. Carlyle observes, laughed at these jests, and none louder 
than the persons satirized " a gay horse-racing Anglo-maniac noblesse loudest 
of all." 

MIBABEAD.* (Paris, 1T89.) 

Champfleury, "Histoire de la Caricature sous la Republique,"p. 81. 


The first picture given in these pages relating to the French Revolution, 
"The Assembly of the Notables," is one of the most celebrated caricatures 
ever produced, and one of the best. Setting aside one or two of Thackeray's, 
two or three of Gillray's, and half a dozen of Mr. Nast's, it wOuld be difficult to 
find its equal. It may be said, however, that the force of the satire is wholly 
in the words, which, indeed, have since become one of the stock jokes of 
French Joe Millers. The picture appeared in 1787, when the deficit in the 
revenue, after having widened for many years, had become most alarming, and 
it was at length proposed to tax the nobility, clergy, and magistrates, hitherto 
exempt from vulgar taxation. But the Assembly of the Notables, which was 
chiefly composed of the exempt, preferred to prolong inquiry into the causes 
of the deficit, and showed an unconquerable reluctance to impose a tax upon 
themselves. It was during this delay, so fatal to the monai'chy, that the cari- 
cature appeared. There must have been more than one version of the work, 
for the one described by Mr. Carlyle in his " History of the French Revolu- 
tion " differs in several particulars from that which we take from M. Champ- 
fleury. Mr. Carlyle says : "A rustic is represented convoking the poultry of 
his barn-yard with this opening address, 'Dear animals, I have assembled you 
to advise me what sauce I shall dress you with,' to which a cock responding, 
' We don't want to be eaten,' is checked by, ' You wander from the point !' " 

The outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 menaced Europe with one of the 
greatest of all evils the premature adoption of liberal institutions. Forever 
vain and always fruitful of prodigious evil will be attempts to found a gov- 
ernment by the whole people where the mass of the working population are 
grossly ignorant and superstitious. The reason is known to all who have had 
an opportunity of closely observing the workings of such minds. They can 
only be swayed by arts which honest intelligence can not use, and therefore 
they will be usually governed by men who have an interest in misleading them. 
Great Britain was nearer a republic than any other nation in Europe ; but En- 
gland, too, needed another century to get the tap-room reduced, the people's 
school developed in every parish, and the educated class intensely alive to the 
" folly of heaping importance upon idiots." 

Edmund Burke was the man who, more than any other, held England back 
from, revolution in 1792. Rational appeals to the rational faculty could not 
have availed. Appalled at what he saw in France, Burke, after thirty years' 
advocacy of liberal principles, and assisting to create a republic in America, 
became a fanatic of conservatism, and terrified England into standing by the 
monarchy. He was alarmed even at the influx of Frenchmen into England, 
flying from La Lanterne, and he gave vehement support to the Alien Act, 
which authorized the summary expulsion from the kingdom of foreigners sus- 
pected by the Government. Vehement? Some of his sentences read like lu- 
nacy. It was in the course of this debate that the celebrated dagger scene 
occurred which Gillray has satirized iu the picture on the following page. A 



I -Jt l,K..t im.a Gel KCAMMnM > **_ 

DuniUu. Pitt. Fox. Sheridan Taylor. Burke. 


wild tale reached his ears of the manufacture of daggers at Birmingham for 
the use of French Jacobins in England, and one of them was given him as a 
specimen. It was an implement of such undecided form that it might have 
served as a dagger, a pike-head, or a carving-knife. He dashed it upon the 
floor of the House of Commons, almost hitting the foot of an honorable mem- 
ber, and proceeded to declaim against the unhappy exiles in the highest style 
of absurdity. " When they smile," said he, " I see blood trickling down their 



faces ; I see their insidious purposes ; I see that the object of all their cajoling 
is blood." A pause ensued after the orator had spoken a while in this strain. 
"You have thrown down a knife," said Sheridan; "where is the fork?" A 
shout of laughter followed this sally, which relieved the suppressed feelings of 
the House, but spoiled the "effect" of Mr. Burke's performance. 

In the French caricatures that have come to us from the period of the 
Revolution (many hundreds in number) every phase of the struggle is exhib- 


ited with French finesse. There is even an elegance in some of their Revolu- 
tionary caricatures. How exquisite, for example, the picture which presents 
the first protest of the Third Estate, its first attempt to be Something in the 
nation which it maintained ! We see a lofty and beautiful chariot or car of 
triumph, in which king, nobleman, and clergy gracefully ride, drawn by a pair 
of doves. The Third Estate is merely the beaten road on which the whole 
structure moves. Nothing could more elegantly satirize the sentimental stage 
of the Revolution, when the accumulated abuses of centuries were all to disap- 



pear amidst a universal effusion of brotherly love, while king, lords, and clergy 

rode airily along as before, 
borne up by a mute, sub- 
missive nation ! When at 
last the Third Estate had 
become " Something " in 
the nation, a large number 
of sentimental pictures sig- 
nalized the event. In one 
we see priest, noble, and 
peasant clasped in a fer- 
vent embrace, the noble 
trampling under foot a 
sheet of paper upon which 

THE ESTATES. (Paris, 1T89.) . , . .. 

is printed " Grandeurs, 

the priest treading upon " Benefices," the peasant upon " Hate." All wear the 
tricolor cockade, and un- 
derneath is written, "The 
wish accomplished. This 
is as I ever desired it 
should be." In another 
picture priest, noble, and 
peasant are playing to- 
gether uponinstruments 
the priest upon a serpent- 
shaped trumpet, the noble 
upon a pipe, and the peas- 
ant upon the violin the 
peasant in the middle, 
leading the performance, 
and exchanging looks of 
complacent affection with 
the others. 

But even in the mo- 
ment of triumph the ef- 
fusion was not universal. 
There are always disa- 
greeable people who doubt 
the duration of a millen- L - 

-, , THE NEW CALVARY. (Paris, 1792.) 

mum as soon as, it has 

U, r^,.; Louis XVL crucifled b y the reb e's ; Monsieur and the Comte d'Artois 

Degun. ^ancatUl lep- hound by the decrees of the factions; Robespierre, mounted upon the 
resented the three orders Const ' tut i n i presents the sponge soaked in regicides' gall ; the Queen, 

overwhelmed with grief, demands speedy vengeance ; the Duchess de 

dancing together. "Will Poiiguac, etc. 


it last? won't it last?" sings a by-stander, using the refrain of an old song. 
" It is I who must pay the fiddler," cries the noble to the priest. From being 
fraternal, the Third Estate became patronizing. The three orders sit together 
in a cafe, and the peasant says, familiarly, "All right; every man pays his own 
shot." A picture entitled "Old Times and the New Time" bore the inscrip- 
tion, " Formerly the most useful class carried the load, and was trodden under 
foot. To-day all share the burden alike." From patronizing and condescend 
ing, the Third Estate, as all the world knows, speedily became aggressive and 
arbitrary. "Down with taxes!" appeared on some of the caricatures of 1789, 
when the public treasury was running dry. An extremely popular picture, 
often repeated, exhibits a peasant wearing the costume of all the orders, with 
the well-known inscription, so false and so fatal, "A single One makes the 
Three." An ignorant family is depicted listening with gaping eagerness to 
one who reveals to them that they too are the order of which they have been 
hearing such fine things. " We belong to the Third Estate !" they exclaim, 
with the triumphant glee of M. Jourdain when he heard that he had been 
speaking " prose " all his life without knowing it. 

But peace and plenty did not come to the poor man's cottage, and the cari- 
caturists began to mock his dream of a better day. We see in one of the pict- 
ures of 1790 a father of a family in chains, with his eyes fixed in ecstasy upon 
a beam of light, labeled " Hope." In another, poor Louis XVI. is styled " The 
Restorer of Liberty," but underneath we read the sad question, "Eh bien, but 
when will that put the chicken in the pot?" A devil entering a hovel is set 
upon by a peasant, who pummels him with a stick, while an old man cries out, 
" Hit him hard, hard, my son ; he is an aristocrat ;" and under the whole is 
written, " Is the devil, then, to be always at our door?" Again, we have the 
three orders forging the constitution with great ardor, the blacksmith holding 
the book on the anvil, while the priest and noble swing the sledge-hammer. 
Under the picture is the French smith's refrain, "Tot-tot-tot, Battez chaud, Tot- 
tot-tot" From an abyss a working-man draws a bundle of papers bearing the 
words, " The New Constitution, the Desire of the Nation," saying, as he does 
so, "Ah, I shall be well content when I have all those papers !" 

The popular pictures grew ill-tempered as the hopes of the people declined, 
and the word aristocrat became synonymous with all that is most hostile to 
the happiness of man. A devil attired as a priest, teaching a school of little 
aristocrats, extols the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Citizens and soldiers are 
in full cry after a many- headed monster labeled "Aristocracy." An ass pre- 
sides over a court of justice, and the picture is inscribed, " The Ass on the 
Bench ; or, the End of Old Times." The clergy came in for their ample share 
of ridicule and vituperation. "What do we want with monks ?" exclaimed an 
orator from the tribune of the Assembly in 1790. "If you tell me," he con- 
tinued, "that it is just to allow pious men the liberty to lead a sedentary, soli- 
tary, or contemplative life, my answer is, that every man can be sedentary, soli- 



tary, or contemplative in his own room." Another speaker said, " If England 
to-day is flourishing, she owes it in part to the abolition of the religious or- 
ders." The caricaturists did not delay to aim their shafts at this new game. 
We see nuns trying on fashionable head-dresses, and friars blundering through 
a military exercise. The spectacle was exhibited to Europe of a people raging 
with contemptuous hate of every thing which had from time immemorial been 
held in honor. 

As time wore on, after every other order in the State had been in turn the 
object of special animosity, the royal family, the envied victims of the old state 


(Paris, 1793.) 

of things, became the unpitied victims of the new. Until their ill-starred at- 
tempt to escape from France in June, 1792, there remained some little respect 
for the king, and some tenderness for his children. The picture given else- 
where of the crucifixion of the king was published by his adherents some 
months before the crisis as figurative of his sufferings, not as prophetic of 
his fate. But there was neither respect nor pity for the unhappy man after 
his blundering attempt to leave the country. An explosion of caricature fol- 
lowed. Before that event satirical pictures had been exposed only in the print- 



sellers' windows, but now, as M. Bayer records, "caricatures were sold whc-r- 
ever any thing was sold." The Jacobin Club, he adds, as often as they had a 
point to carry, caused caricatures to be made, which the shop-keepers found it 
to their interest to keep for sale. 

A large number of the pictures which appeared during the last months of 
the king's life have been preserved. At an earlier stage of the movement both 
friends and foes of the monarchy used the satiric pencil, but now there was 
none to take the side of this bewildered family, and the pictures aimed at them 
were hard and pitiless. The reader has but to turn to the specimen here 
given, which was called forth by the transfer of the royal family from their 
home in the Tuileries to their prison in the Temple, to comprehend the spirit 
of those productions. In others we find the king represented as a blind man 
groping his way; as a baby; as an idiot who breaks his playthings and throws 
away his crown and sceptre. The queen excited a deeper feeling. The Paris- 


fleury, 1T92.) 

ians of 1792 appear to have had for that most unhappy of women only feelings 
of diabolical hate. She called forth all the tiger which, according to Voltaire, 
is an ingredient in the French character. The caricaturists liked to invest her 
with the qualities and the form of a tigress, living in a monstrous alliance with 
a king-ram, and becoming the mother of monsters. The foolish tale of her 
saying that she would quench her thirst with the blood of Frenchmen was 
treated by the draughtsmen of the day as though it were an unquestionable fact. 
Never was a woman so hated as she was by infuriate Paris in 1792. Nev- 
er was womanhood so outraged as in some of the caricatures of that period. 
Nothing relating to her had any kind of sacredness. Her ancestors, her coun- 
try, her mother, her children, her love for her children, her attachment to her 
husband, were all exhibited in the most odious light as so many additional 
crimes against liberty. Need it be said that her person was not spared ? The 



single talent in which the French excel all the rest of the human family is that 
of subtly insinuating indecency by pen and pencil. But they did not employ 
tli is talent in the treatment of Marie Antoinette when she was about to redeem 
a frivolous life by a dignified death. With hideous indecency they presented 
her to the scorn of the public, as African savages might exhibit the favorite 
wife of a hostile chief when they had brought her to their stinking village a 
captive, bound, naked, and defiled. 

And so passed away forever from the minds of men the sense of the divin- 
ity that once had hedged in a king. But so congenial to minds immature or 
unformed is the idea of hereditary chieftainship that to this day in Europe the 
semblance of a king seems the easiest resource against anarchy. Yet kings 
were put upon their good behavior, to hold their places until majorities learn 
to control their propensities and use their minds. 


A ristocrat. " Take care of your cap." 
Democrat, " Look out for your queue." 




OBSERVE this picture of man's scorn of woman, drawn by Gavarni, the 
most noted of French caricaturists. I place it first, because it expresses 
the feeling toward "the subject sex" which satiric art has oftenest exhibited, 
and because it was execu- 
ted by the person who ex- 
celled all others in delineat- 
ing what he called ihefour- 
beries de femmes. Such, 
in all time, has been the 
habitual tone of self-indul- 
gent men toward their vic- 
tims. Gavarni well repre- 
sents men in this sorry bus- 
iness of reviling women; 
for in all the old civiliza- 
tions men in general have 
done precisely what Ga- 
varni did recently in Par- 
is first degraded women, 
then laughed at them. 

The reader, perhaps, 
after witnessing some of 
the French plays and com- 
ic operas with which we 
have been favored in re- 
cent years such as " Frou- 

FrOU " "The Sohinx " "1^ frank! You simple ! Have confldeuce in you ! Too! Why, 

' you wonld blow your nose with yonr left hand for nothing bat the 

"Alixe," and Others may pleasure of deceiving your right, if you conld !" GAVARNI, Fourberies 

, . ... de Femmes. Paris, 1846. 

have turned in wild amaze- 
ment to some friend familiar with Paris from long residence, and asked, Is 
there any truth in this picture? Are there any people in France who behave 
and live as these people on the stage behave and live? Many there can not 
be ; for no community could exist half a generation if the majority lived so. 
But are there any? The correct answer to this question was probably given 


the other evening by a person accustomed to Paris life : " Yes, there are some ; 
they are the people who write such stuff as this. As for the bal masque, and 
things of that kind, it is a mere business, the simple object of which is to be- 
guile and despoil the verdant of every land who go to Paris in quest of pleas- 
ure." French plays and novels we know do most ludicrously misrepresent the 
people of other countries. What, for example, can be less like truth than that 
solemn donkey of a Scotch duke in M. Octave Feuillet's play of " The Sphinx ?" 
The dukes of Scotland are not so numerous nor so unconspicuous a body of men 
that they can not be known to a curious inquirer, and it is safe to assert that, 
whatever their faults may be, there is not among them a creature so unspeak- 
ably absm-d as the viveur infernal of this play. Jf the author is so far astray 
with his Scotch duke, he is perhaps not so very much nearer the truth with 
his French marquis, a personage equally foreign to his experience. 

We had in New York some years ago a dozen or two of young fellows, 
more or less connected with the press, most of them of foreign origin, who 
cherished the delusion that eating a bad supper in a cellar late at night, and 
uttering or singing semi -drunken nonsense, was an exceedingly noble, high- 
spirited, and literary way of consuming a weakly constitution and a small sal- 
ary. They thought they were doing something in the manner of Dr. Johnson 
arid Charles Lamb. Any one who should have judged New York in the year 
1855 by the writings of these young gentlemen would have supposed that we 
were wholly given up to silly, vulgar, and reckless dissipation. But, in truth, 
the " Bohemians," as they were proud to be styled, were both few and insig- 
nificant; their morning scribblings expressed nothing but the looseness of 
their own lives, and that was half pretense. 

Two admiring friends have written the life of Gavarni, the incomparable 
caricaturist of la femme; and they tell us just how and where and when the 
artist acquired his " subtle and profound knowledge " of the sex. It is but 
too plain that he knew but one class of women, the class that lives by deluding 
fools. " During all one year, 1835," say these admiring biographers, " it seems 
that in the life, the days, the thoughts of Gavarni, there was nothing but la 
femme. According to his own expression, woman was his 'grand affair.'" 
He was in love, then? By no means. Our admiring authors proceed to de- 
scribe this year of devotion to la femme as a period when " intrigues were 
mingled together, crossed and entangled with one another ; when passing in- 
clinations, the fancies of an evening, started into being together with new pas- 
sions; when rendezvous pressed upon rendezvous; when there fell upon Ga- 
varni a rain of perfumed notes from the loves of yesterday, from the forgotten 
loves of last month, which he inclosed in one envelope, as he said, ' like dead 
friends in the same coffin.' "* 

The authors enlarge upon this congenial theme, describing their hero as 

* " Gavarni, 1'Homme et 1'CEuvre," par Edmond et Jules de Goncourt, Paris, 1873. 



going forth upon le pave de Paris in quest of lafemme as a keen hunter takes 
to the forest for the plump partridge or the bounding deer. Some he brought 
down with the resistless magnetism of his eye. " It was for him a veritable 
rapture, as well as the exertion of a power which he loved to ,try, to magnetize 
with his eye and make his own the first woman whom he chanced to meet in 



"A monkey, a magpie, and wife 
Is the true emblem of strife." 

Old English Tavern Sign. 

the throng." The substance of the chapter is that Gavarni, casting aside all 
the restraints of civilization and decency, lived in Paris the life of a low and 
dirty animal ; and when, in consequence of so living, he found himself in Clichy 
for debt, he replenished his purse by delineating, as the fourberies de femmes, 
the tricks of the dissolute women who had got his money. That, at least, is 
the blunt American of our authors' dainty and elegant French. 

* " Froru History of Sign-boards," by Larwood and Hotten. 



In the records of the past, we find men speaking lightly of women whose 
laws and usages concede least to women. 

The oldest thing accessible to us in these modern cities is the Saturday- 
morning service in an unreformed Jewish synagogue, some of the observances 
of which date back beyond the historic period. But there is nothing in it older 
than the sentiment expressed by the men when they thank God for his good- 

t v - : 

SETTLING THE ODD THICK. (London, 1778.*) 

ness in not making them women. Only men are admitted to the synagogue as 
equal worshipers, the women being consigned to the gallery, spectators of their 
husbands' devotion. The old Jewish liturgy does not recognize their presence. 
Older than the Jewish liturgy are the sacred books of the Hindoos. The 
famous passage of the " Padma Parana," translated by the Abbe Dubois,f has 

* From Wright's " Caricature History of the Georges," p. 256. 

t "Description of the Character, Manners, and Customs of the People of India, "vol. i., p. 316, 
by J. A. Dubois, London, 1817. 


been part of the domestic code of the Hindoos for thousands of years. Ac- 
cording to the Hindoo lawgiver, a woman has no god on earth but her hus- 
band, and no religion except to gratify, obey, and serve him. Let her husband 
be crooked, old, infirm, offensive ; let him be irascible, irregular, a drunkard, 
a gambler, a debauchee; let him be reckless of his domestic affairs, as if pos- 
sessed by a devil; though he live in the world without honor; though he be 
deaf or blind, and wholly weighed down by crime and infirmity still shall his 
wife regard him as her god. With all her might shall she serve him, in all 
things obey him, see no defects in his character, and give him no cause of un- 
easiness. Nay, more : in every stage of her existence woman lives but to obey 
at first her parents, next her husband and his parents, and in her old age she 
must be ruled by her children. Never during her whole life can she be under 
her own control. 

These are the general principles upon which the life of women in India is 
to be conducted. The Hindoo writer was considerate enough to add a few 
particulars: "If her husband laughs, she ought to laugh; if he weeps, she 
ought to weep ; if he is disposed to speak, she ought not to join in the conver- 
sation. Thus is the goodness of her nature displayed. What woman would eat 
till her husband has first had his fill ? If he abstains, she will s.urely fast also ; 
if he is sad, will she not be sorrowful? and if he is gay, will she not leap for 
joy? In the absence of her husband her raiment will be mean." Such has 
been the conception of woman's duty to man by all the half -developed races 
from time immemorial, and such to this day are the tacit demand and expecta- 
tion of the brutalized males of the more advanced races. Gavarni, married, 
would have been content with no subservience much short of that. 

Happily, nature has given to woman the means of a fell revenge, for she 
usually holds the peace of the household and the happiness of all its members 
in her hands. The satirical works that come to us from the Oriental lands 
teem with evidence that women have always known how to get a fair share of 
domestic authority. If they are slaves, they have ever been adepts in the arts 
and devices of slaves. The very squaws of our Indians often contrive to rule 
their brawny lords. Is not the whole history of the war between the sexes in- 
cluded in the little story of the manner in which Pocahontas was entrapped on 
board a British vessel lying in the James River two hundred and fifty years 
ago? The captain had promised to the aunt of this dusky princess the gift of 
a copper kettle if she would bring her niece to the ship ; and accordingly one 
afternoon, when she found herself on the river -bank with her husband and 
Pocahontas, she was suddenly seized with a longing to go on board, saying that 
this was the third time the ship had been in their river, and yet she had never 
visited it. Her grumpy old husband refusing, she began to cry, and then, 
Pocahontas joining her entreaties, of course the old man had to unfasten his 
canoe and paddle them off to the vessel. This model couple returned to the 
shore poorer by a niece of uncertain character, and richer by the inestimable 



treasure of a copper kettle. What fine lady could have managed this delicate 
affair better? Is it not thus that tickets, trinkets, and dresses are won every 
day in the cities of the modern world ? 

An attentive study of the Greek and Roman literatures furnishes many 
illustrations of the remark just made, that men who degrade women deride 
them. Among the Greeks, who kept women in subjection and seclusion, and 
gave them no freedom of choice in matters of dearest concern to them, the 
foibles of the sex were treated very much as they now are by the dissolute 
caricaturists of Paris. Aristophanes's mode of representing the women of 

Athens is eminently Ga- 
varnian; and nothing was 
more natural than that an 
Aristophanes should come 
after an Anacreon. The 
lyric poet depicts women 
as objects of desire, supe- 
rior in alluring charm even 
to wine, rosy wine; and 
Aristophanes delights to 
exhibit the women's apart- 
ment of an Athenian house 
as a riotous and sensual- 
ized harem. How many 
expressions of utter dis- 
trust and dislike of women 
occur in the Greek poets ! 

" For this, and only this, I'll trust 

a woman, 
That if you take life from her 

she will die ; 
And, being dead, will come to 

life no more. 
In all things else I am an infi- 


Thus Antiphanes, who 

twenty-two hundred 


"Who was that gentleman that just went out?" 

" Why, didn't he see you, after all f He called on business, and has 
been waiting for you these two hours. He leaves town this evening. 
But how warm you are, dear !" QAVABNI, Fourberfes de Femmes, years before Gavarni was 

born. Menander justifies 

the gods for tormenting Prometheus, though his crime was only stealing a 
spark of fire. 

" But, O ye gods, how infinite the mischief! 
That little spark gave being to a woman, 
And let in a new race of plagues to curse us. " 



The well-known epigram of Palladas upon marriage expresses a thought 
which has been uttered by satirists in every form of which language is capable : 

"In marriage are two happy things allowed 
A wife in wedding garb and in her shroud. 
Who, then, dares say that state can be accurst 
Where the last day's as happy as the first ?" 

Many others will occur to the reader who is familiar with the lighter utter- 
ances of the ancients. But in Greece, as in China, India, and Japan, and wher- 
ever else men and women 
have been joined in wed- 
lock, there have been mar- 
riages in which husband 
and wife have lived on 
terms nobler than those 
contemplated by the law 
or demanded by usage. 
Where could we find a 
j uster. view of the duties 
of husband and wife than 
in that passage of Xeno- 
phon's dialogue on Econ- 
omy where Ischomachus 
tells Socrates how he had 
taken his young wife into 
his confidence, and come to 
a clear understanding with 
her as to the share each 
should take in carrying on 
the household ? Goethe 
must have had this pas- 
sage in his mind when he 
wrote the fine tribute to 

the dignity of housekeep- She. "Now, understand me. To-morrow morning he will ask yon 

incr in "\Vilhplm TVT(>i<stpv " * di nner - If he has his umbrella with him, it will mean that he has 

el> not got his stall at the theatre. In that case, don't accept. If he has 

IschomachllS had married no umbrella, come to dinner." 

.... He. "But (you know we must think of every thing) suppose it 

a girl OI htteen, who came should rain to-morrow morning?" 

^ I , n..~ She. "If it rains, he will get wet that's all. If I don't want him 

to him as wives in Greece to have an nmbrell ' a> he won ? t have one . How silly you are ."_ G A- 

USUally Came to their hus- VABNI, Fourbertes de Femrttes, Paris, 1846. 

bands an absolute stranger to him. Pie had to get acquainted with her after 
marriage, as, indeed, he says, "When we were well enough acquainted, and 
were so familiar that we began to converse freely with one another, I asked 
her why she thought I had taken her for my wife." Much is revealed in that 
sentence. He tells her that, being married, they are now to have all things in 



common, and each should only strive to enhance the good of the household. 
She stares with wonder. Her mother had told her that her fortune would be 
wholly her husband's, and all that she had to do was to live virtuously and so- 
berly. Ischomachus assents, but he proceeds to show her that, in the nature 
of things, husband and wife must be equal co-operators, he getting the money, 
she administering it; he fighting the battle of life out-of-doors, she within 
the house. At great length this model husband illustrates his point, and en- 
tirely in the spirit of the noble passage in Goethe. She catches the idea at 
length. " It will be of little avail," she says, " my keeping at home unless you 
send such provisions as are necessary." " True," he replies, " and of very little 
use my providing would be if there were no one at home to take care of what 
I send ; it would be pouring water into a sieve." 

This fine presentation of household economy, like that of the German poet, 
is, unhappily, only a dialogue of fiction. It was merely Xenophon's conception 
of the manner in which a philosopher of prodigious wisdom might deal with a 
girl of fifteen, whom he had married without having enjoyed the pleasure of a 
previous acquaintance with her. Doubtless there was here and there in an- 
cient Greece a couple who succeeded in approximating Xenophon's ideal. 

Among the Romans women began to acquire those legal " rights " to which 
they owe whatever advance they have ever made toward a just equality with 
men. It was Roman law that lifted a wife from the condition of a cherished 
slave to a status something higher than that of daughter. But there was still 
one fatal defect in her position her husband could divorce her, but she could 
not divorce him. Cicero, the flower of Roman culture, put away the wife of 
his youth after living with her thirty years, and no remonstrance on her part 
would have availed against his decision. But a Roman wife had rights. She 
could not be deprived of her property, and the law threw round her and her 
children a system of safeguards which gave her a position and an influence not 
unlike those of the " lady of the house " at the present time. Instead of being 
secluded in a kind of harem, as among the Greeks, she came forward to receive 
her husband's guests, shared some of their festivities, governed the household, 
superintended the education of her children, and enjoyed her ample share of 
the honor which he inherited or won. "Where you are Caius, I am Caia," she 
modestly said, as she entered for the first time her husband's abode. He was 
paterfamilias, she materfamilias ; and the rooms assigned to her peculiar use 
were, as with us, the best in the house. 

To the Roman law women are infinitely indebted. Among the few hun- 
dreds of families who did actually share the civilization of Cicero, the Plinys, 
and Marcus Aurelius, the position of a Roman matron was one of high dignity 
and influence, and accordingly the general tone of the best Roman literature 
toward woman is such as does honor to both sexes. She was even instructed 
in that literature. In such a family as that of Cicero, the daughter would usu- 
ally have the same tutors as the son, and the wife of such a man would famil- 



iarly use her husband's library. Juvenal, that peerless reviler of women, the 
Gavarni of poets, deplores the fact : 

" But of all plagues the greatest is untold 
The book-learned wife in Greek and Latin bold ; 
The critic dame who at her table sits, 
Homer and Virgil quotes, and weighs their wits, 
And pities Dido's agonizing fits. 
She has so far the ascendant of the board, 
The prating pedant puts not in one word ; 
The man of law is nonplused in his suit ; 
Nay, every other female tongue is mute." 

The whole of this sixth satire of Juvenal, in which the Gavarnian litera- 
ture of all nations was an- 
ticipated and exhausted, is 
a tribute to woman's so- 
cial importance in Rome. 
No Greek would have con- 
sidered woman worthy of 
so elaborate an effort. And 
as in Athens, Anacreon, the 
poet of sensual love, was 
naturally followed by Aris- 
tophanes, a satirist of wom- 
en, so, in Rome, Ovid's "Art V 
of Love" preceded and will 
forever explain Juvenal's 
sixth satire. All illustrates 
the truth that sensualized 
men necessarily undervalue 
and laugh at women. In 
all probability, Juvenal's 
satire was a caricature as 
gross and groundless as the 
pictures of Gavarni. The 
instinct of the satirist is 
first to select for treatment the exceptional instance of folly, and then to exag- 
gerate that exceptional instance to the uttermost. Unhappily many readers 
are only too much inclined to accept this exaggerated exception as if it were a 
representative fact. There is a passage in Terence in which he expresses the 
feeling of most men who have been plagued, justly or unjustly, by a woman : 

"Not one but has the sex so strong within her, 
She differs nothing from the rest. Step-mothers 
All hate their step-daughters, and every wife 

" Madame, your cousin Betty wishes to know if yon can receive her." 
" Impossible ! Tell her that to-day I receive." Les Tribulations de la 
Vie Elegante, par Girin, Paris, 1870. 



Studies alike to contradict her husband, 

The same perverseness running through them all." 

The acute reader, on turning to the play of the "Mother-in-law," from 
which these lines are taken, will not be surprised to learn that the women in 
the comedy are in the right, and the men grossly in fault. 

The literature of the Middle Ages tells the same story. The popular tales 
of that period exhibit women as equally seductive and malevolent, silly, vain, 
not to be trusted, enchanting to the lover, a torment to the husband. Carica- 
tures of women and their extravagances in costume and behavior occur in 
manuscripts as far back as A.D. 1150, and those extravagances may serve to 
console men of the present time by their enormity. Many specimens could 
be given, but they are generally too formless or extravagant to be interesting. 

There are also many rude pictures 
from those centuries which aimed 
to satirize the more active foibles 
of the sex. One of these exhibits 
a wife belaboring her husband with 
a broom, another pounding hers 
with a ladle, another with a more 
terrible instrument, her withering 
tongue, and another with the surest 
weapon in all the female armory 
tears. In the Rouen Cathedral 
there are a pair of carvings, one rep- 
resenting a fierce struggle between 
husband and wife for the posses- 
sion of a garment the wearing of 
which is supposed to be a sign of 
mastery, and the other exhibiting 

A SCENE OF CONJUOAI LIFE. (Daumier, Paris, 1846.) tne victorious wife in the act of 

putting that garment on. On the portal of a church at Ploermel, in France, 
there is a well-cut representation of a young girl leading an elderly man by 
the nose. More violent contests are frequently portrayed, and even fierce bat- 
tles with bellows and pokers, stirring incidents in the " eternal war between 
man and woman." 

The gentle German priest who wrote the moral ditties of the "Ship of 
Fools" ought not to have known much of the tribulations of husbands; but in 
his poem on the " Wrath and great Lewdnes of Wymen," he becomes a kind 
of frantic Caudle, and lays about him with remarkable vigor. He calls upon 
the " Kinge most glorious of heaven and erth " to deliver mankind from the 
venomous and cruel tongues of froward women. One chiding woman, he ob- 
serves, " maketh greater yell than a hundred magpies in one cage ;" and let her 
husband do what he will, he can not quiet her till " she hath chid her fill." No 



beast on earth is so capable of furious hate not the bear, nor the wolf, nor the 
lion, nor the lioness ; no, nor the cruel tigress robbed of her whelps, rushing 
wildly about, tearing and gnawing stock and tree. 

"A wrathfull woman is yet more mad than she. 

Cruell Medea doth us example shewe 
Of woman's furour, great wrath and cruelty; 
Which her owne children dyd all to pecis hewe." 

This poet, usually so moderate and mild in his satire of human folly, is 
transported with rage in contemplating the faults of women, and holds them 
up to the abhorrence of his readers. A woman, he remarks, can wallow in 
wicked delights, and then, giving her mouth a hurried wipe, come forward 
with tranquil mind and an air of child-like innocence, sweetly protesting that 
she has done nothing wrong. The most virulent woman-hater that was ever 
jilted or rejected could not go beyond the bachelor priest who penned this in- 
furiate diatribe upon the sex. 

A SPLENDID SPREAD. ((Jruikshank, 

Nor was Erasmus's estimate of women more favorable than Brandt's, 
though he expresses it more lightly and gayly, as his manner was. And curi- 
ous it is to note that the foibles which he selects for animadversion are pre- 
cisely those which form the staple of satire against women at the present time. 
In one of his Colloquies he describes the "Assembly of Women, or the Female 
Parliament," and reports at length the speech of one of the principal members, 
the wise Cornelia. This eloquent lady heartily berates the wives of tradesmen 
for presuming to copy the fashions of the rich and noble. Would any one be- 
lieve that the following sentences were written nearly four hundred years ago? 

" 'Tis almost impossible by the outside," says Cornelia to her parliament of 
fine ladies, " to know a duchess from a kitchen-wench. All the ancient bounds 


of modesty have been so impudently transgressed, that every one wears what 
apparel seems best in her own eyes. At church and at the play-house, in city 
and country, you may see a thousand women of indifferent if not sordid ex- 
traction swaggering it abroad in silks and velvets, in damask and brocard, in 
gold and silver, in ermines and sable tippets, while their husbands perhaps are 
stitching Grub-street pamphlets or cobbling shoes at home. Their fingers 
are loaded with diamonds and rubies, for Turkey stones are nowadays de- 
spised even by chimney-sweepers' wives. It was thought enough for your 
ordinary women in the last age that they were allowed the mighty privilege 
to wear a silk girdle, and to set off the borders of their woolen petticoats with 
an edging of silk. But now and I can hardly forbear weeping at the 
thoughts of it this worshipful custom is quite out-of-doors. If your tallow- 
chandlers', vintners', and other tradesmen's wives flaunt it in a chariot and 
four, what shall your marchionesses or countesses do, I wonder? And if a 
country squire's spouse will have a train after her full fifteen ells long, pray 
what shift must a princess make to distinguish herself ? What makes this ten 
times worse than otherwise it would be, we are never constant to one dress, 
but are as fickle and uncertain as weathercocks or the men that preach under 
them. Formerly our head -tire was stretched out upon wires and mounted 
upon barbers' poles, women of condition thinking to distinguish themselves 
from the ordinary sort by this dress. Nay, to make the difference still more 
visible, they wore caps of ermine powdered. But they were mistaken in their 
politics, for the cits soon got them. Then they trumpt up another mode, and 
black quoiss came into play. But the ladies within Ludgate not only aped 
them in this fashion, but added thereto a gold embroidery and jewels. For- 
merly the court dames took a great deal of pains in combing up their hair from 
their foreheads and temples to make a tower; but they were soon weary of 
that, for it was not long before this fashion too was got into Cheapside. Aft- 
er this they let their hair fall loose about their foreheads ; but the city gossips 
soon followed them in that." 

And this game, we may add, has been kept up from that day to this ; nor 
does either party yet show any inclination to retire from the contest. 

Erasmus was, indeed, an unmerciful satirist of women. In his " Praise of 
Folly" he returns to the charge again and again. "That which made Plato 
doubt under what genus to rank woman, whether among brutes or rational 
creatures, was only meant to denote the extreme stupidness and folly of that 
sex, a sex so unalterably simple, that for any of them to thrust forward and 
reach at the name of wise is but to make themselves the more remarkable 
fools, such an endeavor being but a swimming against the stream, nay, the 
turning the course of nature, the bare attempting whereof is as extravagant as 
the effecting of it is impossible : for as it is a trite proverb, That an ape will 
be an ape, though clad in purple; so a woman will be a woman, i. e., a fool, 
whatever disguise she takes up." And again : " Good God ! what frequent 



divorces, or worse mischief, would oft sadly happen, except man and wife were 
so discreet as to pass over light occasions of quarrel with laughing, jesting, 
dissembling, and such like playing the fool? Nay, how few matches would go 
forward, if the hasty lover did but first know how many little tricks of lust 
and wantonness (and perhaps more 
gross failings) his coy and seemingly 
bashful mistress had oft before been 
guilty of? And how fewer marriages, 
when consummated, would continue 
happy, if the husband were not either 
sottishly insensible of, or did not pur- 
posely wink at and pass over, the light- 
ness and forwardness of his good-nat- 
ured wife ?" 

The ill opinion entertained of wom- 
en by men during the ages of darkness 
and superstition found expression in 
laws as well as in literature. The age 
of chivalry! Investigators who have 
studied that vaunted period in the 
court records and law-books tell us 
that respect for women is a thing of 
which those records show no trace. 
In the age of chivalry the widow and 
the fatherless were regarded by lords, 
knights, and "parsons" as legitimate 
objects of plunder ; and woe to the 
widow who prosecuted the murderers 
of her husband or the ravagers of her 
estate ! The homage which the law 
paid to women consisted in burning 
them alive for offenses which brought 


upon men the painless death of hang- ^ have often 8hivered at 8eeing a young beanty 
ing. We moderns read with puzzled P ickin her wa y through the snow with a pale rose- 

' colored bonnet set on the very top of her head. They 

incredulity SUCh a Story as that Ot Go- never wear muffs or boots, even when they have to 

diva, doubtful if so vast an outrage F^3^!^^^ 

Could ever have been committed in a P lncne d "ito a miniature slipper, incapable of exclud- 
ing as much moisture as might bedew a primrose." 

Community not entirely Savage. Let MRS. TBOLLOPE, Domestic Manners of the Americans, 
.1 j , . , ,. ,. vol. ii., p. 135. 1830. 

the reader immerse himself for only a 

few months in the material of which the history of the Middle Ages must be 
composed, if it shall ever be truly written, and the tale of Godiva will seem 
credible and natural. She was her lord's chattel; and probably the people 
of her day who heard the story commended him for lightening the burdens of 



Coventry on such easy terms, and saw no great hardship in the task assigned 
to her. 

People read with surprise of Thomas Jefferson's antipathy to the poems 
and novels of Sir Walter Scott. He objected to them because they gave a 
view of the past ages utterly at variance with the truth as revealed in the 
authentic records, which he had studied from his youth up. 

Coming down to recent times, we still find the current anecdote and prov- 
erb in all lands bearing hardly upon the sex. A few kindly and appreciative 
sayings pass current in Scotland ; and the literatures of Germany, England, 
and the United States teem with the noblest and tenderest homage to the ex- 

'" My dear Baron, I am in the most pressing need of five hundred franc!' Must I put an s to franc?' 1 
"No. In the circumstances it is better not. It will prove to the Baron that, for the moment, you really 
are destitute of every thing even of orthography." ED. DE BEAUMONT, Paris, 1860. 

cellence of women. But most of these belong to the literature of this century, 
and bear the names of men who may be said to have created the moral feeling 
of the present moment. It is interesting to notice that in one of our latest and 
best dictionaries of quotation, that of Mr. M. M. Ballou, of Boston, there are 
one hundred and eleven short passages relating to women, of which only one is 
dishonorable to them, and that dates back a century and a half, to the halcyon 
day of the British libertine " Every woman is at heart a rake. POPE." So 
thought all the dissolute men of Pope's circle, as we know from their conversa- 
tion and letters.. So thought the Due de Rochefoucauld, who said, " There are 
few virtuous women who are not weary of their profession ;" and " Most vir- 
tuous women, like concealed treasures, are secure because nobody seeks after 



them." So thought Chesterfield, who told his hopeful son that he could never 
go wrong in flattering a 
woman, for women were 
foolish and frail without 
exception : " I never knew 
one in ray life who had 
good sense, or who reason- 
ed and acted consequen- 
tially for four -and -twenty 
hours together." And so 
must think every man who 
lived as men of fashion 
then lived. "If I dwelt 
in a hospital," said Dr. 
Franklin once, "I might 
come to think all mankind 

But a man need not be 
a fine gentleman nor a roue 

to think ill of womankind. " Madame, I have the honor " 

" Sir, be good enough to come round in front and speak to me." 
He needs Only tO be COm- " Madame, I really haven't the time. I must be off in five minutes." 

monplace; and hence it is - CnAM ' Pa > 1850 ' 

that the homely proverbs of all time bear so hardly upon women. The native 
land of the modern proverb is Spain, as we might guess from Sancho Panza's 
exhaustless repertory; and most of those homely disparaging sentences con- 
cerning women that pass cur- 
rent in all lands appear to 
have originated there. What 
Spain has left unsaid upon 
women's foibles, Italy has 
supplied. Most of the fol- 
lowing proverbs are traceable 
to one of the two peninsulas 
of Southern Europe: "He 
that takes an eel by the tail 
or a woman by her word 
may say he holds nothing." 
"There is one bad wife in 
Spain, and every man thinks 
he has her." " He that loses 
his wife and a farthing hath 

Where are the diamonds exhibited f" at losg of his f art hing." 

I haven't the least idea ; but I let myself be gnided by my wife. e 
Women get at such things by instinct." CUAM, Paris, 1868. "If the mother had never 



been in the oven, she would not have looked for her daughter there." " He 
that marries a widow and three children marries four thieves." "He that 
tells his wife news is but newly married." "A dead wife's the best goods 
in a man's house." "A man of straw is worth a woman of gold." "A woman 
conceals what she knows not." "As great a pity to see a woman weep as to 
see a goose go barefoot." "A woman's mind and winter's wind change oft." 
" There is no mischief in the world done but a woman is always one." " Com- 
mend a wedded life, but keep thyself a bachelor." " Where there are women 
and geese, there wants no noise." " Neither women nor linen by candle-light." 
" Glasses and lasses are brittle ware." " Two daughters and a back-door are 


"Ladies who have no engagements (in the evening) either mount again to the solitude of their chamber, 
or remain in the common sitting-room, in a society cemented by no tie, endeared by no connection, which 
choice did not bring together, and which the slightest motive would break asunder. I remarked that the 
gentlemen were generally obliged to go out every evening on business; and, I confess, the arrangement did 
not surprise me." MRS. TROI.LOPE, Domestic Manners of the Americans, voL ii., p. 111. 1830. 

three thieves." "Women commend a modest man, but like him not." "Wom- 
en in mischief are wiser than men." "Women laugh when they can and weep 
when they will." "Women, priests, and poultry never have enough." 

Among the simple people of Iceland similar proverbs pass current: "Praise 
the fineness of the day when it is ended ; praise a woman when she is buried ; 
praise a maiden when she is married." " Trust not to the words of a girl ; 
neither to those which a woman utters, for their hearts have been made like 
the wheel that turns round ; levity was put into their bosoms." 

Among the few broadsides of Elizabeth's reign preserved in the British 
Museum there is one which is conceived in perfect harmony with these prov- 
erbs. It presents eight scenes, in all of which women figure disadvantageous- 


ly. There is a child-bed scene, in which the mother lies in state, most prepos- 
terously dressed and adorned, while a dozen other women are idling and gos- 
siping abont the room. Women are exhibited also at the market, at the bake- 
house, at the ale-house, at the river washing clothes, at church,^ at the bath, at 
the public well; but always chattering, gossiping, idling, unless they are fight- 
ing or flirting. Another caricature in the same collection, dated 1620, the year 
of the Mayflower and Plymouth Rock, contains seven scenes illustrative of the 

lines following : 

"Who marieth a Wife upon a Moneday, 
If she will not be good upon a Twesday, 
Lett him go to y e wood upon a Wensday, 
And cutt him a cudgell upon the Thursday, 
And pay her soundly upon a Fryday ; 
And she mend not, y e divil take her a Saterday, 
That he may eat his meat in peace on the Sunday." 

To complete the record of man's ridicule of the sex to which he owes his 
happiness, I add the pictures given in this chapter, which bring that record 
down to date. They tell their own story. The innocent fun of English Cruik- 
shauk and Leech contrasts agreeably with the subtle depravity indicated by 
some of the French caricaturists, particularly by Gavarni, who surpasses all 
men in the art of exaggerating the address of the class of women who regard 
men in the light of prey. The point of Gavarni's satire usually lies in the 
words printed underneath his pictures, and the pictures generally consist of 
the two figures who utter those words. But the expression which he contrives 
to impart to his figures and faces by a few apparently careless lines is truly 
wonderful, and it can scarcely be transferred to another surface. He excels in 
the expression of a figure with the face turned away, the whole effect being 
given by the outline of the head three-quarters averted. There is one picture 
of his, given on the following page, of a woman and her lover, he sitting in a 
chair reading with his hat on, indicating the extreme of familiarity, she stand- 
ing at the window sewing, and keeping an eye on the pavement below. " He's 
coming !" she says ; " take off your hat." In the attitude of the woman there 
is a mingled effect of tranquillity and vigilance that is truly remarkable. In 
all the range of caricature it would be difficult to find a better specimen of the 
art than this, or a worse. The reader may be curious to see a few more of 
these fourberies defemmes, as evolved from the brain of the dissolute Gavarni. 
It is almost impossible to transfer the work of his pencil, but here are a few 
of his verbal elucidations: 

Under a picture of a father and daughter walking arm-in-arm : " How did 
you know, papa, that I loved M. Leon ?" " Because you always spoke of M. 

Two young ladies in confidential conversation : " When I think that M. 
Coquardeau is going to be my husband, I feel sorry for Alexander." "And I 
for Coquardeau." 



" He's coming ! Take off your hat !" GAVAKNI, Paris, 1846. 

Two married ladies in conversation : " Yes, my dear, my husband has been 
guilty of bringing that creature into my house before my very eyes, when he 
knows that the only man I love in the world is two hundred leagues from 
here." "Men are contemptible" (lacked). 

Husband writing a note, and his wife standing behind him : 

"Mr DEAR SIR, Caroline begs me to remind you of a certain duet, of which she is extrava- 
gantly fond, and which you promised to give her. Pray be so good as to dine with her to-day, 
and bring your music with you. For my part, I shall be deprived of the pleasure of hearing you, 
for I have an engagement at Versailles. Pity me, my dear sir, and believe me always your af- 
fectionate COQUARDEAU. " 

A young man in wild excitement reading a letter : 

" On receipt of this, mount, fly ; overtake in the Avenue de Neuilly a yellow cab, the steps 
down, gray horse, old coachman, 108, one lantern lighted ! Follow it. It will stop at the side 
door of a house at Sablonville. A man and a woman will get out. That man he was my lover .' 
And that woman she is vours!" 




Mus ThimUebee loquitur. " Turu your heads the other way, my dears, for here are two horridly hand- 
some officers coming." 

Lady fainting, and a man in consternation supporting her head : " Clara, 
Clara ! dearest, look up ! Don't ! Clara, I say ! You don't know any nice 
young man ! I am an ass, with my stupid jealousy. And you shall have your 
velvet shawl. Come, Clara ! Now then, Clara, please!" 

Lady dropping two letters into the post-office. First letter : 

"MY KIND AMEDEE, This evening, toward eight, at the Red Ball. Mind, now, and don't 
keep waiting your CLARA." 

Second letter : 

" Mr HENRY, Well-beloved, judge of my despair I have a sore throat that is simply fright- 
ful. It will be impossible for me to go out this evening. They even talk of applying twenty 
leeches. Pity a great deal, and love always, your CLARA." 

In these numberless satires upon women, executed by pen and pencil, there 
is a certain portion of truth, for, indeed, a woman powerfully organized and 
fully developed, but without mental culture and devoid of the sentiment of 
duty, can be a creature most terrific. If the possession of wealth exempts her 
from labor, there are four ways in which she can appease the enntii of a barren 
mind and a torpid conscience. One is deep play, which was, until within sev- 
enty years, the resource chiefly relied upon by women of fashion for killing the 
hours between dinner and bed ; one is social display, or the struggle for the 
leadership of a circle, an ambition perhaps more pernicious than gambling ; an- 
other is intrigues of love, no longer permitted in the more advanced countries, 
but formerly an important element in fashionable life everywhere; finally, 
there is the resource of excessive and ceaseless devotion, the daily mass, the 
weekly confession, frequent and severe fasting, abject slavery to the ritual. 


Of all these, the one last named is probably the most injurious, since it 
tends to bring virtue itself into contempt, and repels the young from all seri- 
ous and elevated modes of living. Accordingly, in studying the historic fami- 
lies of Europe, we frequently find that the devotee and the debauchee alter- 
nate, each producing the other, both being expressions of the same moral and 
mental defect. But whether a 'mindless woman gambles, dresses, flirts, or 
fasts, she is a being who furnishes the satirist with legitimate material. 

Equal rights, equal education, equal chances of an independent career 
when women have enjoyed these for so much as a single century in any coun- 
try, the foibles at which men have laughed for so many ages will probably no 
longer be remarked, for they are either the follies of ignorance or the vices re- 
sulting from a previous condition of servitude. Nor will men of right feeling 
ever regard women with the cold, critical eye of a Chesterfield or a Rochefou- 
cauld, but rather with something of the exalted sentiment which caused old 
Homer, whenever he had occasion to speak of a mother, to prefix an adjective 
usually applicable to goddesses and queens, which we can translate best, per- 
haps, by our English word REVERED. 





WE are apt to think of the Chinese as a grave people, unskilled in the 
lighter arts of satire and caricature ; but, according to that amusing 
traveler, M. Hue, they are the French of Asia " a nation of cooks, a nation of 
actors" singularly fond of the drama, gifted in pasquinade, addicted to bur- 
lesque, prolific in comic ideas and satirical devices. M. Hue likens the Chinese 
Empire to an immense fair, where you find mingled with the bustle of traffic 
all kinds of shows, mountebanks, actors, Cheap Jacks, thieves, gamblers, all 
competing continually and with vociferous uproar for the favor of the crowd. 
" There are theatres everywhere ; the great towns are full of them ; and the 
actors play night and day." When the British officers went ashore, in the ret- 
inue of their first grand embassy, many years ago, they were astonished to see 
Punch in all his glory with Judy, dog, and devil, just as they had last seen him 
on Ascot Heath, except that he summoned his audience by gong and triangle 
instead of pipes and drum. The Orient knew Punch perhaps ages before En- 
gland saw him. In China they have a Punch conducted by a single individ- 


* From "The Middle Kingdom," vol. ii., p. 177, by S. W. Williams, New York, 1871. 


ual, who is enveloped from head to foot in a gown. He carries the little thea- 
tre on his head, works the wires with his hands under the gown, executes the 
dialogue with his mouth concealed by the same garment, and in the intervals 
of performance plays on two instruments. He exhibits the theatre reduced to 
its simplest form, the work of the company, the band, the manager, treasurer, 
scene-shifter, and property-man all being done by one person. 

In the very nature of the Chinese, whether men or women, there is a large 
element of the histrionic, even those pompous and noisy funerals of theirs be- 
ing little more than an exhibition of private theatricals. The whole company 
gossip, drink tea, jest, laugh, smoke, and have all the air of a pleasant social 
party, until the nearest relation of the deceased informs them that the time to 
mourn has come. Instantly the conversation ceases and lamentation begins. 
The company gather round the coffin ; affecting speeches are addressed to the 
dead ; groans, sobs, and doleful cries are heard on every side ; tears, real tears, 
roll down many cheeks all is woe and desolation. But when the signal is 
given to cease mourning, " the performers," says M. Hue, " do not even stop to 
finish a sob or a groan, but they take their pipes, and, lo ! they are again those 
incomparable Chinese, laughing, gossiping, and drinking tea." 

It need not be said that Chinese women have an ample share of this pecul- 
iar talent of their race, nor that they have very frequent occasion to exercise it. 
Nowhere, even in the East, are women more subject or more artful than in 
China. " When a son is born," as a Chinese authoress remarks, " he sleeps 
upon a bed, he is clothed with robes, and plays with peaiis ; every one obeys 
his princely cries. But when a girl is born, she sleeps upon the ground, is 
merely wrapped in a cloth, plays with a tile, and is incapable of acting either 
virtuously or viciously. She has nothing to think of but preparing food, mak- 
ing wine, and not vexing her parents." This arrangement the authoress ap- 
proves^ because it prepares the girl to accept without repining the humiliations 
of her lot. It is a proverb in China that a young wife should be in her house 
but " a shadow and an echo." As in India, she does not eat with her husband, 
but waits upon him in silent devotion till he is done, and then satisfies her own 
appetite with inferior food. 

Such is the theory of her position. But if we may judge from Chinese sat- 
ires, women are not destitute of power in the household, and employ the arts 
of the oppressed with effect. Among the Chinese poems recently translated 
by Mr. G. C. Stent in the volume called " The Jade Chaplet," there are a few 
in the satiric vein which attest the ready adroitness of Chinese women in 
moments of crisis. According to an English author, "A woman takes as 
naturally to a lie as a rat to a hole." The author of these popular Chinese 
poems was evidently of the same opinion. The specimen subjoined, which 
has not been previously published in the United States, shows us that there 
is much in common between the jokes of the two hemispheres of our mun- 
dane sphere. 



" 'Twas spring the air was redolent 
With many a sweet and grateful scent ; 
The peach and plum bloomed side by side, 
Like blushing maid and pale-faced bride ; 
Coy willows stealthily were seen 
Opening their eyes of living green 
As if to watch the sturdy strife 
Of nature struggling into life. 

" One sunny morn a Mr. Chuang 
Was strolling leisurely along ; 
Viewing the budding flowers and trees 
Sniffing the fragrance-laden breeze 
Staring at those who hurried by, 
Each loaded with a good supply 
Of imitation sycee shoes, 
To burn for friends defunct to use 
Of dainty viands, oil, and rice, 
And wine to pour in sacrifice, 
On tombs of friends who 'neath them slept. 
(Twas '3d of the 3d,' when the graves are swept.) 

" Chuang sauntered on. At length, on looking round, 
He spied a cozy-looking burial-ground ; 
' I'll turn in here and rest a bit, ' thought he, 
'And muse awhile on life's uncertainty ; 
This quiet place just suits my pensive mood, 
I'll sit and moralize in pleasant solitude.' 
So, sitting down upon a gfassy knoll, 
He sighed when all at once upon him stole 
A smothered sound of sorrow and distress, 
As if one wept in very bitterness. 

" Mr. Chuang, hearing tin's, at once got up to see, 
Who the sorrowing mourner could possibly be, 

When he saw a young woman fanning a grave. 
Her ' three-inch gold lilies '* were bandaged up tight 
In the deepest of mourning her clothes, too, were white. t 
Of all the strange things he had read of or heard, 
This one was by far the most strange and absurd ; 
He had never heard tell of one fanning a grave. 

" He stood looking on at this queer scene of woe, 
Unobserved, but astounded, and curious to know 

The reason the woman was fanning the grave. 
He thought, in this case, the best thing he could do 
Was to ask her himself; so without more ado, 

* Small feet. t White is the color worn as mourning in China. 



He hemmed once or twice, then bowing his head, 
Advanced to the woman and smilingly said, 

' May I ask, madam, why you are fanning that grave ?' 

"The woman, on this, glancing up with surprise, 
Looked as though she could scarcely believe her own eyes, 

When she saw a man watching her fanning the grave. 
He was handsome, and might have been thirty or more ; 
The garb of a Taoist he tastefully wore ; 
His kind manner soon put her quite at her ease, 
So she answered demurely, ' Listen, sir, if you please, 

And I'll tell you the reason I'm fanning this grave. 

" ' My husband, alas! whom I now (sob, sob) mourn, 
A short time since (sob) to this grave (sob) was borne ; 

And (sob) he lies buried in this (sob, sob) grave. ' 
(Here she bitterly wept.) 'Ere my (sob) husband died, 
He called me (sob) once more (sob, sob) to his side, 
And grasping my (sob) with his dying lips said, 
"When I'm gone (sob, sob) promise (sob) never to wed, 
Till the mold is (sob) dry on the top of my grave." 

" 'I come hither daily to (sob) and to weep, 
For the promise I gave (sob) I'll faithfully keep, 

I'll not wed till the mold is (sob) dry on his grave. 
I don't want to marry again (sob), I'm sure, 
But poverty (sob) is so hard to endure; 
And, oh ! I'm so lonely, that I come (sob) to try 
If I can't with my fan help the mold (sob) to dry ; 

And that is the reason I'm fanning his grave.' 

" Hearing this, Chuang exclaimed, 'Madam, give me the fan. 
I'll willingly help you as much as I can 

In drying the mold on your poor husband's grave.' 
She readily handed the fan up to Chuang 
(Who in magic was skilled as he proved before long), 
For he muttered some words in a low under-tone, 
Flicked the fan, and the grave was as dry as a bone ; 

' There, ' said he, ' the mold's dry on the top of the grave. ' 

"Joy plainly was seen on the poor woman's face, 
As she hastily thanked him, ere quitting the place, 
For helping her dry up the mold on the grave. 
Chuang watched her go off with a cynical sigh, 
Thought he, ' Now suppose I myself were to die, 
How long would my wife in her weeds mourn my fate ? 
Would she, like this woman, have patience to wait 

Till the mold was well dry on her poor husband's grave ?'" 

There is an amusing sequel to this poem, in which Chuang is exhibited 
putting his wife to the test. Being a magician, endowed with miraculous 


power, he pretends to die; and while his body is in its coffin awaiting burial, 
he assumes the form of a handsome young man, and pays to his mourning wife 

ardent court. 

" In short, they made love, and the next day were wed ; 
She cheerfully changing her white clothes to red.* 
Excited by drink, they were going to bed, 

When Chuang clapped his hand to his brow 
He groaned. She exclaimed, ' What ! are you dying too ? 
One husband I've lost, and got married to you ; 
Now you are took bad. Oh, what shall I do ? 
Can I help you ? If so, tell me how.' 

" ' Alas !' groaned the husband, ' I'm sadly afraid 
The disease that I have is beyond human aid. 
Oh ! the sums upon sums I the doctors have paid ! 

There a remedy is, to be sure : 

It is this : take the brains from a living man's head 
If not to be had, get, and mash up instead 
Those of one who no more than three days has been dead. 

'Twill effect an infallible cure !' " 

The distracted widow did not hesitate. There was the coffin of her la- 
mented husband before her, and he had not yet been dead three days : 

' ' She grasped the chopper savagely, her brows she firmly knit, 
And battered at the coffin until the lid was split. 
But, oh ! what mortal pen could paint her horror and her dread ? 
A voice within exclaimed, 'Hollo!' and Chuang popped up his head! 

" 'Hollo!' again repeated he, as he sat bolt-upright: 
' What made you smash my coffin in 1 / see, besides, you re tight ! 
You've dressed yourself in red, too! What means this mummery ? 
Let me have the full particulars, and don't try on flummery.' 

" She had all her wits about her, though she quaked a bit with fear. 
Said she (the artful wretch !), ' It seems miraculous, my dear ! 
Some unseen power impelled me to break the coffin-lid, 
To see if you were still alive which, of course, you know I did ! 

" ''I felt sure you must be living ; so, to welcome you once more, 
My mourning robes I tore off", and my wedding garments wore ; 
But, were you dead, to guard against all noxious fumes, I quaffed, 
As a measure of precaution, a disinfecting draught !' 

"Said Chuang, 'Your tale is plausible, but I think you'd better stop; 
Don't fatigue yourself by telling lies ; just let the matter drop. 
To test your faithfulness to me, I've been merely shamming dead, 
I'm the youth you just now married my widow I've just wed!' " 

Appended to these two poems, there is the regulation moral, in which mar- 
* Red is worn on joyful occasions, such as weddings, etc. 



vied ladies are warned not to be too sure of their constancy, nor judge severely 
the poor widows who make haste to console themselves. 

" Do your best, but avoid supercilious pride, 
For you never can tell what you'll do till you're tried." 

We can not say much for the translation of these comic works. Mr. Stent 
is a high authority in the Chinese language and literature, but is not at home 
in English prosody. It is plain, however, from his translations, rough as they 
may be, that there is a comic vein in the Chinese character which finds expres- 
sion in Chinese literature. 

Caricature, as we might suppose, is a universal practice among them ; but, 
owing to their crude and primitive taste in such things, their efforts are sel- 
dom interesting to any but themselves. 
In Chinese collections, we see number- 
less grotesque exaggerations of the 
human form and face, some of which 
are not devoid of humor and artistic 
merit ; but the specimens given on this 
and the next page suffice for the pres- 
ent purpose. 

The Chinese, it appears, are fond 
of exhibiting their English visitors in 
a ridiculous light. The caricature of 
an English foraging party, given in the 
first part of this chapter, was brought 
home thirty years ago by a printer 
attached to an American mission in 
China. Recently a new illustration of 
this propensity has gone abroad. In 
1874 an account appeared in the En- 
glish papers of the audience granted 

A DEAF MANDARIN. (From a Figure in the British to the foreign ministers by the Emper- 

or of China, in which Mr. Wade, the 

English embassador, was represented as having been overwhelmed with awe 
and alarm in the presence of the august potentate, the Son of Heaven. The 
origin of the paragraph was explained by the Athenaeum: 

" The account was absurd in the extreme, and was universally recognized 
as a squib, except by a writer in the columns of a weekly contemporary, who 
gravely undertook the task of showing, by reference to the whole of his pre- 
vious career, how very unlikely it was that Mr. Wade should give way to the 
weakness imputed to him. It now turns out that the imaginary narrative first 

" Malcolm's Caricaturing," plate iv.,fig. 9. 



appeared in the columns of Puck,. a, comic pa- 
per (in English), published at Shanghai ; that 
it was translated into Chinese by some native 
wag, who palmed it off on his countrymen as a 
truthful account of the behavior of the English 
barbarian on this occasion ; and that some in- 
quiring foreigner, ignorant of the source from 
whence it came, retranslated it into English, 
and held it up as another instance of the way 
in which the Chinese pamphleteers were at- 
tempting to undermine our influence in China 
by covering our minister with contempt !" 

The burlesque which thus imposed upon a 
London editor was a creditable specimen of 

Puck's COmic talent: "His majesty having as- AFTER DINNER. A CHINESE CABIOATPBE. 
, , ,, ,, ,, i -i . .1 (From a Figure in the British Museum.)* 

cended the throne, the envoys were led to the 

space at its foot, when they performed the ceremony of inclining the body. 
They did not kneel. By the side of the steps there was placed a yellow table, 
and the envoys stood in rank to read out their credentials, the British having 
the leading place. When he had read a few sentences, he began to tremble 
from head to foot, and was incapable of completing the perusal. The emperor 
asked, ' Is the prince of your country well ?' But he could utter no reply. 
The emperor again asked, ' You have besought permission to see me time and 
time again. What is it you have to say ?' But again he was unable to make 
an answer. The next proceeding was to hand in the credentials; but, in doing 
this, he fell down on the ground time after time, and not a syllable could he 
articulate. Upon this Prince Kung laughed loud at him before the entire 
court, exclaimed ' Chicken - feather !' and gave orders to have him assisted 
down the steps. He was unable to move of his own accord, and sat down on 
the floor, perspiring and panting for breath. The whole twelve shook their 
heads and whispered together no one knows what. When the time came for 
the assembly at the banquet, they still remained incapable, and dispersed in 
hurried confusion. Prince Kung said to them, ' You would not believe that it 
is no light matter to come face to face with his majesty; but what have you 
got to say about it to-day ?' " 

"Malcolm's Caricaturing, " plate iv., fig. 3. 




r T^HE bright, good-tempered people of Japan are familiar with humor in 
J- many forms, and know how to sport with pencil as well as with pen. 
Their very sermons are not devoid of the jocular. When a preacher has 
pointed his moral by a comical tale, he will turn to the audience in the most 
familiar, confidential manner, and say, "Now, isn't that a funny story?" or, 
" Wasn't that delightful ?" Sometimes he will half apologize for the introduc- 
tion of mirth-moving anecdotes : " Now, my sermons are not written for the 
learned. I address myself to farmers and tradesmen, who, hard pressed by 

their daily business, have no time for study Now, positively you must 

not laugh if I introduce a light story now and then. Levity is not my object; 
I only want to put things in a plain and easy manner."* Nothing yet brought 
from that country is more interesting to us than the specimens given in Mr. 
Mitford's book of the short, homely, humorous, sound Japanese sermons. The 
existence of this work is another proof of the wisdom of giving consular and 
diplomatic appointments to men who know how to use their eyes, their hands, 
and their minds. The sumptuous work upon Japan by M. Aime Humbert 
could scarcely have been produced if the author had not been at the head of a 
powerful embassy. 

The Japanese are a gentler and kindlier people than the Chinese; women 
occupy a better position among them ; and hence the allusions to the sex in 
their literature are less contemptuous and satirical. The preacher whose ser- 
mons Mr. Mitford selects for translation is what we should term an eclectic 
one who owns fealty to none of the great religions of the East, but gleans les- 
sons of truth and wisdom from them all. Imagine him clad in gorgeous robes 
of red and white, attended by an acolyte, entering a chapel a spacious, pleas- 
ant apartment which opens into a garden bowing to the sacred picture over 
the altar, and taking a seat at a table. Some prayers are intoned, incense is 
burned, offerings are received, a passage from a sacred book is read, a cup of 
tea is quaffed, and then the preacher rises and begins his chatty, humorous, 
anecdotical discourse. Whenever he makes a point, the audience utters a re- 

* "Tales of Old Japan," vol. ii., p. 138, by A. W. Mitford, Secretary of the British Legation 
in Japan, London, 1874. 


sponsive " Nimmiyo," varying the sound so as to accord with the sentiment 
expressed by the speaker. Indeed, it would be difficult to name one rite, or 
observance, or custom, or eccentricity of religion practiced ampng us here in 
the United States, the counterpart of which has not been familiar to the Japa- 
nese from time immemorial. They have sacred books, a peculiar cross, litur- 
gies, temples, acolytes, nunneries, monasteries, holy water, incense, prayers, 
sermons, collections, the poor-box, responses, priestly robes, the bell, a series 
of ceremonies strongly resembling the mass, followed by a sermon, sacred 
pictures, anointing, shaven crowns, sects, orders, and systems of theology. 

Their sermons abound in parables and similes. The preacher just men- 
tioned illustrates his points with amusing ingenuity. For example, in a ser- 
mon on the folly of putting excessive trust in wealth, strength, or any other 
advantage merely external or transitory, he relates a parable of a shell-fish 
the sazaye noted for the extreme hardness of its. shell. One day, just after 
a large sazaye had been vaunting his perfect security against the dangers to 
which other fish were exposed, there came a great splash in the water. " Mr. 
Sazaye," continued the preacher, " shut his lid as quickly as possible, kept quite 
still, and thought to himself what in the world the noise could be. Could it 
be a net? Could it be a fish-hook? Were the tai and the other fish caught? 
he wondered ; and he felt quite anxious about them. However, at any rate. 
he was safe. And so the time passed ; and when he thought all was over, he 
stealthily opened his shell, and slipped out his head and looked all round him, 
and there seemed to be something wrong something with which he was not 
familiar. As he looked a little more carefully, lo and behold ! there he was in 
a fish-monger's shop, and with a card, marked ' Sixteen Cash,' on his back. 

" Isn't that a funny story ?" cries the jovial preacher, smiling complacently 
upon the congregation. " Poor shell-fish ! I think there are people not un- 
like him to be found in China and India" This is a favorite joke with the 
preacher. He frequently closes a satirical passage by a similar remark. " I 
don't mean to say that there are any such persons here. Oh no. Still, there 
are plenty of them to be found say, for instance, in the back streets of India." 

The tone of this merry instructor in righteousness when he is speaking of 
women is that of a tender father toward children. He assumes that " women 
and children " can not understand any thing profound and philosophical. 
Righteousness he defines as " the fitting," the ought-to-be ; and he considers it 
"fitting" that women should be the assiduous, respectful, and ever-obedient 
servants of men. A parable illustrates his meaning. A great preacher of old 
was once the guest of a rich man of low rank, who was "particularly fond of 
sermons," and had a lovely daughter of fifteen, who waited upon the preacher 
at dinner, and entertained him afterward upon the harp. " Really," said the 
learned preacher, " it must be a very difficult thing to educate a young lady up 
to such a pitch as this." The flattered parents, could not refrain from boast- 
ing of their daughter's accomplishments her drawing, painting, singing, and 


flower -plaiting. The wily preacher, Socrates -like, rejoined: "This is some- 
thing quite out of the common run. Of course she knows how to rub the 
shoulders and loins, and has learned the art of shampooing?" This remark 
offends the fond father. " I have not fallen so low as to let my daughter learn 
shampooing !" The preacher blandly advises him not to put himself in a pas- 
sion, and proceeds to descant upon the Whole Duty of Woman, as understood 
in Japan. " She must look upon her husband's parents as her own. If her 
honored father-in-law or mother-in-law fall ill, her being able to plait flowers 
and paint pictures and make tea will be of no use in the sick-room. To sham- 
poo her parents-in-law, and nurse them affectionately, without employing a 
shampooer or servant-maid, is the right path of a daughter-in-law." Upon 
hearing these words, the father sees his error, and blushes with shame ; where- 
upon the preacher admits that music and painting are not bad in themselves, 
only they must not be pursued to the exclusion of things more important, of 
which shampooing is one. 

He draws a sad picture of a wife who has learned nothing but the graceful 
arts. Before the bottom of the family kettle is scorched black the husband 
will be sick of his bargain a wife all untidy about the head, her apron fast- 
ened round her as a girdle, a baby twisted somehow into the bosom of her 
dress, and nothing in the house to eat but some wretched bean-soup, and that 
bought at a store. "What a ten-million-times miserable thing it is when par- 
ents, making their little girls hug a great guitar, listen with pleasure to the 
poor little things playing on instruments big enough for them to climb upon, 
and squeaking out songs in their shrill treble voices !" Such girls, if not 
closely watched, will be prematurely falling in love and running away to be 


These sermons are so curiously different from any thing which we are ac- 
customed to think of as sermons that I am tempted to extract the conclusion 
of one of them. The text is a passage from " Moshi," which touches upon the 
folly of men in being more ashamed of a bodily defect than of a moral fault. 
Mark how the merry Japanese preacher "improves" the subject: 

" What mistaken and bewildered creatures men are ! What says the old 
song? 'Hidden far among the mountains, the tree which seems to be rotten, 
if its core be yet alive, may be made to bear flowers.' What signifies it if 
the hand or the foot be deformed ? The heart is the important thing. If the 
heart be awry, what though your skin be fair, your nose aquiline, your hair 
beautiful? All these strike the eye alone, and are utterly useless. It is as if 
you were to put horse-dung into a gold-lacquer luncheon-box. This is what is 
called a fair outside, deceptive appearance. 

"There's the scullery-maid been washing out the pots at the kitchen-sink, 
and the scullion, Chokichi, comes up and says to her, ' You've got a lot of 
charcoal smut sticking to your nose,' and points out to her the ugly spot. The 
scullery-maid is delighted to be told of this, and answers, ' Really ! where- 


ubouts is it?' Then she twists a towel round her finger, and, bending her head 
till mouth and forehead are almost on a level, she squints at her nose, and 
twiddles away with her fingers as if she were the famous Goto at work carv- 
ing the ornaments of a sword-handle. 'I say, Master Chokichi/is it off yet?' 
' Not a bit of it. You've smeared it all over your cheeks now.' * Oh dear ! 
oh dear! where can it be?' And so she uses the water-basin as a looking- 
glass, and washes her face clean ; then she says to herself, ' What a dear boy 
Chokichi is!' and thinks it necessary, out of gratitude, to give him relishes 
with his supper by the ladleful, and thanks him over and over again. But if 
this same Chokichi were to come up to her and say, ' Now, really, how lazy you 
are ! I wish you could manage to be rather less of a shrew,' what do you 
think the scullery-maid would answer then? Reflect for a moment. 'Drat 
the boy's impudence ! If I were of a bad heart or an angular disposition, 
should I be here helping him ? You go and be hanged ! You see if I take 
the trouble to wash your dirty bedclothes for you any more.' And she gets 
to be a perfect devil, less only the horns. 

"There are other people besides the poor scullery-maid who are in the 
same way. 'Excuse me, Mr. Gundabei, but the embroidered crest on your 
dress of ceremony seems to be a little on one side.' Mr. Gundabei proceeds 
to adjust his dress with great precision. 'Thank you, sir. I am ten million 
times obliged to you for your care. If ever there should be any matter in 
which I can be of service to you, I beg that you will do me the favor of letting 
me know;' and, with a beaming face, he expresses his gratitude. Now for the 
other side of the picture : ' Really, Mr. Gundabei, you are very foolish ; you 
don't seem to understand at all. I beg you to be of a frank and honest heart: 
it really makes me quite sad to see a man's heart warped in this way.' What 
is his answer? He turns his sword in his girdle ready to draw, and plays the 
devil's tattoo upon the hilt. It looks as if it must end in a fight soon. 

" In fact, if you help a man in any thing which has to do with a fault of 
the body, he takes it very kindly, and sets about mending matters. If any one 
helps another to rectify a fault of the heart, he has to deal with a man in the 
dark, who flies in a rage, and does not care to amend. How out of tune all 
this is ! And yet there are men who are bewildered up to this point. Nor is 
this a special and extraordinary failing. This mistaken perception of the great 
and the small, of color and of substance, is common to us all to you and to me. 

"Please give me your attention. The form strikes the eye; but the heart 
strikes not the eye. Therefore, that the heart should be distorted and turned 
awry causes no pain. This all results from the want of sound judgment; and 
that is why we can not afford to be careless. 

" The master of a certain house calls his servant Chokichi, who sits dozing 
in the kitchen. 'Here, Chokichi! The guests are all gone. Come and clear 
away the wine and fish in the back room.' 

" Chokichi rubs his eyes, and, with a sulky answer, goes into the back room, 


and, looking about him, sees all the nice things paraded on the trays and in the 
bowls. It's wonderful how his drowsiness passes away: no need for any one 
to hurry him now. His eyes glare with greed, as he says, 'Halloo! here's a 
lot of tempting things! There's only just one help of that omelet left in the 
tray. What a hungry lot of guests ! What's this? It looks like fish rissoles;' 
and with this he picks out one, and crams his mouth full, when, on one side, a 
mess of young cuttle-fish, in a Chinese porcelain bowl, catches his eyes. There 
the little beauties sit in a circle, like Buddhist priests in religious meditation ! 
'Oh, goodness! how nice!' and just as he is dipping his finger and thumb in, 
he hears his master's footstep, and, knowing that he is doing wrong, he crams 
his prize into the pocket of his sleeve, and stoops down to take away the 
wine-kettle and cups ; and as he does this, out tumbles the cuttle-fish from 
his sleeve. The master sees it. 

" ' What's that ?' 

" Chokichi, pretending not to know what has happened, beats the mats, 
and keeps on saying, ' Come again the day before yesterday ; come again the 
day before yesterday.' [An incantation used to invite spiders, which are con- 
sidered unlucky by the superstitious, to come again at the Greek Kalends.] 

" But it's no use his trying to persuade his master that the little cuttle-fish 
are spiders, for they are not the least like them. It's no use hiding things 
they are sure to come to light; and so it is with the heart its purposes will 
out. If the heart is enraged, the dark veins stand out on the forehead ; if the 
heart is grieved, tears rise to the eyes ; if the heart is joyous, dimples appear 
in the cheeks ; if the heart is merry, the face smiles. Thus it is that the face 
reflects the emotions of the heart. It is not because the eyes are filled with 
tears that the heart is sad, nor that the veins stand out on the forehead that 
the heart is enraged. It is the heart which leads the way in every thing. All 
the important sensations of the heart are apparent in the outward appearance. 
In the 'Great Learning' of Koshi it is written, 'The truth of what is within 
appears upon the surface.' How, then, is the heart a thing which can be hid- 
den? To answer when reproved, to hum tunes when scolded, show a dis- 
eased heart ; and if this disease be not quickly taken in hand, it will become 
chronic, and the remedy become difficult. Perhaps the disease may be so vir- 
ulent that even Giba and Henjaku [two famous Indian physicians] in consulta- 
tion could not effect a cure. So, before the disease has gained strength, I in- 
vite you to the study of the moral essays entitled ' Shingaku ' [the " Learning 
of the Heart"]. If you once arrive at the possession of your heart as it was 
originally by nature, what an admirable thing that will be ! In that case your 
conscience will point out to you even the slightest wrong bias or selfishness. 

" While upon this subject, I may tell you a story which was related to me 
by a friend of mine. It is a story which the master of a certain money- 
changer's shop used to be very fond of telling. An important part of a money- 
changer's business is to distinguish between good and bad gold and silver. In 


the different establishments, the ways of teaching the apprentices this art vary ; 
however, the plan adopted by the money-changer was as follows : at first he 
would show them no bad silver, but would daily put before them good money 
only; when they had become thoroughly familiar with the sight of good 
money, if he stealthily put a little base coin among the good, he found that 
they would detect it immediately. They saw it as plainly as you see things 
when you throw light on a mirror. This faculty of detecting base money at a 
glance was the result of having learned thoroughly to understand good money. 
Having been taught once in this way, the apprentices would not make a mis- 
take about a piece of base coin during their whole lives, as I have heard. I 
can't vouch for the truth of this ; but it is very certain that the principle, ap- 
plied to moral instruction, is an excellent one it is a most safe mode of study. 
However, I was further told that if, after having thus learned to distinguish 
good money, a man followed some other trade for six months or a year, and 
gave up handling money, he would become just like any other inexperienced 
person, unable to distinguish the good from the base. 

" Please reflect upon this attentively. If you once render yourself famil- 
iar with the nature of the uncorrupted heart, from that time forth you will be 
immediately conscious of the slightest inclination toward bias or selfishness. 
And why? Because the natural heart is illumined. When a man has once 
learned that which is perfect, he will never consent to accept that which is im- 
perfect; but if, after having acquired this knowledge, he again keeps his natu- 
ral heart at a distance, and gradually forgets to recognize that which is perfect, 
he finds himself in the dark again, and that-he can no longer distinguish base; 
money from good. I beg you to take care. If a man falls into bad habits, he- 
is no longer able to perceive the difference between the good impulses of his 
natural heart and the evil impulses of his corrupt heart. With this benighted 
heart as a starting-point, he can carry out none of his intentions, and he has 
to lift his shoulders, sighing and sighing again. A creature much to be pitied 
indeed ! Then he loses all self-reliance, so that, although it would be better 
for him to hold his tongue and say nothing about it, if he is in the slightest 
trouble or distress he goes and confesses the crookedness of his heart to ev- 
ery man he meets. What a wretched state for a man to be in ! For this 
reason, I beg you to learn thoroughly the true silver of the heart, in order 
that you may make no mistake about the base coin. I pray that you and I, 
during our whole lives, may never leave the path of true principles. 

"I have an amusing story to tell you in connection with this, if you will be 
so good as to listen. 

" Once upon a time, when the autumn nights were beginning to grow chilly, 
five or six tradesmen in easy circumstances had assembled together to have a 
chat ; and, having got ready their picnic-box and wine-flask, went off to a tem- 
ple on the hills, where a friendly priest lived, that they might listen to the stags 
roaring. With this intention they went to call upon the priest, and borrowed 


the guests' apartments [all the temples in China and Japan have guests' apart- 
ments, which may be secured for a trifle, either for a long or short period. It 
is false to suppose that there is any desecration of a sacred shrine in the act of 
using it as a hostelry : it is the custom of the country] of the monastery ; and 
as they were waiting to hear the deer roar, some of the party began to compose 
poetry. One would write a verse of Chinese poetry, and another would write 
a verse of seventeen syllables ; and as they were passing the wine-cup the hour 
of sunset came, but not a deer had uttered a call ; eight o'clock came, and ten 
o'clock came; still not a sound from the deer. 

" ' What can this mean ?' said one. ' The deer surely ought to be roaring.' 
"But, in spite of their waiting, the deer would not roar. At last the 
friends got sleepy, and, bored with writing songs and verses, began to yawn, 
and gave up twaddling about the woes and troubles of life ; and as they were 
all silent, one of them, a man fifty years of age, stopping the circulation of the 
wine-cup, said : 

" ' Well, certainly, gentlemen, thanks to you, we have spent the evening in 
very pleasant conversation. However, although I am enjoying myself mightily 
in this way, my people at home must be getting anxious, and so I begin to 
think that we ought to leave off drinking.' 

o o 

" ' Why so ?' said the others. 

" ' Well, I'll tell you. You know that my only son is twenty-two years of 
age this year ; and a troublesome fellow he is, too. When I'm at home, he 
lends a hand sulkily enough in the shop ; but as soon as he no longer sees the 
shadow of me, he hoists sail, and is off to some bad haunt. Although our re- 
lations and connections are always preaching to him, not a word has any more 
, effect than wind blowing into a horse's ear. When I think that I shall have 
to leave my property to such a fellow as that, it makes my heart grow small 
indeed. Although, thanks to those to whom I have succeeded, I want for 
nothing; still, when I think of my son, I shed tears of blood night and day.' 

"And as he said this with a sigh, a man of some forty-five or forty-six 
years said : 

" ' No, no. Although you make so much of your misfortunes, your son is 
but a little extravagant, after all. There's no such great cause for grief there. 
I've got a very different story to tell. Of late years my shop-men, for one rea- 
son or another, have been running me into debt, thinking nothing of a debt of 
fifty or seventy ounces ; and sa the ledgers get all wrong. Just think of that ! 
Here have I been keeping these fellows ever since they were little children un- 
able to blow their own noses, and now, as soon as they come to be a little use- 
ful in the shop, they begin running up debts, and are no good whatever to their 
master. You see, you only have to spend your money upon your own son.' 

" Then another gentleman said : 

"'Well, I think that to spend money upon your shop -people is no such 
great hardship, after all. Now, I've been in something like trouble lately. I 


can't get a penny out of my customers. One man owes me fifteen ounces; 
another owes me twenty-five ounces. Really that is enough to make a man 
feel as if his heart were worn away.' 

" When he had finished speaking, an old gentleman, who wasf sitting oppo- 
site, playing with his fan, said : 

" ' Certainly, gentlemen, your grievances are not without cause ; still, to be 
perpetually asked for a little money, or to back a bill, by one's relations or 
friends, and to have a lot of hangers-on dependent on one, as I have, is a worse 
case still.' 

" But before the old gentleman had half finished speaking, his neighbor 
called out : 

" ' No, no ; all you gentlemen are in luxury compared to me. Please listen 
to what I have to suffer. My wife and my mother can't hit it off anyhow. 
All day long they're like a couple of cows butting at one another with their 
horns. The house is as unendurable as if it were full of smoke. I often think 
it would be better to send my wife back to her village; but, then, I've got two 
little children. If I interfere and take my wife's part, my mother gets low- 
spirited. If I scold my wife, she says that I treat her so brutally because 
she's not of the same flesh and blood ; and then she hates me. The trouble and 
anxiety are beyond description : I'm like a post stuck up between them.' 

"And so they all twaddled away in chorus, each about his own troubles. 
At last one of the gentlemen, recollecting himself, said : 

" ' Well, gentlemen, certainly the deer ought to be roaring ; but we've been 
so engrossed with our conversation that we don't know whether we have 
missed hearing them or not.' 

" With this he pulled aside the sliding-door of the veranda and looked out, 
and, lo and behold ! a great big stag was standing perfectly silent in front of 
the garden. 

" * Halloo !' said the man to the deer, ' what's this? Since you've been there 
all the time, why did you not roar?' 

" Then the stag answered, with an innocent face, 

" ' Oh, I came here to listen to the lamentations of you gentlemen.' 

" Isn't that a funny story ? 

" Old and young, men and women, rich and poor, never cease grumbling 
from morning till night. All this is the result of a diseased heart. In short, 
for the sake of a very trifling inclination or selfish pursuit, they will do any 
wrong in order to effect that which is impossible. This is want of judgment, 
and this brings all sorts of trouble upon the world. If once you gain posses- 
sion of a perfect heart, knowing that which is impossible to be impossible, and 
recognizing that that which is difficult is difficult, you will not attempt to spare 
yourself trouble unduly. What says the ' Chin-Yo ?' The wise man, whether 
his lot be cast among rich or poor, among barbarians or in sorrow, understands 
his position by his own instinct. If men do not understand this, they think 


tint the causes of pain and pleasure are in the body. Putting the heart on 
one side, they earnestly strive after the comforts of the body, and launch into 
xtrava.'ance, the end of which is miserly parsimony. Instead of pleasure, 
they meet with grief of the heart, and pass their lives in weeping and wailing. 
In one way or another, everything in this world depends upon the heart. I 
implore every one of you to take heed that tears fall not to your lot." 

A people capable of producing and enjoying sermons like these, so free 
from the solemn and the sanctimonious, would be likely to wield the humorous 
pencil also. Turning to the illustrated work of M. Airae Humbert, we find that 
the foibles of human nature are satirized by the Japanese draughtsmen in cari- 

TIIB RAT RICK MKBOHANTS. (A Japanese Caricature, from "Japan and the Japanese," by Aime Humbert.) 

catures, of which M. Humbert gives several specimens. These, however, are 
not executed with the clearness and precision which alone could render them 
effective in our eyes ; and a very large proportion of them employ that most 
ancient and well-worn device of investing animals with the faculties of human 
beings. The best is one representing rats performing all the labors of a rice 
warehouse. Rats, as M. Humbert remarks, are in Japan the most dreaded and 
determined thieves of the precious rice. The picture contains every feature 
of the scene the cashier making his calculations with his bead calculator; the 
salesman turning over his books in order to show his customers how impos- 
sible it is for him to abate a single cash in the price; the shop-men carrying 


the bales; coolies bearing -the straw bags of money at the end of bamboos; 
porters tugging away at a sack just added to the stock; and a new customer 
saluting the merchant. The Japanese do not confine themselves to this kind 
of burlesque. They take pleasure in representing a physician examining with 
exaggerated gravity a patient's tongue, or peering into ailing eyes through 
enormous spectacles, while he lifts with extreme caution the corner of the 
eyelid. A quack shampooing a victim is another of their subjects. One pict- 
ure represents a band of blind shampooers on their travels, who, in the midst 
of a ford, are disputing what direction they shall take when they reach the 
opposite bank. Begging friars, mishaps of fishermen, blind men leading the 
blind, jealous women, household dissensions, women excessively dressed, fur- 
nish opportunities for the satirical pencil of the Japanese artists, who also 
publish series of comic pictures, as we do, upon such subjects as "Little 
Troubles in the Great World," "The Fat Man's Household," "The Thin 
Man's Household." If these efforts of the Japanese caricaturists do not often 
possess much power to amuse the outside world, they have one qualification 
that entitles them to respect most of them are good-tempered. 



IT is inevitable that bad rulers should dread the satiric pencil. Caricature, 
powerless against an administration that is honest and competent, power- 
less against a public man who does his duty in his place, is nevertheless a most 
effective device against arrogance, double-dealing, corruption, cowardice, and 
iniquity. England, as the French themselves admit, is the native home of po- 
litical caricature; but not an instance can be named in all its history of cari- 
cature injuring a good man or defeating a good measure. A free pencil, too, 
becomes ever a gayer and a kinder pencil. The measure of freedom which 
France has occasionally enjoyed during the last ninety years has never lasted 
long enough to wear off the keen point of the satirist's ridicule; and collectors 
can tell, by the number and severity of the pictures in a port-folio, just how 
much freedom Frenchmen possessed when they were produced. It is curious, 
also, to note that caricatures on the wrong side of great public questions are 
never excellent. It is doubtful if a bad man with the wealth of an empire at 
his command could procure the execution of one first-rate caricature hostile to 
the public good. A despot can never fight this fire with fire, and has no re- 
source but to stamp it out. 

Vainly, therefore, will the most vigilant collector search for French carica- 
tures of Napoleon Bonaparte published during his reign. His government was 
a despotism not tempered by epigrams, and it was controlled by a despot who, 
though not devoid of a sense of humor, had all a Corsican's mortal hatred of 
ridicule. No man in France was less French than Napoleon, either in lineage 
or in character. His moral position in Paris was not unlike that which Othello 
might have held in Venice, if Othello had been base enough to betray and ex- 
pel the senate which he had sworn to serve. We can imagine how the shy, 
proud Moor would have writhed under the pasquinades of the graceful, disso- 
lute Venetian wits whom he despised. So Napoleon, who never ceased to have 
much in him of the semi-barbarian chief (and always looked like one when 
he was dressed in imperial robes), shrunk with morbid apprehension from the 
tongue of Madame De Stael, and wrote autograph notes to Fouche calling his 
attention to the placards and verses of the street-corners. There is something 
more than ludicrous in the spectacle of this rude soldier, with a million armed 
men under his command, and half Europe at his feet, sitting down in rage and 



affright to order Fouche to send a little woman over the frontiers lest she 
should say something about 
him for the drawing-rooms of 
Paris to laugh at. 

In place of caricature, 
therefore, we have only alle- 
gorical "glory" in the fugi- 
tive pictures of his reign, few 
of which are worthy of re- 

English Gillray, on the 
other side of the Channel, 
made most ample amends. 
Modern caricature has not 
often equaled some of the 
best of Gillray's upon Napo- 
leon. In 1806, when the con- 
queror had finally lost his 
head, dazzled and bewildered 
by his own victories, and was 
setting up new kingdoms with 
a facility which began to be 
amusing, Gillray produced his 
masterpiece of the "Great 

French Gingerbread Baker TAI.LKVBAND THE MAN WITH Six HEADS. (Paris, 1817.) 


drawing out a New Batch of Kings." It is full of happy detail. Besides the 
central figure of Bonaparte himself drawing from the "New French Oven" a 
fresh batch of monarchs, we see Bishop Talleyrand kneading in the " Political 
Kneading-trough," into which Poland, Hanover, and Prussia have just been 
thrown. There is also the "Ash-hole for Broken Gingerbread," into which 
Spain, Italy, Switzerland, and broad-backed Holland have been swept. On a 
chest of drawers stand a number of " Dough Viceroys intended for the Next 
Batch," and the drawers are labeled " Kings and Queens," " Crowns and Scep- 
tres," " Suns and Moons." Gillray burlesqued almost all the history of the 
gingerbread colossus from the Egyptian expedition onward, but he never 
surpassed the gayety and aptness of this picture, which was all the more ef- 
fective in English eyes because gilt gingerbread made into figures of kings, 
queens, crowns, anchors, and princes' feathers, is a familiar object at English 

Napoleon himself may have laughed at it. We know that at St. Helena he 
applauded English caricatures of a similar character, notably one which repre- 
sei.ted George III. as a corpulent old man standing on the English coast, hurl- 
ing iu fury a huge beet at the head of Napoleon on the other side of the Chan- 




nel, and saying to him, " Go and make yourself some sugar !"* We know also 
that while he relished the satirical pictures aimed at his enemies and rivals, he 
was very far from enjoying those which reflected disagreeably upon himself. 
" If caricatures," said he one day at St. Helena, " sometimes avenge misfortune, 
they form a continual annoyance to power; and how many have been made 
upon me ! I think I have had my share of them." 

Even he did not care for caricature when he was right. If it can be said 
that Napoleon Bonaparte conferred upon France one lasting good, it was beet- 
root sugar ; but the satire aimed at that useful article does not appear to have 
offended him. In a newspaper of June, 1812, we read: "A caricature has 
been executed at Paris, in which the emperor and the King of Rome are the 

most prominent characters. 
The emperor is represented 
as sitting at the table in the 
nursery with a cup of coffee 
before him, into which he is 
squeezing beet-root. Near to 
him is seated the young King 
of Rome, voraciously sucking 
the beet -root. The nurse, 
who is steadfastly observing 
him, is made to say, 'Suck, 
dear, suck ; your father says 
it is sugar.'" He did not 
care, probably, for that. It 
would have been far other- 
wise if a draughtsman had 
touched upon his mad inva- 
sion of Russia. 

It was not until his pow- 
er was gone that French sat- 
irists tried their pencils upon 
him, and then with no great 
success. With the downfall 
of Napoleon was involved the 
prostration of France. Hu- 
miliation followed humilia- 
tion. The spirit of French- 
men was broken, and their 


1815.) the presence of such events as 

* "Napoleon at St. Helena," p. 90, by John S. C. Abbott, New York, Harper & Brothers. 


the Russian catastrophe, the march of the allies upon Paris, Napoleon's banish- 
ment to Elba, the Hundred Days, Waterloo, the encampment of foreign armies 
in the public places of Paris, the flight of the emperor, and his final exile, the 
satirist was superseded, and burlesque itself was outdone by reality. When 
at last Paris was restored to herself, and peace again gave play to the human 
mind, Napoleon was covered with the majesty of what seemed a sublime mis- 
fortune. That peerless histrionic genius took the precaution in critical mo- 
ments to let the world know what character he was enacting, and accordingly, 
when he stepped on board the English man-of-w T ar, he announced himself to 
mankind as Theruistocles magnanimously seeking an asylum at the hands of 
the most powerful of his enemies. 

The good ruler is he who leaves to his successor, if not an easy task, yet 
one not too difficult for respectable talents. Napoleon solved none of the 
menacing problems. He threw no light upon the .difficulties with which the 
modern world finds itself face to face. Every year that he reigned he only- 
heaped up perplexity for his successors, until the mountain mass transcended 
all human ability, and entailed upon Frenchmen that tumultuous apprentice- 
ship in self-government which is yet far from ending. 

The first effort of the caricaturists in Paris after the Restoration was sim- 
ply to place the figure of a weather-cock after the names of public men who 
had shown particular alacrity in changing their politics with the changing 
dynasties. This was soon improved upon by putting weather-cocks enough 
to denote the precise number of times a personage had veered. Thus Talley- 
rand, who from being a bishop and a nobleman had become a republican, then 
a minister under Napoleon, and at last a supporter and servant of the Restora- 
tion, besides exhibiting various minor changes, , , , , , , 

1H ^H ~TM ~TSl "!! ^H 
was complimented with as many weather-cocks -^ 

as the fancy of each writer suggested. TALLEYRAND. 

Six appears to have been the favorite number. We find in a previous 
picture that he is represented as the man with six heads. The public men sig- 
nalized by this simple device were said to belong to the Order of the Weather- 
cock ; and it was the interest of the reactionists, who urged on the trial and 
execution of Ney and his comrades, to cover them with odium. To this day 
much of that odium clings to the name of Talleyrand. A man who keeps a 
cool head in the midst of madmen is indeed a most offensive person, and Tal- 
leyrand committed this enormity more than once in his life. So far as we can 
yet discern, the only " treason " he ever practiced toward the governments 
with which he was connected consisted in giving them better advice than they 
were capable of acting upon. The few words which he uttered on leaving the 
council-chamber, after vainly advising Marie Louise to remain in her husband's 
abode and maintain the moral dignity of his administration, show how well he 
understood the collapse of the " empire " and its cause : " It is difficult to com- 
prehend such weakness in such a man as the emperor. What a fall is his ! To 


(jive his name to a series of adventures, instead of bestowing it upon his cent- 
ury! When I thiuk of that, I can not help groaning." Then he added the 
words which gave him his high place in the Order of the Weather-cock : "But 
now what part to take? It does not suit every body to let himself be over- 
whelmed in the ruins of this edifice." Particularly it did not suit M. de Tal- 
leyrand, and he was not overwhelmed, accordingly. Considering the manner 
in which France was governed during his career, he might well say, "I have 
not betrayed governments : governments have betrayed me." 

It is mentioned by M. Champfleury as a thing unprecedented that this 
weather-cock device did not wholly lose its power to amuse the Parisians for 
two years. The portly person and ancient court of the king, Louis XVIII., 
called forth many caricatures at a later period. This king was as good-nat- 
ured, as well-intentioned, as honorable a Bourbon as could have been found in 
either hemisphere. It was not he who enriched all languages by the gift of 
his family name. It was not his obstinate adherence to ancient folly which 
caused it to be said that the Bourbons had forgotten nothing and learned 
nothing. Born as long before his accession as 1755, he was an accomplished 
and popular prince of mature age during the American Revolution and the in- 
tellectual ferment which followed it in France. A respectable scholar (for a 
prince), well versed in literature (for a prince), a good judge of art (for a 
prince), of liberal politics (for a prince), and not so hopelessly ignorant of state 
affairs as kings and princes usually were, he watched the progress of the Rev- 
olution with some intelligence and, at first, with some sympathy. Both then 
and in 1815 he appears to have been intelligently willing to accept a constitu- 
tion that should have left his family on the throne by right divine. 
, Right divine was his religion, to which he sacrificed much, and, unquestion- 
ably, would have sacrificed his life. When he was living in exile upon the 
bounty of the Emperor of Russia, he said to his nephew, on the wedding-day 
of that young Bourbon : " If the crown of France were of roses, I would give 
it to you. It is of thorns ; I keep it." And, indeed, a turn in politics expelled 
him soon after, in the middle of winter, from his abode, and made him again a 
dependent wanderer. In 1803, too, when there could be descried no ray of 
hope of the restoration of the old dynasty, and Napoleon, apparently lord of 
the world,. offered him a principality in landed wealth if he would but formally 
renounce the throne, he replied in a manner which a believer in divine right 
might think sublime : 

" I do not confound M. Bonaparte with those who have preceded him. His 
valor, his military talents, I esteem ; and I am even grateful to him for several 
measures of his administration, since good done to my people will ever be dear 
to my heart. But if he thinks to engage me to compromise my rights, he de- 
ceives himself. On the contrary, by the very offer he now makes me he would 
establish them if they could be thought of as doubtful. I do not know what 
are the designs of God with regard to my house and myself, but I know the 



obligations imposed upon me by the rank in which it was his pleasure to cause 
me to be born. A Christian, I shall fulfill those obligations even to my latest 
breath ; a son of St. Louis, I shall know, taught by his example, how even in 
chains to respect myself ; a successor of Francis I., I desire at least to be able 
to say, like him, 'All is lost but honor !' " 

Again, in 1814, when the Emperor Alexander of Russia urged him to con- 
cede so much to the popular feeling as to call himself King of the French, and 
to omit from his style the words " par la grace de Dieu" he answered : " Di- 
vine right is at once a consequence of religious dogma and the law of the 
country. By that law for eight centuries the monarchy has been hereditary in 
my family. Without divine right I am but an infirm old man, long an exile 
from my country, and reduced to beg an asylum. But by that right, the exile 
is King of France." 

He wrote and said these " neat things " himself, not by a secretary. Among 
his happy sayings two have remained in the memory of Frenchmen : " Punctu- 
ality is the politeness of kings," and " Every French soldier carries a marshal's 
baton in his knapsack." He was, in short, a genial, witty, polite old gentle- 
man, willing to govern France constitutionally, disposed to forget and forgive, 
and be the good king of the whole people. But he was sixty years of age, 
fond of his ease, and ex- 
tremely desirous, as he 
often said, of dying in 
his own bed. He was 
surrounded by elderly 
persons who were big- 
oted to a Past which 
could not be resuscita- 
ted ; and his brother, 
heir presumptive to the 
throne, was that fatal 
Comte d'Artois (Charles 
X.) who aggravated the 
violence of the Revolu- 
tion of 1789, and pre- 
cipitated that of 1830, 
by his total incapacity 
to comprehend either. 
Gradually the gloomy 
party of reaction and 
revenge who surround- 
ed the heir presumptive 
gained the ascendency, 


and the good - natured TH , PALAIS RoVAU (Pari(h 1818 .) 


old king could only restrain its extravagance enough to accomplish his desire 
of dying in his own house. Sincerely religious, he was no bigot ; and it was 
not by his wish that the court assumed more and more the sombre aspect of 
a Jesuit seminary. It is doubtful if there would have been one exception to 
the amnesty of political offenses if Louis XVIII. had been as firm as he was 
kind. The reader sees a proof of his good-nature in the picture on the pre- 
ceding page of Prince Cambaceres, who was Second Consul when Napoleon 
was First Consul, and Arch-chancellor under the Empire, peacefully walking 
in the streets of Paris with two of his friends. This caricature has a value in 
preserving an excellent poi'trait of a personage noted for twenty years in the 
history of France. 

To the Order of the Weather-cock succeeded, in 1819, when priestly as- 
cendency at court was but too manifest, the Family of the Extinguishers. In 
the picture given below, the reader has the pleasure of viewing some of the 
family portraits, and in another he sees members of the family at work, re- 
kindling the fire and extinguishing the lights. The fire was to consume the 
charter of French liberty and the records of science; the lights are the men to 



whom France felt herself indebted for liberty and knowledge Buffon, Frank- 
lin, D'Alembert, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Montaigne, Fenelon, Condorcet, and 
their friends. Above is the personified Church, with sword uplifted, menacing 
mankind with new St. Bartholomews and Sicilian Vespers. Underneath this 
elaborate and ingenious work was the refrain of Beranger's song of 1819, en- 
titled "Les Missionnaires," which was almost enough of itself to expel the 
Bourbons : 

"Vite soufflons, soufflons, morbleu! 
Eteignons les lumieres 
Et railumons le feu." 

The historian of that period will not omit to examine the songs which the 
incomparable Beranger wrote during the reign of the two kings of the Resto- 
ration. " Le peuple, c'est ma Muse," the poet wrote many years after, when 



reviewing this period. The people were his Muse. He studied the people, he 
adds, " with religious care," and always found their deepest convictions in har- 
mony with his own. He had been completely fascinated by the "genius of Na- 
poleon," never suspecting that it was Napoleon's lamentable want of ability 
which had devolved upon the respectable Louis XVIII. an impossible task. 
But he perceived that the task was impossible. There were two impossibili- 
ties, he thought, in the way of a stable government. It was impossible for the 
Bourbons, while they remained Bourbons, to govern France, and it was impos- 
sible for France to make them any thing but Bourbons. Hence, in lending his 
exquisite gift to the popular cause, he had no scruples and no reserves ; and he 
freely poured forth those wonderful songs which became immediately part and 
parcel of the familiar speech of his countrymen. Alas for a Bourbon when 
there is a Beranger loose in his capital ! Charles X. attempted the Bourbon 

THE JESUITS AT COUBT. (Paris, 1819.) 
" Quick ! Blow ! blow ! Let us put out the lights and rekindle the fires !" 

policy of repression, and had the poet twice imprisoned. But he could not 
imprison his songs, nor prevent his writing new ones in prison, which sung 
themselves over France in a week. Caricature, too, was severely repressed 
the usual precursor of collapse in a French government. 

The end of the Restoration, in 1830, occurred with a sudden and spontane- 
ous facility, which showed, among other things, how effectively Beranger had 
sung from his garret and his prison. The old king in 1824 had his wish of 
dying in his own bed, and is said to have told his successor, with his dying 
breath, that he owed this privilege to the policy of tacking ship rather than 
allowing a contrary wind to drive her upon the rocks. He advised " Mon- 
sieur " to pursue the same " tacking policy." But Monsieur was Comte d'Ar- 


tois, that entire and perfect Bourbon, crusted by his sixty-seven years, u will- 
ing victim in the hands of Jesuit priests. In six years the ship of state was 
evidently driving full upon the rocks; but, instead of tacking, he put on all 
sail, and let her drive. At a moment when France was in the last extremity 
of alarm for the portion of liberty which her constitution secured her, this un- 
happy king signed a decree which put the press under the control of the Min- 
ister of Police, and the rest of the people of France under Marshal Marmont. 
Twenty-one days after, August 16th, 1830, the king and his suite were received 
on board of two American vessels, the Charles Carroll and the Great Britain, 
by which they were conveyed from Cherbourg to Portsmouth. " This," said 
the king to his first English visitors, " is the reward of my efforts to render 
France happy. I wished to make one last attempt to restore order and tran- 
quillity. The factions have overturned me." The old gentleman resumed his 
daily mass, and found much consolation for the loss of a crown in the slaughter 
of beasts and birds. Louis Philippe was King of the French, by the grace of 
Lafayette and the acquiescence of a majority of the French people. 

Caricature, almost interdicted during the last years of the Restoration, pur- 
sued the fugitive king and his family with avenging ridicule. Gavarni, then 
an unknown artist of twenty-six, employed by Emile de Girardin to draw the 
fashion plates of his new periodical, La Mode, gave Paris, in those wild July 
days of 1830, the only political caricatures he ever published. One represented 
the king as an old-clothes man, bawling, " Old coats ! old lace !" In another 
lie appeared astride of a lance, in full flight, in a costume composed of a 
priest's black robe and the glittering uniform of a general ; white bands at his 
neck, the broad red ribbon of the Legion of Honor across his breast, one arm 
loaded with mitres, relics, and chaplets, with the scissors of the censer on the 
thumb, on the other side the end of a sabre, and the meagre legs encompassed 
by a pair of huge jack -boots. Another picture, called the "Lost Balloon," ex- 
hibited the king in the car of a balloon, with the same preposterous boots 
hanging down, along with the Due d'Angouleme clinging to the sides, and the 
duchess crushing the king by her weight. The royal banner, white, and sown 
with fleurs-de-lis, streamed out behind as the balloon disappeared in the 

These were the only political caricatures ever published by the man whom 
Frenchmen regard as the greatest of their recent satirical artists. He cared 
nothing for politics, and had the usual attachment of artists and poets to the 
Established Order, Having aimed these light shafts at the flying king in 
mere gayety of heart, because every one else was doing the same, he soon re- 
membered that the king was an old man, past seventy-three, as old as his own 
father, and flying in alarm from his home and country. He was conscience- 
stricken. Reading aloud one day a poem in which allusion was made to a 
white-haired old man going into exile with slow, reluctant steps, his voice 
broke, and he could scarcely utter the lines : 


"Pas d'outrage an vieillard qui s'exile a pas lents. 
C'est une pie'te d'e'pargner les mines. 
Je n'enfoncerai pas la couronne d'e'pines 
Que la main du malheur met sur ses cheveux blancs." r 

As he spoke these words the image of his old father rose vividly before his 
mind, and he could read no more. " I felt," said he, " as if I had been struck 
in the face ;" and ever after he held political caricature in horror. 

This feeling is one with which the reader will often find himself sympathiz- 
ing while examining some of the heartless and thoughtless pictures which ex- 
asperated the elderly paterfamilias who was now called to preside over demor- 
alized France. Louis Philippe was another good-natured Louis XVIII., minus 
divine right, plus a large family. With all the domestic virtues, somewhat 
too anxious to push his children on in the world, a good citizen, a good pa- 
triot, an unostentatious gentleman, he was totally destitute of those pictur- 
esque and captivating qualities which adventurers and banditti often possess, 
but which wise and trustworthy men seldom do. In looking back now upon 
that eighteen years' struggle between this respectable father of a family and 
anarchy, it seems as if France should have rallied more loyally and more con- 
siderately round him, and given him too the privilege, so dear to elderly gen- 
tlemen, of dying in his own bed. One-tenth of his virtue and one-half his in- 
tellect had sufficed under the old regime. 

But since that lamentable and fatal day when the priests wrought upon 
Louis XIV. to decree the expulsion of the Huguenots, who were the elite of 
his kingdom, France had been undergoing a course of political demoralization, 
which had made a constitutional government of the country almost impossible. 
Recent events had exaggerated the criminal class. Twenty years of intoxica- 
ting victory had made all moderate success, all gradual prosperity, seem tame 
and flat; and the reduction of the army had set afloat great numbers of peo- 
ple indisposed to peaceful industry. Under the Restoration, we may almost 
say, political conspiracy had become a recognized profession. The new king, 
pledged to make the freedom of the press " a reality," soon found himself face 
to face with difficulties which Bourbons had invariably met by mere repres- 
sion. Republicans and Legitimists were equally dissatisfied. Legitimists 
could only wait and plot; but Republicans could write, speak, and draw. A 
considerable proportion of the young, irresponsible, and adventurous talent 
was republican, and there was a great deal of Bohemian character available 
for that side. It was a time when a Louis Napoleon could belong to a demo- 
cratic club. 

Caricature speedily marked the "citizen king" for her own. Napoleon 
had employed all his subtlest tact during the last ten years of his reign in 
keeping alive in French minds the base feudal feeling, so congenial to human 
indolence and vanity, that it is nobler to be a soldier than to rear a family and 
keep a shop. In his bulletins we find this false sentiment adroitly insinuated 



in a hundred ways. He loved to stigmatize the English as a nation of shop- 
keepers. He displayed infinite art in exalting the qualities which render men 
willing to destroy one another without asking why, and in casting contempt 
on the arts and virtues by which the waste of war is repaired. The homely 
habits, the plain dress, the methodical ways, of Louis Philippe were, therefore, 
easily made to seem ridiculous. He was styled the first bourgeois of his king- 
dom as he was but the French people had been taught to regard the word 
as a term of contempt. 

Unfortunately he abandoned the policy of letting the caricaturists alone. 
Several French rulers have adopted the principle of not regarding satire, but 
not one has had the courage to adhere to it long. Sooner or later all the 
world will come into the "American system," and all the world will at length 
discover the utter impotence of the keenest ridicule and the most persistent 
abuse against public men who do right and let their assailants alone. The 
chief harm done by the abuse of public men in free countries is in making it 
too difficult to expose their real faults. How would it be possible, for exam- 
ple, to make the people of the United States believe ill of a President in vili- 
fying whom ingenious men and powerful journals had exhausted themselves 
daily for years ? Nothing short of testimony, abundant and indisputable, such 
as would convince an honest jury, could procure serious attention. From Pres- 
ident Washington to President Grant the history of American politics is one 

continuous proof of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's remark, that "an admin- 
istration which has nothing to 
conceal has nothing to fear from 
the press." 

When Louis Philippe had 
been a year upon the throne 
appeared the first number of 
Le Charivari, a daily paper of 
four small pages, conducted by 
an unknown, inferior artist 
Charles Philipon. Around him 
gathered a number of Bohemi- 
an draughtsmen and writers, 
not one of whom appears then 
to have shared in the social or 
political life of the country, or 
to have had the faintest con- 
ception of the consideration due to a fellow-citizen in a place of such extreme 
difficulty as the head of a government. They assailed the king, his person, his 
policy, his family, his habits, his history, with thoughtless and merciless ridi- 
cule. A periodical which has undertaken to supply a cloyed, fastidious public 



with three hundred and sixty-five ludicrous pictures per annum must often be 
in desperation for subjects, and there was no resource to Philipon so obvious 
or so sure as the helpless family imprisoned in the splendors and etiquette of 
royalty. Unfortunately for modern governments, the people of^Europe were 
for so many centuries preyed upon and oppressed by kings that vast numbers 
of people, even in free countries, still regard the head of a government as a 
kind of natural enemy, to assail whom is among the rights of a citizen. And. 
moreover, the king, the president, the minister, is unseen by those who hurl 
the barbed and poisoned javelin. They do not see him shrink and writhe. To 
many an anonymous coward it is a potent consideration, also, that the head of 
a constitutional government can not usually strike back. 

Mr. Thackeray, who was but nineteen when Louis Philippe came to the 
throne, witnessed much of the famous contest between this knot of caricatur- 
ists and the King of the French ; and in one of the first articles which he wrote 
for subsistence, after his father's failure, he gave the world some account of 
it.* At a later period of his life he would probably not have regarded the 
king as the stronger party. He would probably not have described the con- 
test as one between " half a dozen poor artists on the one side, and His Majesty 
Louis Philippe, his august family, and the numberless placemen and support- 
ers of the monarchy, on the other." Half a dozen poor artists, with an unscru- 
pulous publisher at their head, who gives them daily access to the eye and ear 
of a great capital, can array against the object of their satire and abuse the 
entire unthinking crowd of that capital. A firm, enlightened, and competent 
king would have united against these a majority of the responsible and the re- 
flecting. Such a king would truly have been, as Mr. Thackeray observed, " an 
Ajax girded at by a Thersites." But Louis Philippe was no Ajax. He was 
no hero at all. He had no splendid and no commanding traits. He was mere- 
ly an overfond father and well-disposed citizen of average talents. He was 
merely the kind of man which free communities can ordinarily get to serve 
them, and who will serve them passably well if the task be not made needlessly 
difficult. Hence Philipon and his " half a dozen poor artists " were very much 
the stronger party a fact which the king, in the sight and hearing of all 
France, confessed and proclaimed by putting them in prison. 

It was those prosecutions of Philipon that were fatal to the king. Besides 
adding emphasis, celebrity, and weight to the sallies of Le Charivari, they pre- 
saged the abandonment of the central principle of the movement that made 
him king the freedom of utterance. The scenes in court when Philipon, or 
his artist, Daumier, was arraigned, were most damaging to the king's dignity. 
One, incorrectly related by Thackeray, may well serve to warn future potent- 
ates that of all conceivable expedients for the caricaturist's frustration, the 
one surest to fail is to summon him to a court of justice. 

* In the London and Westminster Review for April, 1839, Article II. 


A favorite device of M. Philipon was to draw the king's face in the form 
of a huge pear, which it did somewhat resemble. Amateur draughtsmen also 
chalked the royal pear upon the walls of Paris ; and the exaggerated pears 
with the king's features roughly outlined which everywhere met the eye ex- 
cited the mocking laughter of the idle Parisian. No jest could have been so 
harmless if it had been unnoticed by the person at whom it was aimed, or no- 
ticed only with a smile. But the Government stooped to the imbecility of ar- 
raigning the author of the device. The poire actually became an object of 
prosecution, and the editor of Le Charivari was summoned before a jury on 
a charge of inciting to contempt against the person of the king by giving his 
face a ludicrous resemblance to one of the fruits of the earth. Philipon, when 
he rose to defend himself, exhibited to the jury a series of four sketches, upon 
which he commented. The first was a portrait of the king devoid of exagger- 
ation or burlesque. "This sketch," said the draughtsman, " resembles Louis 
Philippe. Do you condemn it ?" He then held up the second picture, which 
was also a very good portrait of the king; but in this one the toupet and the 
side-whiskers began to "flow together,'' ns M. Champfleury has it (s'onduler), 
and the whole to assume a distant resemblance to the outline of a pear. " If 
you condemn the first sketch," said the imperturbable Philipon, " you must 
condemn this one which resembles it." He next showed a picture in which 
the pear was plainly manifest, though it bore an unmistakable likeness to the 
king. Finally, he held up to the court a figure of a large Burgundy pear, pure 
and simple, saying, " If you are consistent, gentlemen, you can not acquit this 
sketch either, for it certainly resembles the other three." 

Mr. Thackeray was mistaken in supposing that this impudent defense car- 
vied conviction to the minds of the jury. Philipon was condemned and fined. 
He avenged himself by arranging the court and jury upon a page of Le Cha- 
rivari in the form of a pear.* He and his artists played upon this theme hun- 
dreds of variations, until the Government found matter for a prosecution even 
in a picture of a monkey stealing a pear. The pear became at last too expen- 
sive a luxury for the conductor of Le Charivari, and that fruit was "exiled 
from the empire of caricature." 

Before Louis Philippe had been three years upon the throne there was 
an end of all but the pretense of maintaining the freedom of press or pencil. 
" The Press," as Mr. Thackeray remarks, " was sent to prison ; and as for poor 
dear Caricature, it was fairly murdered." In Le Charivari for August 30th, 
1832, we read that Jean-Baptiste Daumier, for an equally harmless caricature 
of the king, was arrested in the very presence of his father and mother, of 
whom he was the sole support, and condemned to six months' imprisonment. 
It was Daumier, however, as M. Champfleury reveals, who had " served up the 
pear with the greatest variety of sauces." It was the same Daumier who after 

* " Histoire de la Caricature Moderne," p. 100, par Champfleury. 



his release assailed the advocates and legal system of his country with cease- 
less burlesque, and made many a covert lunge at the personage who moved 
them to the fatal absurdity of imprisoning him. 

Driven by violence from the political field, to which it has been permitted 
to return only at long intervals and for short periods, French caricature has 
ranged over the scene of human foibles, and attained a varied development. 
Daumier and Philipon conjointly produced a series of sketches in Le Chari- 
vari which had signal and lasting success with the public. The play of " Rob- 
ert Macaire," after running awhile, was suppressed by the Government, the 
actor of the principal part having used it as a vehicle of political burlesque. 
Le Charivari seized the idea of satirizing the follies of the day by means of 
two characters of the drama Macaire, a cool, adroit, audacious villain, and 
Bertrand, his comrade, stupid, servile, 
and timid. 

Philipon supplying the words and 
Daumier executing the pictures, they 
made Macaire undertake every scheme, 
practice, and profession which contain- 
ed the requisite ingredients of the com- 
ic and the rascally. The series extend- 
ed beyond ninety sketches. Macaire 
founds a joint-stock charity la mo- 
rale en action, he explains to gaping 
Bertrand, each action (shai'e) being 
placed at two hundred and fifty francs. 
He becomes a quack-doctor. "Don't 
trifle with your complaint," he says to 
a patient, as he gives him two bottles 
of medicine. " Come to see me often ; 
it won't ruin you, for I make no charge 
for consultations. You owe me twen- 
ty francs for the two bottles." The 
patient appearing to be startled at the 
magnitude of this sum, Dr. Macaire 
blandly says, as he bows him out, "We 
give two cents for returned bottles." 
He becomes a private detective. A 
lady consults him in his office. " Sir," she says, " I have had a thousand-franc 
note stolen." " Precisely, madame. Consider the business done : the thief is 
a friend of mine." " But," says the lady, " can I get my note back, and find 
out who took it?" "Nothing easier. Give me fifteen hundred francs for my 
expenses, and to-morrow the thief will return the note and send yon his card." 

Every resource being exhausted, Macaire astounds the despairing Bertrand 

(Daumier, 1833.) 


by saying, "Come, the time for mundane things is past; let us attend now to 
eternal interests. Suppose we found a religion?" "A religion!" cries Ber- 
tram! ; " that is not so easy." To this Macaire replies by alluding to the re- 
cent proceedings of a certain Abbe Chatel, in Paris. " One makes a pontiff 
of himself, hires a shop, borrows some chairs, preaches sermons upon the death 
of Napoleon, upon Voltaire, upon the discovery of America, upon any thing, 
no matter what. There's a religion for you; it's no more difficult than that." 
On one occasion Macaire himself is a little troubled in mind, and Bertram! 
remarks the unusual circumstance. "You seem anxious," says Bertrand. 
" Yes," replies Macaire, " I am in bad humor. Those scoundrels of bond-hold- 
ers have bothered me to such a point that I have actually paid them a divi- 
dend !" " What !" exclaims Bertrand, aghast, " a bona-fide dividend ?" "Yes, 
positively." "What are you going to do about it?" "I am going to get it 
back again." 

The reader will, of course, infer that each of these pictures was a hit at 
some scoundrelly exploit of the day, the public knowledge of which gave effect 
to the caricature. In many instances the event is forgotten, but the picture 
retains a portion of its interest. One of Macaire's professions was that of 
cramming students for their bachelor's degree. A student enters. "There 
are two ways in which we can put you through," says Macaire : " one, to make 
you pass your examination by a substitute ; the other, to enable you to pass it 
yourself." " I prefer to pass it myself," says the young man. " Very well. 
Do you know Greek?" "No." "Latin?" "No." "All right. You know 
mathematics?" "Not the least in the world." "What do you know, then?" 
" Nothing at all." " But you have two hundred francs ?" " Certainly." 
"Just the thing! You will get your degree next Thursday." We may find 
comfort in this series, for we learn from it that in every infamy which we now 
deplore among ourselves we were anticipated by the French forty years ago. 
Macaire even goes into the mining business, at least so far as to sell shares. 
" We have made our million," says the melancholy Bertrand ; " but we have 
engaged to produce gold, and we find nothing but sand." " No matter ; utilize 
your capital ; haven't you got a gold mine ?" " Yes but afterward ?" "Aft- 
erward you will simply say to the share-holders, ' I was mistaken ; we must try 
again.' You will then form a company for the utilization of the sand." Ber- 
trand, still anxious, ventures to remark that there are such people as policemen 
in the country. " Policemen !" cries Macaire, gayly. " So much the better : 
they will take shares." One of his circular letters was a masterpiece : 

"SiR, I regret to say that your application for shares in the Consolidated European Incom- 
bustible Blacking Association can not be complied with, as all the shares of the C. E. I. B. A. 
were disposed of on the day they were issued. I have nevertheless registered your name, and in 
case a second series should be put forth I shall have the honor of immediately giving you notice. 
"I am, sir, etc. ROBERT MACAIRE, Director." 

"Print three hundred thousand of these," says the director, " and poison 



all France with them." " But," says Bertrand, " \ve haven't sold a single share ; 
you haven't a sou iu your pocket, and " " Bertrand, you are an ass. Do as 
I tell you." 

Thus, week after week, for many a month, did Le Charivari "utilize" 
these impossible characters to expose and satirize the plausible scoundrelism 
of the period. Mr. Thackeray, who ought to be an excellent authority on any 
point of satirical art, praises highly the execution of these pictures by M. Dau- 
mier. They seem carelessly 
done, he remarks ; but it is the 
careless grace of the consum- 
mate artist. lie recommends 
the illustrator of " Pickwick " 
to study Danmier. When we 
remember that Thackeray had 
offered to illustrate "Pick- 
wick," his comments upon the 
artist who was preferred to 
himself have a certain inter- 
est: "If we might venture to 
give a word of advice to anoth- 
er humorous designer [Hablot 
K. Browne], whose works are 
extensively circulated, the il- 
lustrator of 'Pickwick' and 
'Nicholas Nickleby,' it would 
be to study well those cari- 
catures of M. Daumier, who, 
though he executes very care- 
lessly, knows very well what 
lie would express, indicates per- 
fectly the attitude and identity 
of the figure, and is quite aware 


beforehand of the effect he in- Yeg . but if you qnarre , like that wi;h all yonr ^ te . t loverg( 

tends tO produce. The One we yon wil1 never have an y friends." From Paris Nonsensicalitieii 

(Baliverneries Parisiennes), by Gavarni. 

should fancy to be a practiced 

artist taking his ease, the other a young one somewhat bewildered a very 
clever one, however, who, if he would think more and exaggerate less, would 
add not a little to his reputation." Possessors of the early editions of " Pick- 
wick" will be tempted to think that in this criticism of Mr. Browne's perform- 
ances by a disappointed rival there was an ingredient of wounded self-love. 
The young author, however, in another passage, gave presage of the coming 
Thackeray. He observes that in France ladies in difficulties who write beg- 
ging letters, or live by other forms of polite beggary, are wont to style them- 



selves " widows of the Grand Army." They all pretended to some connection 
with le Grand ffomme, and all their husbands were colonels. "This title," 
says the wicked Thackeray, " answers exactly to the clergyman's daughter in 
England ;" and he adds, " The difference is curious as indicating the standard 
of respectability." 

Many caricaturists who afterward attained celebrity were early contributors 
to M. Philipon's much-prosecuted periodical. Among them was "the elegant 

Gavarni," who for thirty years was the 
favorite comic artist of Paris roues and 
dandies himself a roue and dandy. At 
this period, according to his friend, The- 
ophile Gautier, he was a very handsome 
young man, with luxuriant blonde curls, 
always fashionably attired, somewhat in 
the English taste, neat, quiet, and pre- 
cise, and " possessing in a high degree 
the feeling for modern elegances." He 
was of a slender form, which seemed 
laced in, and he had the air of being 
carefully dressed and thoroughly appoint- 
ed, his feet being effeminately small and 
daintily clad. In short, he was a dandy 
of the D'Orsay and N. P. Willis period. 
For many years he expended the chief 
force of his truly exquisite talent in in- 
vesting vice with a charm which in real 
life it never possesses. Loose women, 
who are, as a class, very stupid, very vul- 
gar, most greedy of gain and pleasure, 
and totally devoid of every kind of in- 
teresting quality, he endowed with a 

HOUSEKEEPING. .. . . ... . 

"Gracious, Dorothy, i have forgotten the meat grace and wit, a fertility of resource, an 
for your cat !" a j r y e w ance of demeanor, never found 

"Have you, indeed? But you didn't forget the J 

biscuit for your bird, egotist! NO matter! NO mat- except in honorable women reared in 

ter ! If there is nothing in the house for my cat, I , , , , TT , 

shall give her your bird, i shall !" Prom impres- honorable homes. He was the great 
awns de Menage, by Gavarni. master of that deadly school of French 

satiric art which finds all virtuous life clumsy or ridiculous, and all abominable 
life graceful and pleasing. 

Albums of this kind are extant in which married men are invariably repre- 
sented as objects of contemptuous pity, and no man is graeeful or interesting 
except the sneaking scoundrel who has designs upon the integrity of a house- 
hold. Open the " Musee pour Rire," for example. Here is a little family of 
husband, wife, and year-old child in bed, just awake in the morning, the wife 


caressing the child, and the husband looking on with admiring fondness. This 
scene is rendered ridiculous by the simple expedient of making the wife and 
child hideously ugly, and the fond father half an idiot. Another picture shows 
the same child, with a head consisting chiefly of mouth, yelling in the middle 
of the night, while the parents look on, imbecile and helpless. Turn to the 
sketches of the masked ball or the midnight carouse, and all is elegant, becom- 
ing, and delightful. If the French caricatures of the last thirty years do really 
represent French social life and French moral feeling, we may safely predict 
that in another generation France will be a German province ; for men capable 
of maintaining the independence of a nation can not be produced on the Ga- 
varnian principles. 

Marriage and civilization we might almost call synonymous terms. Mar- 
riage was at least the greatest conquest made by primitive man over himself, 
and the indispensable preliminary to a higher civilization. Nor has any mode 
yet been discovered of rearing full-formed and efficient men capable of self-con- 
trol, patriotism, and high principle, except the union of both parents striving 
for that end with cordial resolution longer than an average life -time. It is 
upon this most sacred of all institutions that the French caricaturists of the 
Gavarni school pour ceaseless scorn and contempt. As I write these lines, my 
eyes fall upon one of the last numbers of a comic sheet published in Paris, on 
the first page of which there is a picture which illustrates this propensity. A 
dissolute-looking woman, smoking a cigarette, is conversing with a boy in but- 
tons who has applied for a place in her household. " How old are you ?" she 
asks. " Eleven, madame." " And your name ?" " Joseph !" Upon this in- 
nocent reply the woman makes a comment which is truly comic, but very Ga- 
varnian : " So young, and already he calls himself Joseph !" 

Among the heaps of albums to be found in a French collection we turn 
with particular curiosity to those which satirize the child life of France. Ga- 
varni's celebrated series of " Enfants Terribles " has gone round the world, and 
called forth child satire in many lands. The presence of children in his pict- 
ures does not long divert this artist from his ruling theme. One of his ter- 
rible children, a boy of four, prattles innocently to his mother in this strain: 
" Nurse is going to get up very early, now that you have come home, mamma. 
Goodness ! while you were in the country she always had her breakfast in bed, 
and it was papa who took in the milk and lighted the fire. But wasn't the 
coffee jolly sweet, though !" Another alarming boy of the same age, who is 
climbing up his father's chair and wearing his father's hat, all so merry and 
innocent, discourses thus to the petrified author of his being: "Who is Mr. 
Albert? Oh, he is a gentleman belonging to the Jardin des Plantes, who 
comes every day to explain the animals to mamma ; a large man with mus- 
taches, whom you don't know. He didn't come to-day until after they had 
shut up the monkeys. You ought to have seen how nicely mamma entertained 
him. Oh dear !" (discovering a bald place on papa's pate) " you have hardly 




any hair upon the top of your head, papa !" In a third picture both parents 
are exhibited seated side by side upon a sofa, and the terrible boy addresses 
his mother thus: "Mamma, isn't that little mustache comb which Cornelia 
found in your bedroom this morning for me ?" Another sketch shows us fa- 
ther, mother, and terrible boy taking a walk in the streets of Paris. A dandy, 
in the likeness of Gavarni himself, goes by, with his cane in his rnouth, and his 
face fixed so as to seem not to see them. But the boy sees him, and bawls to 
his mother : " Mamma ! mamma ! that Monsieur du Luxembourg ! you know 
him the one you said was such a great friend to papa he has gone by with- 

A POULTICE FOE Two SYMPATHY AND ECONOMY. From Impressions de Menage, by Gavarni. 

out saluting ! I suppose the reason is, he don't know how to behave." An- 
other picture presents to view a little girl seated on a garden bench eating 
nuts, and talking to a young man: "The rose which you gave to mamma?" 
" Yes, yes." " The one you nearly broke your neck in getting ? Let me see. 
Oh, my cousin Nat stuck it in the tail of Matthew's donkey. How mamma 
did laugh ! Got any more nuts ?" The same appalling girl imparts a family 
secret to her tutor : " Mamma wrote to M. Prosper, and papa read the letter. 
Oh, wasn't papa angry, though ! And all because she had spelled a word 
wrong." A mother hearing a little girl say the catechism is a subject which 



one would suppose was not available for the purposes of a Gavarni, but he 
finds even that suggestive. " Come, now, pay attention. What must we do 
when we have sinned [peche] ?" To which the terrible child replies, playing 
unconsciously upon the word peche (sinned), which does not differ in sound 
from peche (fished), " When we have pdch'e ? Wait a moment. Oh ! we go 
back to the White House with all the fish in the basket, which my nurse eats 
with Landerneau. He is a big soldier who has white marks upon his sleeve. 
And I eat my share, let me tell you !" 

It is thus that the first caricaturist of France " utilized " the innocence of 
childhood when Louis Philippe was King of the French. 

There is a later series by Randon, entitled " Messieurs nos Fils et Mesde- 
rnoiselles nos Filles," which 
exhibits other varieties of 
French childhood, some of 
which are inconceivable to 
persons not of the " Latin 
race." It has been said that 
in America there are no 
longer any children ; but 
nowhere among us are there 
young human beings who 
could suggest even the bur- 
lesque of precocity such as 
M. Randon presents to us. 
We have no boys of ten who 
go privately to the hero of 
a billiard " tournament " and 
request him with the politest 
gravity, cap in hand, to " put 
him up to some points of the 
game for his exclusive use." 
We have no boys of eight 
who stand with folded arms 
before a sobbing girl of se v- 
en and address her in words 
like these: "Be reasonable, 

then, Amelia. Ihe devil! 

People can't be always lov- ***** ** 

ing one another." We have no errand-boys of eight who offer their services 
to a young gentleman thus : " For delivering a note on the sly, or getting a 
bouquet into the right hands, monsieur can trust to me. I am used to little 
affairs of that kind, and I am as silent as the tomb." We have no little boys 
in belt and apron who say to a bearded veteran of half a dozen wars : " You 


CaptaiDi l am here to ^ your permig8ion to flght a duel .,, 
" What for, and \vith whom ?" 

" With Saladin, the trumpeter, who has so far forgotten himself 
astocallmeamowefceron" (little fly). Prom Messieurs nos File et 



TIIEEK 1 (From " Arithmetic Illustrated," by Cham.) 

don't know your happiness. For my part, give me a beard as long as yours, 
and not a woman in the world should resist me !" We have no little boys who 

in the midst of a fight 
with fists, one having a 
black eye and the other a 
bloody nose, would pause 
to say : "At least we don't 
fight for money, like the 
English. It is for glory 
that we fight." We have 
no little boys who, on 
starting for a ride, wave 
aside the admonitions of 
the groom by telling him 
that they know all about 
managing a horse, and 
what they want of him is 
simply to tell them where 
in the Bois they will be 
likely to meet most "Am- 
azons." No, nor in all the 
length and breadth of English-speaking lands can there be found a small boy 
who, on being lectured by his father, would place one hand upon his heart, and 
lift the other on high, and say, " Papa, by all that I hold dearest, by my honor, 
by your ashes, by any thing you like, I swear to change my conduct!" All 
these things are so remote from our habits that the wildest artist could not 
conceive of them as passable caricature. 

The opprobrious words in use among French boys would not strike the 
boys of New York or London as being very exasperating. M. Randon gives 
us an imaginary conversation between a very small trumpeter in gorgeous 
uniform and a gamin of the street. Literally translated, it would read thus : 
" Look out, little fly, or you will get yourself crushed." To which the street 
boy replies, "Descend, then, species of toad: I will make you see what a little 
fly is !" On the other hand, if we may believe M. Randon, French boys of a 
very tender age consider themselves subject to the code of honor, and hold 
themselves in readiness to accept a challenge to mortal combat. A soldier 
of ten years appears in one of this series with his arm in a sling, and he ex- 
plains the circumstance to his military comrade of the same age: "It's all a 
sham, my dear. I'll tell you the reason in strict confidence : it is to make a 
certain person of my acquaintance believe that I have fought for her." The 
boys of France, it. is evident, are nothing if not military. Most of the young 
veterans blasts exhibited in these albums are in uniform. 

An interesting relic of those years when Frenchmen still enjoyed some sem- 


blance of liberty to discuss subjects of national and European concern is Ga- 
varni's series of masterly sketches burlesquing the very idea of private citizens 
taking an interest in public affairs. This is accomplished by the device of 
giving to all the men who are talking politics countenances of coniic stupidity. 
An idiot in a blouse says to an idiot in a coat, " Poland, don't you see, will 
never forgive your ingratitude !" An idiot in a night-cap says to an idiot 
bare-headed, with ludicrous intensity, "And when you have taken Lombardy, 
then what ?" Nothing can exceed the skill of the draughtsman of this series, 
except the perversity of the man, to whom no human activity seemed becom- 
ing unless its object was the lowest form of sensual pleasure. But the talent 
which he displayed in this album was immense. It was, if I may say so, 
frightful; for there is nothing in our modern life so alarming as the power 
which reckless and dissolute talent has to make virtuous life seem provincial 
and ridiculous, vicious life graceful and metropolitan.- 





DURING the twenty years of Louis Napoleon, political caricature being 
extinguished, France was inundated with diluted Gavarni. Any wretch 
who drew or wrote for the penny almanacs, sweltering in his Mansard on a 

franc a day, could produce a certain ef- 
fect by representing the elegant life of 
his country, of which he knew nothing, 
to be corrupt and sensual. Pick up one 
of these precious woi-ks blindfold, open 
it at random, and you will be almost 
certain to light upon some penny-a-line 
calumny of French existence, with a 
suitable picture annexed. I have just 
done so. The " Almanach Comique " for 
1869, its twenty -eighth year, lies open 
before me at the page devoted to the 
month of August. My eye falls upon a 
picture of a loosely dressed woman gaz- 
ing fondly upon a large full purse sus- 
pended upon the end of a walking-stick, 
and underneath are the words, "Elle ne 
tarde pas d se reapprivoiser." She does 
not delay to retame herself, the verb 
being the one applied to wild beasts. 
There is even a subtle deviltry in the syl- 
lable re, implying that she has rebelled 
against her destiny, but is easily enough 
brought to terms by a bribe. The read- 
ing matter for the month consists of the 
following brief essay, entitled "August 

succeed with some women. For my part, I make my the Virgin :" " How to go for a month 
conquests with drums beating and matches lighted. 1 ' ., , a__s__-at. { *i*~ 

-From Messieurs nosFilsetMe^moisellesnosFiUes, to the Sea-shore during the WOrst of the 

hy Randon, Paris. dog-days. Hire a chalet at Cabourg 

for madarue, and a cottage on the beach of Trouville for mademoiselle. The 

" With your air of romantic melancholy, you could 



transit between those two places is accomplished per omnibus in an hour. 
That is very convenient. Breakfast with Mademoiselle ; dine with Madame. 
This double existence is very expensive, but as it is the most common, we are 
compelled to examine it in order to establish a basis for the expenditures of 
the twelve months." Is it not obvious that this was " evolved ?" Does it not 
smell of a garlicky Mansard ? And have not all modern communities a com- 
mon interest in discrediting anonymous calumny? It were as unjust, doubt- 
less, to judge the frugal people of France by the comic annuals as the good- 
natured people of England by the Saturday Jleview. 

It is evident, too, that the French have a totally different conception from 

THE DEN OF LIONS AT THE OPERA. (From Lea Different Publics de Paris, by Gustave Dor.) 

ourselves of what is fit and unfit to be littered. They ridicule our squeamish- 
ness ; we stand amazed at their indelicacy. Voltaire, who could read his " Pu- 
celle " to the Queen of Prussia, her young daughter being also present and 
seen to be listening, was astounded in London at the monstrous indecency of 
"Othello;" and English people of the same generation were aghast at the 
license of the Parisian stage. M. Marcelin, a popular French caricaturist of 
to-day, dedicates an album containing thirty pictures of what he styles Un 
certain Monde to his mother ! We must not judge the productions of such a 
people by standards drawn from other than " Latin " sources. 

Among the comic artists who began their career in Louis Philippe's time, 


under the inspiration of Philipon and Daumier, was a son of the Comte de 
Noe, or, as we might express it, Count Noah, a peer of France when there 
were peers of France. Amedee de Noe, catching the spirit of caricature while 
he was still a boy (he was but thirteen when Le Gharwam was started), soon 
made his pseudonym, Cham, familiar to Paris. Cham being French for Shem, 
it was a happy way of designating a son of Count Noah. From that time to 
the present hour Cham has continued to amuse his countrymen, pouring forth 
torrents of sketches, which usually have the merit of being harmless, and are 
generally good enough to call up a smile upon a face not too stiffly wrinkled 
with the cares of life. He is almost as prolific of comic ideas as George Cruik- 
shank, but his pictures are now too rudely executed to serve any but the most 
momentary purpose. When a comic album containing sixty-one pictures by 
Cham is sold in Paris for about twelve cents of our currency, the artist can 
not bestow much time or pains upon his work. The comic almanac quoted 
above, containing one hundred and eighty-three pages and seventy pictures, 
costs the retail purchaser ten cents. 

Gustave Dore, now so renowned, came from Strasburg to Paris in 1845, a 
boy of thirteen, and made his first essays in art, three years after, as a carica- 
turist in the Journal pour Hire. But while he scratched trash for his dinner, 
he reserved his better hours for the serious pursuit of art, which, in just ten 
years, delivered him from a vocation in which he could never have taken pleas- 
ure. His great subsequent celebrity has caused the publication of several vol- 
umes of his comic work. It abounds in striking ideas, but the pictures were 
executed with headlong haste, to gratify a transient public feeling, and keep 
the artist's pot boiling. His series exhibiting the Different Publics of Paris is 
full of pregnant suggestions, and there are happy thoughts even in his "His- 
toire de la Sainte Russie," a series published during the Crimean war, though 
most of the work* is crude and hasty beyond belief. 

In looking over the volumes of recent French caricature, we discover that a 
considerable number of English words have become domesticated in France. 
France having given us the words of the theatre and the restaurant, has adopt- 
ed in return several English words relating to out-of-door exercises: Turf, 
ring, steeple-chase, box (in a stable), jockey, jockey-club, betting, betting-book, 
handicap, race, racer, four-in-hand, mail-coach, sport, tilbury, dog-cart, tandem, 
pickpocket, and revolver. Rosbif, bifstek, and " choppe " have long been fa- 
miliar. "Milord" is no longer exclusively used to designate a sumptuous En- 
glishman, but is applied to any one who expends money ostentatiously. Gen- 
tleman, dandy, dandyism, flirt, flirtation, puff, cockney, and cocktail are words 
that would be recognized by most Parisians. A French writer quotes the 
phrase " hero of two hemispheres," applied to Lafayette, as a specimen of the 
"puff" superlative. "Othello" has become synonymous with "jealous man;" 
and the sentence, " That is the question," from " Hamlet," seems to have ac- 
quired currency in France. Cab, abbreviated a century ago from the French 



(cabriolet), has been brought back to Paris, like the head of a fugitive decapi- 
tated in exile. 

The recent events in France, beginning with the outbreak of the war with 
Prussia, have elicited countless caricatures and series of caricatures. The 
downfall of the " Empire," as it was called, gave the caricaturists an opportu- 
nity of vengeance which they improved. A citizen of New York possesses a 
collection of one thousand 
satirical pictures publish- 
ed in Paris during the 
war and under the Com- 
mune. A people who sub- 
mit to a despised usurper 
are not likely to be mod- 
erate or decent in the ex- 
pression of their contempt 
when, at length, the tyrant 
is no longer to be feared. 
It was but natural that 
the French court should 
insult the remains of Lou- 
is XIV., to whom living 
it had paid honors all 
but divine; for it is only 
strength and valor that 
know how to be either 
magnanimous or dignified 
in the moment of deliver- 
ance. Many of the people 
of Paris, when they heard 
of the ridiculous termi- 
nation near Sedan of the 
odious fiction called the 
Empire, behaved like boys 
just rid of a school-mas- 
ter whom they have long 
detested and obeyed. Of course they seized the chalk and covered all the 
blackboards with monstrous pictures of the tyrant. The flight of his wife 
soon after called forth many scandalous sketches similar to those which dis- 
graced Paris when Marie Antoinette was in prison awaiting the execution of 
her husband and her own trial. Many of these burlesques, however, were fair 
and legitimate. The specimen given on the next page, entitled " Partant pour 
la Syrie," which appeared soon after the departure of Eugenie and her ad- 
visers, was a genuine hit. It was exhibited in every window, and sold wher- 

THB VCI.TUBB. (From La Menagerie Impiriale, 1871.) 



ever in France the victorious Germans were not. A member of the American 
legation, amidst the rushing tide of exciting events and topics, chanced to save 
a copy, from which it is here reduced. 

Among the " albums " of siege sketches, we come upon one executed by the 
veterans Cham and Daumier, the same Henri Daumier whom Louis Philippe 
imprisoned, and Thackeray praised, forty years ago. In this collection we see 
Parisian ladies, in view of the expected bombardment, bundled up in huge bags 

Badinguet. Eugenie. General Fleury. Pietri. Rouher. Maupas. Persigny. 

PABTANT POCK LA SYRIE. (Published in Paris after the Flight of Eugenie.) 

of cotton, leading lap-dogs protected in the same manner. An ugly Prussian 
touches off a bomb aimed at the children in the Jardin du Luxembourg. King 
William decorates crutches and wooden legs as " New-year's presents for his 
people." An apothecary sells a plaster " warranted to prevent wounds, pro- 
vided the wearer never leaves his house." A workman goes to church for the 
first time in his life, and gives as a reason for so unworkman-like a proceeding 
that " a man don't have to stand in line for the blessed bread." A volunteer 


goes on a sortie with a pillow under his waistcoat "to show the enemy that 
\ve have plenty of provisions." All these are by the festive Cham. 

Daumier does not jest. He seems to have felt that Louis Napoleon, like a 
child-murderer, was a person far beneath caricature a creature only fit to be 
destroyed and hurried out of sight and thought forever. Amidst the dreary 
horrors of the siege, Henri Daumier could only think of its mean and guilty 
cause. One of his few pictures in this collection is a row of four vaults, the 
first bearing the inscription, " Died on the Boulevard Montmartre, December 
2d, 1851;" the second, "Died at Cayenne;" the third, "Died at Lambessa;" 
the fourth, "Died at Sedan, 1870." But even then Daumiei*, true to the voca- 
tion of a patriotic artist, dared to remind his countrymen that it was they who 
had reigned in the guise of the usurper. A wild female figure standing on a 
field of battle points with one hand to the dead, and with the other to a vase 
filled with ballots, on which is printed the word Oui; She cries, "These, killed 
those T 

During the Commune the walls of Paris were again covei'ed with drawings 
and lithographs of the character which Frenchmen produce after long periods 
of repression : Louis Napoleon crucified between the two thieves, Bismarck 
and King William ; Thiers in the pillory covered and surrounded with oppro- 
brious inscriptions ; Thiers, Favre, and M'Mahon placidly looking down from 
a luxurious upper room upon a slain mother and child ghastly with blood and 
wounds ; landlords, lean and hungry, begging for bread, while fat and rosy la- 
borers bask idly in the sun; little boy Paris smashing his playthings (Trochu, 
Gambetta, and Rochefort) and crying for the moon ; " Paris eating a general 
a day ;" Queen Victoria in consternation trying to stamp out the horrid centi- 
pede, International, while " Monsieur John Boule, Esquire," stands near with 
the habeas-corpus act in his hand; naked France pressing Rochefort to her 
bosom ; and hundreds more, describable and indescribable. 

It remains to give a specimen of recent French caricature of another kind. 
Once more, after so many proofs of its impolicy, the Government of France 
attempts to suppress such political caricature as is not agreeable to it, while 
freely permitting the publication of pictures flagrantly indecent. At no for- 
mer period, not even in Voltaire's time, could the French press have been more 
carefully hedged about with laws tending to destroy its power to do good, 
and increase its power to do harm. The Government treats the press very 
much after the manner of those astute parents who forbid their children to 
see a comedy of Robertson or a play of Shakspeare, but make it up to them 
by giving them tickets to the variety show. A writer familiar with the sub- 
ject gives us some astounding details : 

" There exist at present," he remarks, " sixty-eight laws in France, all in- 
tended to suppress, curtail, weaken, emasculate, and even to strangle newspa- 
pers ; but not one single law to foster them in their dire misfortune. If any. 
private French gentleman wishes to establish a newspaper, he must first write 



to the Prefet dc Police, on paper of a certain size and duly stamped, and give 
this functionary notice that he intends to establish a newspaper. His signature 
has, of course, to be countersigned by the Maire. But if the paper our friend 
wishes to establish is purely literary, he has first to make his declaration to 
the police, who rake up every information that is possible about the unfortu- 
nate projector. After that, the Ministere de PInterieur institutes another 
searching inquiry, and these two take seven or eight months at least. When 
the enquete and the contre-enquete are ended, the avis favorable of the whole 
Ministry is necessary before the paper can be published. Another six months 
to wait yet; but this is not all. Our would-be newspaper proprietor or editor 
possesses now the right of publishing his paper ; but he has not yet the right 

to sell it. In oi'der to ob- 
tain this, he must begin 
anew all his declarations 
and attempts, so that his 
purely literary paper may 
be sold at all the ordinary 
book -sellers' shops. But 
if he wishes it to be sold 
in the streets or, in other 
words, in the kiosques 
he must address himself 
to another office ad hoc, 
and then the Commissaire 
de Police sends the answer 
of the Prefet de Police to 
the unfortunate proprietor, 
editor, or publisher, who by 
this time must be nearly at 
his wits' end. 

But even this is not all. 
If the unhappy projector proposes to illustrate his paper, his labors are still far 
from ending. " He must," continues the writer, " obtain, of course, the per- 
mission of the Ministere de 1'Interieur for Paris, or of the prefects for the 
provinces. The Ministere asks for the opinion of the Governor of Paris, who 
asks, in his turn, for the opinion of the Bureau de Censure, a body of gentle- 
men working in the dark, and which, to the eye of the obtuse foreigner, ap- 
pears only established to prevent any political insinuations to be made, but to 
allow the filthiest drawings to be publicly exposed for sale, and the most in- 
decent innuendoes to be uttered on the stage or in novels. The Censure de- 
mands, under the penalty of seizing, forbidding, and bringing before the court, 
that every sketch or outline shall be submitted to it. When this is done, and 
the Censure finds nothing to criticise in it, it requires further that the draw- 



ing, when finished, be anew laid before it, and, if the drawing be colored, it 
must be afresh inspected after the dan- 
gerous paints have been smirched on. 
When our happy editor wishes to pub- 
lish the caricature or the portrait of 
any one, he can not do so unless he has 
the permission of the gentleman or 
lady whose likeness he wishes to pro- 

Such was the measure of freedom 
enjoyed in the French republic gov- 
erned by soldiers. But this elaborate 
system of repression can be both 
evaded and turned to account by the 
caricaturist. During the last two or 
three years, a writer who calls himself 
Touch atout has been amusing Paris by a series of satirical biographies, each 
preceded by a burlesque portrait. But occasionally the Censure refuses its 
consent to the insertion of the portrait. The son of Louis Napoleon was one 
individual whom the Censure thus endeavored to protect. Observe the result. 
Instead of exhibiting to the people of Paris a harmless picture representing 
the head of the unfortunate young man mounted upon a pair of diminutive 
legs, Touchatout prints at the head of his biographical sketch the damaging 
burlesque subjoined : 





Velocipede IV. 



I translate the burlesque biography that follows the above. It may serve 


also as a specimen of the new literary commodity of which the Parisians seem 
so fond, and for which a name has been invented blague which means amus- 
ingly malign gossip. 

"VELOCIPEDE IV. (Napoleon-Eugene-Louis- Jean- Joseph, Prince Impe- 
rial, more commonly known by the name of :) born at Paris, March 16th, 
1856. He is the son of Napoleon III. and of the Empress, Eugenie de 

" Here a parenthesis. The Trombinoscope has often been accused of bru- 
tality. When we traced the profile of the ex-empress, the cry was that we had 
no consideration even for women. We replied that, in our eyes, sovereigns 
were no more women than were the she petroleum-throwers. To-day there 
will not be wanting people to say that we do not spare children ; and we 
shall reply, as we have often said before, that sons are not responsible for the 
crimes of their fathers until the day when they set up a claim to profit by 
them. If, during the two years that the Trombinoscope has plied his voca- 
tion, we have not aimed a shot at the young hero of Sarrebruck, it is precise- 
ly because childhood inspires respect in us. If this youth, when consulted 
upon his calling, had replied, ' My desire is to be an architect or a shoe- 
maker,' we should have had nothing to say. But mark: scarcely has he 
ceased to be a child when, on being questioned as to his choice of a trade, he 
answers, ' I wish to be emperor.' Oh, indeed ! The son of Napoleon III. has 
entered upon his career; he is a child no more; and the Trombinoscope re- 
enters into all his rights. 

"We said, then, that Eugene -Napoleon was born March 16th, 1856. The 
doctor who received him perceived that he had upon la fesse droite a mass of 
odd little red marks. Upon examining closely this phenomenon, he perceived 
that these marks were a representation of the bombardment of the house 
Sallanvrouze in December, 1851, upon the Boulevard Montmartre. All was 
there: the intrepid artillery of Canrobert, smashing the shop -windows and 
pulverizing a newspaper stand ; the nurses disemboweled upon the seats ; the 
bootblack on the corner having his customer's leg carried away from between 
his hands, etc., etc. 

" The empress during her pregnancy had read Victor Hugo's ' Napoleon 
the Little,' and had been much struck with the chapter in which the coup 
d'etat is so well related. They concealed from the people this tattooing this 
far too significant trade-mark and they placed the new-born child in a cradle 
with the ribbon of the Legion of Honor around his neck. The high digni- 
taries then advanced to prostrate themselves before the august infant, who 
sucked his thumb, and they relate, in this connection, in the blatant clap-trap 
History of Napoleon III., that one of the courtiers narrowly escaped falling 
into disgrace by appearing stupefied to see the Prince Imperial decorated at 
the age of fifteen hours. Happily he recovered himself in time, and replied to 
the emperor, who had remarked his surprise : 


" ' Sire ! I am indeed astonished that His Highness is only commander.' 

" To the age of eighteen months, the Prince Imperial did nothing remark- 
able ; but, dating from that moment, he became a veritable prodigy. Along 
with his first pair of trousers, his father ordered two dozen witticisms of the 
editors- of Figaro. These sallies at once went the rounds of the domestic 
press, and the Prince Imperial had not reached his sixth year when he passed, 
in the rural districts, for having all the wit which his mother lacked. Thus, 
in full Figaro, appeared one morning a crayon drawing attributed to the 
Prince Imperial, at the age when as yet he only executed in sepia upon the 
flaps of his shirt. 

"This marvel of precocity astonished all men who had need of a sub-pre- 
fectship or a place in the tobacco excise; and this to such a point that they 
were not in the least surprised when, during the Exhibition of 1867, a reporter 
prepared his left button -hole to receive the recompense due to the brave by 
printing in the self-same Figaro, by heavens! that the little prince, then 
eleven years of age, had discussed with engineers of experience the strong and 
weak points of all the wheel work in the grand hall of machinery. 

" The years which followed were for the young phenomenon only a succes- 
sion of triumphs of the same calibre, until the day when his father declared 
that, in order to complete his imperial education, nothing was wanting to him 
but to learn to ride the velocipede. 

" It need not be said that he learned this noble art, like all the others, by 
just blowing upon it. 

"Meanwhile, Eugene -Napoleon had achieved various grades in the army. 
Named Corporal in the Grenadiers of the Guard at the age of twenty -two 
months, one evening when he had not cried for being put to bed at eight 
o'clock, he had been made successively pioneer, sergeant, sergeant-major, and 
adjutant of the same corps. When he made some difficulties about swallow- 
ing his iodide of potassium in the morning, they promised him promotion, and 
that encouraged him. From glass to glass, he won the epaulet of sublieuten- 
ant; and at the moment when the war with Prussia broke out he had just de- 
served the epaulet of lieutenant by letting them give him, without crying, an 
injection with salt, which inspired him with profound horror. 

"At the very beginning of the war, his father took him to the Prussian 
frontier, in order to make him pass by his side under triumphal arches into 
Berlin, which the army five times ready of Marshal Leboeuf was to enter with- 
in four days at the very latest. 

"At the combat of Sarrebruck, that brilliant military pantomime which the 
Emperor caused to be performed under the guise of a parade, the Prince Im- 
perial became the admiration of Europe by picking up on the field of battle ' a 
bullet which had fallen near him? said the dispatch of Napoleon to Eugenie. 
'From the pocket of a mischievous staff officer? history will add. 

" Since our disasters, the Prince Imperial grows and stuffs himself in exile, 


with some devoted servants whose salaries go on as before, and a Spanish 
mother who teaches him to love France as the most lucrative of the monarch- 
ical tobacco-excise offices in Europe. 

" Recently the Prince Imperial, for the first time, declared his pretension to 
the throne by thanking the eight Bonapartists, who had hired a smoking com- 
partment upon the Northern Line in order to present their compliments and 
their bill on the occasion of the 15th of August. That was the first act of a 
Pretender, the cutting of whose teeth still torments him, and whose new panta- 
loons become too short at the end of eight days. It was this which decided 
us to write his rather meagre biography. 

"As to his person, the Prince Imperial is a perfect type of a slobbering as- 
pirant of the eighth order. In his exterior, at least, he does not seem to have 
derived much from his father; but he has the empty, vain, and silly expression 
of his mother. He represents sufficiently well one of those married boobies 
whose insignificance condemns them to live upon their income in a little pro- 
vincial city, working six hours a day their part of third cornet in a raw phil- 
harmonic society, while their wives at home make cuckolds of them with the 
officers of the garrison. 


" Dates to be supplied by the collectors of the Trombinoscope. 

"Eugene-Napoleon, attaining his majority March 16th, 1877, demands a 
settlement from his mother. She confesses to him that of his maternal fortune 
there remain but thirty-two francs. ' What has become, then,' he asks, ' of all 
the fund which, during the twenty years of papa's empire, was produced by the 
exemption money of the conscripts for whom substitutes were not obtained, 
by the buttons which were wanting to the gaiters, and the gaiters which were 
wanting to the buttons?' 'What has become of it?' said the Empress. 'Do 
you suppose that, during these seven years past, I have maintained our French 
journals with my old chignons?' Eugene-Napoleon replied to his mother: 
' Then, if I have no longer a sou with which to take Mandarine to the races, 
hand me one of papa's riding-jackets that I may make a descent at Boulogne, 

to dethrone Louis Philippe II. He makes a descent at Boulogne, the 

18 , with five drunken men and the little Conneau, all disguised as circus staff 
officers. They put him on his trial; he is convicted the 18 ; is pardon- 
ed the 18 ; repeats the performance the 18 . The Republic hav- 
ing turned out Louis Philippe II., Eugene-Napoleon re-enters France the 

18 as simple citizen. The republicans, who are always just so foolish, permit 

him to be elected deputy the 18 , and president the 18 . He seats 

himself upon the Republic December 2d, 18 , and re-establishes the Empire 

the 18 . The social decomposition resumes its course. Velocipede 

IV. marries the 18 , a circus girl. The moral scale continues to rise: 

Blanche d'Antigny and Cora Pearl are ladies of honor at the Tuileries. The 


18 , at the moment when Velocipede IV. is about to engage in a war 

with Prussia, which he thinks will consolidate his throne, but which, consider- 
ing the organization of our artillery, threatens to extend the German frontiers 
as far as Saint- Ouen. France stops the drain of those ruinous imitations, 
drives out the Emperor, and again proclaims the Republic. This time, a thing 
wholly unexpected, some republicans are found who, after having energetically 
swept France clean of all that appertains to former systems, whether pretend- 
ers, office-holders, spies, etc., etc., push their logic even to the point of bolting 
the door inside, in order not to be interfered with in their loyal endeavor. This 
device, so simple, but by which we have passed three times in a century with- 
out seeing it, succeeds to admiration ; and at length it is announced, the 

19 , that Velocipede IV., after having been by turns, at London, keeper of a 
thirteen- sous bazaar, pickpocket, circus performer, magnetizer, and dealer in 
lead-pencils, dies in the flower of his age from the effects of a disease which 
his father did not contract while presiding at a meeting of his cabinet." 

"With this specimen of blague we may leave the caricaturists of France to 
fight it out with La Censure. 




UPON" the news-stands in St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Mil- 
waukee, New York, and other cities, we find the comic periodicals of 
Germany, particularly the Fliegende Blatter of Berlin, and the Beilage cler 
Fliegenden Blatter of Munchen, papers resembling Punch in form and design. 
The American reader who turns over their leaves can not but remark the mild- 
ness of the German jokes. Compared with the tremendous and sometimes 
ghastly efforts of the dreadful Funny Man of the American press, the jests of 
.the Germans are as lager-beer to the goading "^cocktail" and the maddening 
" smash !" But, then, they are delightfully innocent. Coming from the French 
comic albums and papers to those of the Germans, is like emerging, after sun- 
rise, from a masquerade ball, all gas, rouge, heat, and frenzy, into a field full 
of children playing till the bell rings for school. Nevertheless, the impression 
remains that an extremely mild joke suffices to amuse the German reader of 
comic periodicals. 

The pictured jests, as in Punch, are the attractive feature. Observe the 
infantile simplicity of a few of these, taken almost at random from recent vol- 
umes of the papers just mentioned : 

Two young girls, about twelve, are sitting upon a bench in a public garden. 
Two dandies walk past, who are dressed alike, and resemble one another. 
" Tell me, Fanny," says one of the girls, " are not those two gentlemen broth- 
ers ?" This is the reply : " One of them is, I know for certain ; but I am not 
quite sure about the other." 

A strapping woman, sooty, wearing a man's hat, and carrying a ladder and 
brushes, is striding along the street. The explanation vouchsafed is the fol- 
lowing : " The very eminent magistrate has determined to permit the widow 
of the meritorious chimney-sweep, Spazzicammino, to continue the business." 

A silly-looking gentleman is seen conversing with a lady upon whom he 
has called, while a number of cats are playing about the room. " Why have 
you so many cats?" he asks. The lady replies: "Well, you see, my cook 
kept giving warning because I locked up the milk and meat, and so I got the 
cats as a pretext." 

Two ladies are conversing. The elder says : " Why do you quarrel with 
your husband so often ?" The younger replies : " Oh, you know the making- 
up is extremely entertaining, and getting good again is so lovely !" 



A scene in a cheap book-store. A young lady says to the clerk : " I want 
a Lovers' Letter-writer a cheap one." "Here, miss?" "How much is it?" 
" Eighteen kreutzers." " That is too dear for me." " Oh, but I beg your 
pardon, miss, if you take the Let- 
ter-writer, you get Schiller's works 
thrown in ; and if a young lady buys 
at this shop a tract upon potatoes, 
she gets the whole of Goethe into the 

The steps of a church are exhibit- 
ed, with a clergyman assisting an old 
woman down to the sidewalk. A 
long explanation is given, as follows : 
"Parson Friedel, a thoroughly good 
fellow, though not a particularly good 
preacher, goes on Sunday morning to 
church to edify his flock. On his ar- 
rival he sees an old dame trying in 
vain to get up the icy steps. 'Oh, 
sir,' she says, not recognizing the holy 
man, * pray help me up.' He does so, 
and when they have reached the top 
she thanks him, and a^lds, 'Oblige 
me also, dear sir, by telling me who 
preaches to-day?' 'Parson Friedel,' 
he courteously replies. 'Oh, sir, 
then help me down again.' The par- 
son, smiling, rejoins: 'Quite right; I 
wouldn't go in myself if I were not 
obliged to.' " 

A very tall man is bending over 
to light his cigar at an exceedingly 
short man's cigar. "What!" says 
the short man, "you wonder that 
your light goes out so often ? That 
is owing to the rarity of the at- 
mosphere in the elevated regions in 
which your cigar moves." 

A stable scene, in which figure a 
horse, an officei*, and a horse-dealer. The officer says: "The horse I bought 
of you yesterday has a fault ; he is lame in the off fore-leg." The dealer re- 
plies: "Ah ! and do you call that a fault? I call it a misfortune." 

A clergyman's study. Enter a very ill-favored pair, to whom the clergy- 


(Berlin, 1S72.) 



man says : " So you wish to be married, do you ? Well, have you maturely 

reflected upon it ?" The man replies : " Yes, we have asked beforehand about 

how much it will cost." 

A compartment of a railway carriage, in which are two passengers, one of 

whom has two little pigs under the seat, and the other a small curly lap-dog 

in his lap. Conductor (standing out- 
side). "Have you a dog's ticket?" 
"No." "Then get one." "But my 
dog troubles no one." " That makes 
no difference." "But this country- 
man here has two pigs in the car- 
riage." " No matter for that ; we have 
a rule about dogs, but none for pigs." 
A boat on a Swiss lake with a par- 
ty about to lunch. A lady, in great 
alarm, says to the boatman : " Stop, 
for Heaven's sake, stop! You told 
the people, when we got in, that your 
boat would sink if it were heavier by 
half an ounce. But if these men eat all 
that, we shall go to the bottom for a 

" Can you read ?" "At your service, major." "Can certainty." 

write?" "At yonr service, major." "Can you 

cipher?" " At yonr service, major." "What are you A restaurant SCCne. AcuStOttier, 

in civil life ?" "Doctor of philosophy and lecturer in i> nTU i: no . Vw,^ tn a waiter a nlntP nf 

itj.-Fliegende Blatter, Berlin, 18T2. handing back 

meat, says : " Waiter, this meat is so 
Waiter. "Excuse me, I will bring you a sharp knife 



the umverBitj. 

tough I can't chew it." 

An aged clergyman parting with a young soldier about to join the army, 
says: "Augustus, you now enter upon a military career. Take care of your 
health, and mind you lead a good life." Augustus. " Same to you, pastor." 

A boy up a tree, and a gentleman standing under it. " I'll teach you to 
steal my plums, you scoundrel ! I'll tell your father." " What do I care ? My 
father steals himself." This picture is headed, " Good Fruit." 

A family seated at dinner. Mother. " But, Elsie, naughty girl ! what hor- 
rid manners you have ! You eat only the cream, and leave the dumplings." 
Elsie. " Why, papa can eat them." 

A man and woman of Jewish cast of countenance are seen at a pawn- 
broker's sale. Woman. "Well, what will you buy for mother's birthday?" 
Man. "A handsome dress, I think." Woman. "How unpractical you are! 
She can only live three or four years at most; and even in that short time a 
dress will be in rags. Let us buy for the dear old soul a pair of silver candle- 
sticks. Then when she dies we shall have them back again." 

Under the heading of " Cheap Illumination," we are presented with a pict- 



ure of an Esquimau with a lighted wick held in his mouth, and the following 
explanation: "The Esquimaux, as is well known, live on the fat of the reindeer, 
the seal, and the whale. This suggested to the arctic traveler, \\arnie, the idea 
of drawing a wick through the body of one of the natives, and in this way ob- 
taining a brilliant train-oil lamp for the long winter nights." 

Two noble ladies chatting over 
.their tea : " Only think, my dear, we 
are obliged to discharge our man." 
"Why?" "Oh, he begins to be too 
familiar. What do you think? I 
saw him cleaning the boots, and I 
discovered, to my horror, that he had 
my husband's boots, my son's, and 
his oicn, all mixed together !" 

A lady hurrying home from an ap- 
proaching shower, dragging her lit- 
tle boy with her. Boy. " But, moth- 
er, why should we be so afraid of the 
thunder-storm? Those hay -makers 
yonder don't care." Mother. " Child, 
they are poor people, who don't at- 
tract the lightning as we do, who al- 
ways have gold and ready cash about 

A scene in a police court, the 
magistrate questioning a witness: 
" You are a carpenter, are you not ?" 
" I am." " You were at work in the 
vicinity of the place where the scuffle 
occurred?" "I was." "How far from the two combatants were you stand- 
ing ?" " Thirty-six feet and a half, Rhenish measure." " How can you speak 
so exactly ?" " Because I measured it. I thought that most likely some fool 
would be asking about that at the trial." 

These may suffice as examples of the average comic force of the German 
joke. A very few of the above perhaps four or five in all might have been 
accepted by the editors of Punch, with the requisite changes of scene and dia- 
lect. We must also bear in mind that the dialect counts for much in a comic 
scene, as we can easily perceive by changing a Yorkshire bumpkin's language 
in a comedy into London English. Half of the laugh -compelling power of 
some of the specimens given may lie in peculiarities of dialect and grammar 
of which no one but a native of the country can feel the force. A few of the 
more vivid and telling examples are given in the accompanying illustrations. 

The glimpses of German life which the comic artists afford remind us that 

A BOLD COMPARISON. (Berlin, 1873.) 

Pastor's Wife. "But half the cracknels are scorched 

Cracknel Man. " So they are. Bnt, yon eee, I have the 
sarae ' uc ^ as the pastor: all his sermons do not turn 
out equally good." 



the children of men are of one family, the several branches of which do not 
differ from one another so much as we are apt to suppose. German fathers, 
too, as we see in these pictures, stand amazed at the quantity of property their 
daughters can carry about with them in the form of wearing apparel. A do- 
mestic scene exhibits a young lady putting the last fond touches to her toilet, 
while a clerk presents a long bill to the father of the family, who throws his 

hands aloft, and exclaims, " Oh, blessed 
God ! Thou who clothest the lilies of 
the field, provide also for my daughter, 
at least during the Carnival !" 

Germany, not less than England and 
America, laughs at " the modern moth- 
er," who dawdles over Goethe, and is 
" literary," and wears eyeglasses, while 
delegating to bottles and goats her 
peculiar duties. An extravagant bur- 
lesque of this form of self-indulgence 
presents to view a baby lying on its 
back upon a centre-table, its head upon 
a pillow, taking nourishment direct from 
a goat standing over it ; the mother sit- 
ting near in a luxurious chair, read- 
ing. Enter the family doctor, who 
cries, aghast, " Why, what's this, baron- 
ess? I did not mean it in that way! 
A she -goat is not a wet-nurse." To 
which the baroness languidly replies, 

STBIOT DISCIPLINE IN THE FIELI> MAJOB GOING TUE looking f I'Oin her book, " Why not ?" 

ROUNDS AT NIGHT. -. . . , .~ - 

And here is the German version or 

Sentinel. " Who goes there ? Halt ! " (Major, not 
regarding the summons, the soldier fires, and miss- Punch's widely disseminated joke Upon 

Major. -Three days in the guard-house for your marriage: "If you are going to be 
had shooting." married, my son, I will give you some 

good advice." "And what is it?" "Better not." 

The Woman's Rights agitation gave rise to burlesques precisely similar in 
inane extravagance to those which appeared in England, America, and France. 
We have the " Students of the Future," a series representing buxom lasses 
in dashing bloomers, smoking, dissecting, fighting duels, and hunting. The 
young lady who has on her dissecting-table a bearded "subject" is leaning 
against it nonchalantly, drinking a pot of beer, and another young lady is 
using the pointed heel of her fashionable boot as a tobacco-stopper. Here, too, 
is the husband who comes home late, and whose wife will sit up for him. 

The great servant-girl question is also up for discussion in Germany, after 
occupying womankind for three thousand years. Here is a group of servants 




The aged and extremely absent-minded prince of a little territory visits the public institntions every year. 

On leaving the high school, he says to the teacher : " I am very much pleased with every thing, only the soup 

is a little too thin." 

Teacher (aside to aid-de-camp). "What does his Highness mean by thin soup?" 
Aid-de-camp. " It is only a slip. His Highness should have said that in the hospital." 

talking together. " Yesterday I gave warning," says one. " Why ?" asks an- 
other; "the wages are high, the food is good, and you have every Sunday out. 
The reply is : " Well, you must know, my Fritz don't like it. Mistress buys 
her wine at the wine-merchant's, where I get the bottles all sealed. Don't you 

In the same spirit, as every reader knows, the drawing-room judges the 
kitchen in other lands besides Germany, and is supported in its judgment by 
satiric artists who evolve preposterously impossible servants from the shallows 
of their own ignorance. 

Rarely, indeed, does a German caricaturist presume to meddle with poli- 
tics, and still more rarely does he do it with impunity. The Germans, with all 
their excellences, seem wanting in the spirit that has given us our turbulent, 
ill-organized freedom. Perhaps their beer has offered too ready and cheap a 
resource against the chafing resentments that tyranny excites ; for a narcotized 
brain is indolently submissive to whatever is very difficult of remedy. Coffee 
and tobacco keep the Turk a slave. The wisest act of Louis Napoleon's usur- 
pation was his giving a daily ration of tobacco to every soldier. Woe to des- 
pots when men cease to dull and pollute their brains with tobacco and alcohol ! 
There will then be a speedy end put to the system that takes five millions of 
the elite of Europe from industry, and consigns them to the business of sup- 


pression and massacre. Whatever may be the cause, Germany has scarcely 
yet begun her apprenticeship to freedom ; and, consequently, her public men 
lose the inestimable advantage of seeing their measures as the public sees them. 
Let us hope that the German people may be able to appropriate part of our 
experience, and so work their way to rational and orderly freedom without 
passing through the stage of ignorant suffrage and thief -politicians. Mean- 
while there is no political caricature in Germany. 

As a set-off to this defect, I may mention again the absence from the Ger- 
man comic periodicals of the class of subjects which, at present, seems to be 
the sole inspiration of French art and French humor. It is evident that the 
Germans do not regard illicit love as the chief end of man. The reason of 
the superior decency of German satire is, probably, that German methods of 

education awaken the intelligence 
and store the mind with the food of 
thought. Indecency is the natural 
resource of a thoughtless mind, be- 
cause the physical facts of our exist- 
ence constitute a very large propor- 
tion of all the knowledge it possesses. 
Suppose those facts and the ideas 
growing directly out of them to be 
one hundred in number. The whole 
A JOURNEYMAN'S LEAVE-TAKING. number of facts and ideas in an igno- 

"Hear me, all of you. You, and you, and you, and 
you! Good-bye, mistresses. I tell you freely to your rant mind may not exceed tWO huu- 

** ; while in the intellect of a Goethe 
RIOUTEE, Leipsic, 1848. or a Lessing there may live and re- 

volve twenty thousand. Convent education is probably the cause of French 
indecency, simply from its leaving the mind dull and the imagination active. 
Many Frenchmen must think bodily, or not think at all This conjecture I 
hazard because I have observed in Protestant schools, professedly and distinct- 
ively religious, the same morbid tendency in the pupils that we notice in 
French art and drama. The French are right in not trusting their convent- 
bred girls out of sight. The convent- bred boys, who can not be so closely 
watched, show the untrustworthiness of moral principle which is not fortified 
by intelligent conviction. The Germans, from their better mental culture and 
greater variety of topics, are not reduced to the necessity of amusing them- 
selves by " bodily wit." 




AS it is " Don Quixote " that has given most of us whatever insight into 
Spanish life and character we possess, we should naturally expect to find 
in the Spain of to-day abundant manifestations of satirical talent. But since 
the great age when such men as Cervantes could be formed, the intellect of 
Spain has suffered exhausting depletion, and the nation has in consequence 
long lain intellectually impotent, the natural prey of priests, dynasties, and har- 
lots. The progress of a country depends upon the use it makes of its best 
men. Since Cervantes was born, in 1547, all the valuable men among the 
Moors and Jews, with a million of their countrymen, have been banished, car- 
rying away with them precious arts, processes, instincts, aptitudes, and tal- 
ents ; to say nothing of the good that comes to a country of having upon its 
soil a variety of races and religions, each developing some excellencies of hu- 
man nature which the others overlook or undervalue. In the same generation 
hundreds of the valiant men of Spain went down in the Armada, and thou- 
sands were wasted in America. 

But these were not the fatal losses. These men could have been replaced, 
such is the bountiful fertility of nature. But, in those days, if a man was 
reared who possessed independence or force of mind, or had much mind of 
any kind, he was likely to become a Protestant ; and, if he did, one of two ca- 
lamitous fates awaited him, either of which made him useless to Spain : he 
either concealed his opinions, and thus stifled his nobler life, or else the Inqui- 
sition destroyed him. Never was such successful war waged upon the human 
mind as in Spain at that period, for every man who manifested any kind of 
mental superiority was either slain or neutralized. If he escaped the gold- 
mines, the wars, and the Inquisition, there was still the Church to take him in 
and convert him into a priest. 

Nor need we go as far as Spain to see the fatal damage done to communi- 
ties by the absorption of promising youth into the priesthood. We have only 
to go to the French parts of Canada, and mark the difference between the tor- 
pid and hopeless villages there, and the vigorous, handsome towns of New 
England, New York, and Michigan, just over the border. The reason of this 
amazing contrast is that on our side of the line the natural leaders of the peo- 
ple found mills, factories, libraries, and schools ; on the other side they enter 




" Sefior, we have brought to your Majesty this paroquet, which we found as we were going our rounds in 
camp." From Oil Bias, Madrid, September, 1S70. 

convents and build churches; and the people, thus bereft of their natural 
chiefs, harness forlorn cows to crazy carts, and come down into Vermont and 
New Hampshire in harvest-time to get a little money to help them through 
the long Canadian winter. Thus, in Spain and Italy, the men who ought to 
serve the people, prey upon them, and the direct and chief reason why the 
northern nations of Europe surpass the southern is, that in the north the supe- 
rior minds are turned to account, and in the south they have been entombed 
in the Church or paralyzed by titles of nobility. 

Hence, in the country of Cervantes, in the native land of Gil Bias and Fi- 
garo, there is now little manifestation of their comic fertility and gayety of 
mind. A member of the American Legation obligingly writes from Madrid 
in 1875 : 

" I have questioned many persons here in regard to Spanish caricature, but 
have always received the same reply, namely, that pictorial caricature, political 
or other, has not existed in Spain till 1868. I have searched book-stores and 
book-stalls, and find nothing; nor have the venders been able to aid me. I 
found in a private library some Bibles and other religious books of the six- 
teenth century, in which were caricatures of the Pope and of similar subjects, 
but they were printed in Flanders, though in the Spanish language ; and the 
art is Dutch. The pasquinades of Italy never prevailed in Spain. It is 



thought at our Legation here that there must have been caricature in Spain, 
from the writings of Spaniards being so full of satire and wit ; but though the 
germ may have existed, I am inclined to think it was not developed till the 
dethronement of Isabel II. and the proclamation of the Republic broke down 
the barriers to the liberty, if not license, of the printing-press. 

"Between 1868 and 1875 various papers were published here containing 
caricatures, copies of which are to be had, but at a pi'emium. Until this pe- 
riod, I fancy the Inquisition, censorship, and other causes prevented any dis- 
play of a spirit of caricature which may have existed. The real, untraveled 
Spanish mind has little idea of true wit : of satire and burlesque, yes ; of in- 
offensive joke or pun, none. There is no Spanish word for pun; that for joke 
is broma, taken from the Spanish name of the Teredo navalis, or wood-borer, 
so fatal to vessels, and really means an annoying, or practical, joke. I have 
some samples of caricature, published during the period to which I refer, 
many of which, to one who is familiar with the politics, manners, and customs 
in Spain at the time, are equal in point, if not in execution, to any thing in 
-Punch. They were, for the greater part, designed by Ortego, but are of the 
English or French style, and have little Spanish individuality." 

A great mass of the comic illustrated series and periodicals alluded to by 
my attentive correspondent accompanied his letter, and justify its statements. 
The "French style" is indeed most apparent in them, as the reader shall see. 
The " Comic Almanac " for 1875 ("Almanaque Comico" para 1875), published 


"There they go, all resolved to yell Bungler! at the picador, whether he does his part well or ill. It's all 
they kiiow how to do." From El Mundo Comico, Madrid, 1S73. 



VIDBD FOR THE LATE FESTIVAL* (From Gil Bias, Madrid, September, 1S70.) 

at Madrid, and profusely illustrated, is entirely in the French style. Many of 
the pictures have every thing of Gavarni except his genius. Here are some 
that catch the eye in running over its shabby, ill-printed pages : 

Picture of an ill-favored father contemplating a worse-favored boy, aged 
about six years. Father speaks : " It is very astonishing ! The more this son 
of mine grows, the more he looks like my friend Ramon." 

Picture of a gentleman in evening dress, flirting familiarly with a dancing- 
girl behind the scenes of a theatre. She says : " If only your intentions were 
good!" To which he replies by asking: "And what do you call good inten- 
tions ?" She casts down her eyes and stammers : " To promise to keep your 

Picture of a young lady at the desk of a public writer, to whom she says : 
" Make the sweetest little verse to tell him that I hope to see him next Sunday 
at the gate of the Alcala, near the first swing." 

Picture of a husband and wife, both in exuberant health. She. "You 
grow worse and worse; and sea-bathing is so good for you!" He. "And 
you ?" She. " I am well ; but I shall go with you to take care of you, dear." 

Picture of a very fashionably dressed lady and little girl, to whom enters, 
hat and cane in hand, a gentleman, who says to the child : " Do you not re- 



The father says : " Tell me, nurse ; 

member me, little Ruby?" She replies: "Ah, yes! You are the fir st papa 
that used to come to our house a good while ago, and you always brought me 

Picture of two young ladies in conversation. One of them says : " When 
he looks at me, I lower my eyes. When he presses my hand, I blush. And if 
he kisses me, I call to mamma, and the poor fellow believes it, and dares go no 

Picture of a woman in a bath-tub, to whom enters a man presenting a bill. 
She says : " Take a seat, for I am about to rise from the bath, and then we 
can settle that account." 

Picture of nurse, infant, and father. 
every body says it looks like me, but I 
think it takes after its mother more." 
The nurse replies : " When it laughs, 
yes ; but when it frowns, it looks like 
you atrociously" 

Picture of a "fast-looking" woman 
and the janitor of a lodging-house. 
He says : " You wish to see the land- 
lord? I think he does not mean to 
have ladies in his house who are 
alone." She replies: "I am never 

Picture of young lady in bed, to ~- 
whom a servant holds up an elegant 

bonnet, and says: "lell me, Since you 

are ill, and can not go to the ball, 

will you lend this to your affectionate and faithful servant, since I give you 

my word not to injure it?" 

Picture of husband and wife at home, she taking out a note that had been 
concealed in a handkerchief. He speaks: "A woman who deceives her hus- 
band deserves no pity." She replies : " But if she does not deceive her hus- 
band, whom is she to deceive ?" 

Picture of the manager of a theatre in his office, to whom enters a dramatic 
author. Author : " I have called to know if you have read my play." Man- 
ager: "Not yet. It is numbered, in the list of plays received, 792; so that 
for this year " Author : " No, sir ; nor for that which is to come either." 

This will suffice for the " Comic Almanac." The Comic World (El Mun- 
do Comico), which next invites attention, is a weekly paper published at Mad- 
rid during the last four years. This work, also, has much in common with 
the wicked world of Paris, as with the wicked world of all countries where 
the priest feeds the imagination and starves the intellect. This reveling in 
the illicit and the indecent, which so astonishes us in the popular literature of 

"Child, you will take cold." 

"Itakecold? But how well that overcoat fits him!" 

o > Madrid ' 1873 ' 


Catholic countries, is merely a sign of impoverished mind, which is obliged to 
revolve ceaselessly about the physical facts of our existence, because it is ac- 
quainted with so few other facts. 

The first number of the Comic World presents a colored engraving of a 
Spanish beauty, attired in the last extremity of the fashion, bonnetless, fan in 
hand, with high -heeled boots, and a blending of French and Spanish in her 
make-up, walking in the street unattended. The picture is headed : " In Quest 
of the Unknown." 

The next picture shows that Spain, too, has its savings-banks which do not 
save. Two strolling musicians, clothed in rags, are exhibited, one of whom 
says to the other: "A pretty situation ! While men drive by in a coach after 
robbing us of our savings deposited in their banks, we ask alms of the rob- 
bers !" 

There is a pair of pictures, one called " The Cocks," and the other " The 

Pullets." The Cocks are three very 
young Spanish dandies, with dawn- 
ing mustaches, extremely thin canes, 
and all the other puppyisms. The 
Pullets are three young ladies of 
similar age and taste. As they pass 
in the street, one of the Cocks says 
to his companions: "Do you see 
how the tallest one blushes?" The 
reply is : " Yes ; when she sees me." 
At the same moment the Pullets ex- 
change whispers. "How fast you 

INCONVENIENCE or THE NEW COM.AR. ... ,, -.-. , . ... 

'How.myAdela.canyouaskmetowhisperinyour g 1 Says One. Don t Speak !" says 

ear when you have put that cover over it?" From El another. " The dark-COmplexioned 
Mundo Comico, Madrid, 18T3. 

one is he whom we saw at the thea- 
tre." " Yes, I remember ; the one in the box." In these pictures, as in most 
other Spanish caricatures, the men are meagre and disagreeable-looking, but 
the ladies are plump and attractive. 

A " domestic scene " follows, which must be peculiar to Spain, one would 
think. A gay young husband, on leaving home in the evening, is addressed 
by his wife, who has a hand in his waistcoat-pocket : " You carry away twelve 
dollars and three shillings. We will see what extraordinary expense you in- 
cur to-night." 

At Madrid, as at other capitals of Europe, the Englishman is an object of 
interest. Ladies seem to consider him a desirable match, and men make him 
the hero of extravagant anecdotes. There is a table- d^hdte picture in El 
Mundo Comico, presenting a row of people at an advanced stage of dinner, 
when the guests become interesting to one another. " Have you seen the col- 
onel ?" asks a chaperon of the young lady by her side. The damsel, looking 



her demurest, says : " Do not distract me ; the Englishman is looking at me." 
Other pictures indicate that the ladies of Madrid are accustomed to look upon 
Englishmen as worth posing for. 

The Comic World aims a vilely executed caricature at the ghost of Ham- 
let's father, who is represented in the usual armor. The words signify : "All 
I ask is, did that ancient race take their afternoon nap in cuirass and helmet ?" 
From which we may at least infer that " El Principe Hamlet " is a familial- 
personage to the inhabitants of Madrid. 

Among the numerous colored engravings which reflect upon, or, rather 
glorify, the frailty of women is one which can with difficulty be understood by 

SCFFEKINGS ENDCBEU BY A PRISONER OF WAR. (From Gil Bias, Madrid, September, 18TO.) 

Protestants. A girl is about to go to bed, and is saying a prayer beginning, 
" With God I lie down, with God I rise, with the Virgin Mary and the Holy 
Ghost !" The joke does not appear at the first glance, for there is no one else 
in the bedroom, unless there is some one in the curtained bed. We discover, 
at length, lying near her feet, a pair of man's boots ! 

Nothing is sacred to these savage caricaturists of the French school. An- 
other colored picture in El Mundo Comico is called "Absence," and is de- 
signed to exhibit the sorrow of a woman at the absence of her lover in the 
wars. She says : " Poor Louis ! I am here alone, forsaken, and he is pursuing 
the insurgents in the mountains. Does he remember me?" The innocent 
reader may well ask, What is the comedy of the situation ? The woman in 


this scene is sitting on the edge of her bed, nearly naked, taking off her ear- 
rings, with other finery of her trade lying about on the table and the floor. 

After running through a volume of this periodical, we are prepared to be- 
lieve the descriptions given of society in the Spanish capital by the corre- 
spon.dent of the London Times during the early months of Alfonso's " reign." 
Speaking of a monstrous scandal inculpating the king, he wrote : " In a prof- 
ligate, frivolous, and gossiping capital like Madrid, where every one seems in- 
tent upon political plotting, debauchery, and idleness, there is no scandal, no 
invention of malice too gross and improbable for acceptance, provided those 
attacked are well known. The higher his or her rank, the greater is the cyn- 
ical satisfaction with which the tale of depravity is retailed by the newsmon- 
gers in cafe, tertulia, and club." 

Another comic weekly published at Madrid is called Gil Bias, Periodico 
Sat'trico. This is by far the least bad of the comic papers recently attempted 
in Spain. Many of its subjects are drawn from the politics of the period, and 
some of them appear to be very happily treated. The sorry adventures of 
Louis Napoleon and his son in the war between France and Prussia are pre- 
sented with much comic effect. Queen Isabel and her hopeful boy figure also 
in many sketches, which were doubtless amusing to the people of Madrid when 
they appeared. The Due de Montpensier and other possible candidates for the 
throne are portrayed in situations and circumstances not to be fully under- 
stood at this distance from the time and scene. 

The Spanish caricatures given in this chapter, whatever the reader may 
think of them, were selected from about a thousand specimens ; and if they 
are not the very best of the thousand, they are at least the best of those which 
can be appreciated by us. 

Cuba had its comic periodical during the brief ascendency of liberal ideas 
in 1874. A Cuban letter of that year chronicles its suspension: "The comic 
weekly newspaper, Juan Palonio, has met its death-blow by an order of sus- 
pension for a month, and a strong hint to the director, Don Juan Ortega, that 
a trip to the Peninsula would be of benefit to his health. The immediate 
cause of this order was a cartoon, representing the arms of the captain-gen- 
eral wielding a broom, marked ' extraordinary powers,' and sweeping away ig- 
norance, the insurrection, etc. There was nothing, in fact, to take umbrage 
at ; but the cartoon served as a pretext to kill the paper, which was rather too 
republican in tone. The Government censor was removed from his position 
for the same reason, and a new one appointed." 

In those countries long debauched by superstition, comic art has little 
chance; for if tyranny does not kill it, a dissolute public degrades it into a 
means of pollution. 



AS soon as comic art in Italy is mentioned, we think of Pasquino, the mer- 
ry Roman tailor, whose name has enriched all the languages of Europe 
with an effective word. Many men whose names have been put to a similar 
use have, notwithstanding, been completely forgotten ; but Pasquino, after hav- 
ing been the occasion of pasquinades for four centuries, is still freshly remem- 
bered, and travelers tell his story over again to their readers. 

Pasquino was the fashionable tailor at Rome about the time when the dis- 
covery of America was a recent piece of news. In his shop, as tradition re- 
ports, bishops, courtiers, nobles, literary men, were wont to meet to order their 
clothes, and retail the scandal of the city. The master of the shop, a wit him- 
self, and the daily receptacle of others' wit, uttered frequent epigrams upon 
conspicuous persons, which passed from mouth to mouth, as such things will 
in an idle and luxurious community. Whatever piece of witty malice was 
afloat in the town came to be attributed to Pasquino ; and men who had more 
wit than courage attributed to him the satire they dared not claim. 

Catholics who have seen the inside of Roman life, who have been domi- 
ciled with bishops and cardinals, report that the magnates of Rome, to this 
day, associate in the informal manner in which we should suppose they did 
four centuries ago, from the traditions of Pasquino and his sayings. The 
Pope sends papers of bonbons to the Sisters who have charge of infant schools, 
and shares among the cardinals the delicacies and interesting objects which 
are continually sent to him. Upon hearing their accounts of the easy familiar- 
ities and light tone of the higher ecclesiastical society of recent times, we can 
the better understand the traditions that have come down to us of Pasquino 
and his shop full of highnesses and eminences. 

Pasquino, like the "fellow of infinite jest" upon whose skull Hamlet moral- 
ized in the church-yard, died, and was buried. Soon after his death it became 
necessary to dig up an ancient statue half sunk in the ground of his street ; 
and, to get it out of the way, it was set up close to his shop. " Pasquino has 
come back," said some one. Rome accepted the jest, and thus the statue ac- 
quired the name of Pasquino, which it retains to the present day. Soon it be- 
came a custom to stick to it any epigram or satirical verse the author of 
which desired to be unknown. So many of these sharp sayings were aimed at 



the ecclesiastical lords of Rome, that one of the popes was on the point of 
having the statue thrown into the river, just as modern tyrants think to silence 
criticism by suppressing the periodical in which it appears. Pasquino, prop- 
erly enough, was saved by an epigram. 

" Do not throw Pasquino into the Tiber," said the Spanish embassador, 
" lest he should teach all the frogs in the river to croak pasquinades." 

We can not wonder that the popes should have objected to Pasquino's 
biting tongue, if the specimens of his wit which are given by Mr. Story* fairly 
represent him. There was a volume of six hundred and thirty-seven pages of 
epigrams and satires, published in 1544, claiming to be pasquinades, many of 
which doubtless were such. Here is one upon the infamous pope, Alexander 

Sextus : 

" Sextus Tarquinius, Sextus Nero this also is Sextns. 
Always under the Sextuses Rome has been ruined." 

After the sudden death of Pope Leo X., two Latin lines to the following 
effect were found upon Pasquiuo : 

" If you desire to hear why at his last hour Leo 
Could not the sacraments take, know he had sold them." 

The allusion is to Leo's unscrupulous use of every means within his power 
of raising money. 

When Clement VII., after the sack of Rome, was held a prisoner, Pasquino 

had this: 

" Papa non potest err are" 

This sentence ordinarily means that the pope can not err; but the verb 
errare signifies also to wander, to stroll; so that the line was a sneer both at 
the pope's confinement and his claim to infallibility. 

One of Pasquino's hardest hits was called forth by the grasping measures 
of Pius VI. : 

" Three jaws had Cerberus, and three mouths as well, 
Which barked into the blackest deeps of hell. 
Three hungry mouths have you ; ay, even four ; 
None of them bark, but all of them devour." 

There was a capital one, too, and a just, upon the institution of the Legion 
of Honor in France by Napoleon Bonaparte, not long after he had stolen sev- 
eral hundred precious works of art and manuscripts from the Roman States. 

"In times less pleasant and more fierce, of old, 
The thieves were hung upon the cross, we're told. 
In times less fierce, more pleasant, like to-day, 
Crosses are hung upon the thieves, they say." 

Thus for centuries have Pasquino and his rival, Marfario, an exhumed riv- 
* "Roba di Roma," p. 283. 


er-god, given occasional expression to the pent-up wrath of Italy at the spo- 
liation of their beautiful country. Mr. Story reports a pasquinade which ap- 
peared but a very few years since, when all the world was longing to hear of 
the death of Ferdinand II. of Naples, who, under the name of King Boraba, 
was so deeply execrated by Italians. Pasquino supposes a traveler just arrived 
from Naples, and asks him what he has seen there, when the following conver- 
sation takes place : 

"I have seen a tumor \tumore\" "A tumor? But what is a tumor?" 
"For answer, take away the ." "Ah ! a humor \iimore\. But is this humor 
dangerous?" "Take away the w." "He dies! what a pity! But when? 
Shortly ?" " Take away the ra." " Hours ! In a f ew hours ! But who, then, 
has this humor?" "Take away the 0." "King! The king! I am delight- 
ed. But, then, where will he go ?" " Take away the r." " E-e-e-h !" 

Could there be any thing better than a pasquinade which appeared during 
the conference upon Italian affairs at Zurich between the representatives of 

Sicily. Boinba. 

KINS BOMBA'S ULTIMATUM TO SICILY. (From II Don Pirlone, Rome, December, 1848.) 

Austria, Italy, and France? Pasquino enters the chamber, where he holds the 
following conversation with the plenipotentiaries : 

"Do you speak French?" "No." "Do you speak German?" "No." 
"Do you speak Italian?" "No." "What language do you speak?" "Lat- 
in." "And what have you got to say in Latin?" "As it was in the begin- 
ning, is now, and ever shall be, for ever and ever. Amen." 

Happily, Pasquino was not a prophet, and the affairs of Italy are not as 
they were and had been during so many ages of despair. 

From these specimens of Italian satire we should expect to find the people 
of Italy effective with the satirical pencil also. The spirit of caricature is in 
them, but the opportunities for its exercise and exhibition have been few and 
far between. As in Spain there was an exhaustive depletion of intellectual 
force, so in Italy the human mind, during late centuries, has been crushed 
under a dead weight of priests. Professor Charles Eliot Norton, in his 



" Travel and Study in Italy," tells us that Roman artists can not now so much 
as copy well the masterpieces by which they are surrounded. 

" The utter sterility," he says, " and impotence of mind which have long 
been and are still conspicuous at Rome, the deadness of the Roman imagina- 
tion, the absence of all intellectual energy in literature and in art, are the nec- 
essary result of the political and moral servitude under which the Romans 
exist. Where the exercise of the privileges of thought is dangerous, the power 
of expression soon ceases. For a time as during the seventeenth century in 
Italy the external semblance of originality may remain, and mechanical facil- 
ity of execution may conceal the absence of real life ; but by degrees the very 
semblance disappears, and facility of execution degenerates into a mere trick 
of the hand. The Roman artists of the present time have not, in general, the 
capacity even of good copyists. They can mix colors and can polish marble, 
but they are neither painters nor sculptors." 

And yet (as the same author remarks) with the first breath of freedom the 
dormant capacity of the Italians awakes. In Italy, as in France, Spain, and 
Cuba, caricature dies when freedom is gone, and lives again as soon as the op- 
pressor is removed. In 1848, when the Revolution had gained ascendency in 
Rome, a satirical paper appeared, called II Don Pirlone, published weekly, 
and illustrated by strong, though rudely executed, caricatures. Don Pirlone 
was the name of a familiar character in Italian comedy and farce. The pict- 
ures in this work abundantly justify the encomiums of Professor Norton and 
Mr. Story, who both pronounce them to be full of spirit and vigor, proving 
that the satiric fire of the early pasquinades is not extinguished. 

Among the specimens given in this chapter, the reader will not fail to 

notice the one that made 
its appearance in June, 
1849, when thirty thou- 
sand French troops, under 
the command of General 
Oudinot, were about to 
replace upon the heart 
and brain of Rome the 
cumbrous, fantastic Medi- 
cine-man of Christendom. 
This picture, slight as is 
the impression which it 
makes upon us, who can 
safely smile at the medi- 
cine-men of all climes and 
tribes, was most eagerly 
General oudmot. scanned by the outraged 


BOMBS. (From 11 Don Pirlone, Rome, June 15th, 1S49.) people OI KOHie, tO Whom 



the return of the Medicine-man boded another twenty years of asphyxia. 
Don Pirlone was obliged to print extra editions to supply the demand. The 
picture exhibits the interior of a church, and the Pope celebrating mass; Gen- 
eral Oudinot assists him, kneeling at the steps of the altar and holding up 
the pontifical robes. The bell used at the mass is in the form of an imperial 
crown. Surrounding the altar, a crowd of military officers are seen, and be- 
hind them a row of bayonets. The candles on the altar are in the form of bay- 
onets. The time chosen by the artist is the supreme moment of the mass, 
when the celebrant elevates the host. The image of Christ on the crucifix 
has withdrawn its arms from the cross-bars, and covered its face with its 
hands, as if to shut the desecration from its sight. Lightning darts from 
the cross, and a hissing serpent issues from the wine-cup. On the sole of one 
of General Oudinot's boots are the words, Articolo F". della Constituzione (Ar- 
ticle V. of the Constitution, i. e., the French Constitution), which declared that 
" the French Republic never employs its forces against the liberty of any peo- 
ple." Underneath this fine caricature was printed:. "He began the service 
with the mass, and completed it with bombs." 

Two weeks more of life were vouchsafed to II Don Pirlone after the 
publication of this 
caricature. On July 
2d, 1849, the French 
army marched into 
Rome, and the paper 
appeared no more. 
The last number con- 
tained an engraving 
of Liberty, a woman 
lying dead upon the 
earth, with a cock on 
a neighboring dung- 

General Oudiuot. 

hill crowing, and a "But, dear Mr. Undertaker, are yon so perfectly sure that she is dead?" 

French general cov- From II Don Pirlone ^ Rome, July, is49. 

ering over the prostrate body. Under the picture was printed : " But, dear Mr. 

Undertaker, are you so perfectly sure that she is dead ?" 

These were certainly vigorous specimens of satiric art, and increase both 
our wonder and our regret at the mental degradation of the beautiful countries 
of Southern Europe. They increase our wonder, I say, because the ascend- 
ency of priests in a nation is more an effect than a cause of degeneracy. 
When the canker-worm takes possession of a New England orchard, and de- 
vours every germ and green leaf, covering all the trees with loathsome blight, 
it is not because the canker-worm there is more vigorous or deadly than on 
the next farm, but because the soil of the blasted orchard is wanting in some 
ingredient or condition needful for the vigorous life of fruit-trees. It is not 



priests, beggars, and banditti that make Mexico, Peru, Italy, and Spain what 
we find them. Priests, beggars, and banditti are but the vermin whose nat- 
ural prey is a low moral and mental life ; and hence the wonder that Italy, so 
long a prey to such, should still produce originating minds. 

Other caricatures in II Don Pirlone were remarkable. The alliance be- 
tween Austria and France in May, 1849, suggested a picture called "A Secret 
Marriage," which was also a church scene, the altar bearing the words "Ad 
minorem Dei gloriam " (" To the lesser glory of God "), a parody of the words 
adopted by the Inquisition, "Ad majorem Dei gloriam" The Pope is marry- 
ing the bridal pair, who kneel at a desk the groom, a French officer with a 
cock's head, and for a crest an imperial crown ; the bride, a woman with long 
robes, and on her head the Austrian double eagle. Upon the desk are an axe, 
a whip, a skull, and crossbones. 

BO.MUA AT SUPPEB, EFFECT OF IMPRESSIONS. (From II Don PirlvM, Kome, May, 1849.) 

Mr. Norton describes another, called the "Wandering Jew." "Flying to the 
verge of Europe, where the Atlantic washes the shores of Portugal, is seen the 
tall figure of the unhappy Carlo Alberto, driven by skeleton ghosts, over whose 
heads shine stars with the dates 1821, 1831, 1848. In the midst of the sky, 
before the fugitive, are the flaming words 'A Carignano Maledizione Eter- 
naP (' Cursed be Carignano forever !') to which a hand, issuing from the 
clouds, points with extended forefinger. The grim and threatening skeletons, 
the ghosts of those whom Carignano had betrayed, the tormented look of the 
flying king, the malediction in the heavens, the solitude of the earth and the 
sea, display a concentrated power of imagination rare in art." 

The ruling theme of these powerful sketches is the foul union of priest and 
king for the common purpose of spoiling fair Italy. The moral of the work 
might be summed up in the remark of an Italian soldier whom Mr. Norton 
met one day near Rome. "Are the roads quiet now?" asked the American 



traveler. "Ah, excellency," replied the man, " the poor must live, and the win- 
ter is hard, and there is no work !" " But how was the harvest ?" " Small 
enough, signore ! There is no grain at Tivoli, and no wine ; and as for the 
olives, a thousand trees have not given the worth of a bajocco" "And what 
does the Government do for the poor ?" " Nothing, nothing at all." " And 
the priests?" "Eh! They live well, always well; they have a good time in 
this world but?" 

Pope. Bumba. France. Austria. Spain. 

" SUCH is THE LOVK OP KINGS." (Prom II Don Pirlone, Rome, 1849.) 

One striking picture in II Don Pirlone represents Italy in the form of a 
huge military boot lying prostrate on the earth, with Liberty half astride of 
it, holding a broom. She has just knocked off the boot a French general, who 
lies on the ground with his hat at some distance from him, and she has raised 
her broom to give a second blow. But at that critical moment, the Pope 
thrusts his hands from a cloud, seizes the broom, and holds it back. Inside 
the boot is seen ambushed a cardinal with two long daggers, waiting to strike 
Liberty to the heart when she shall be disarmed. Underneath is printed : 
" Impediments to Liberty." 

In a similar spirit was conceived a picture called "A Modern Synod," which 
reflected upon the diplomatic conference in Belgium on Italian affairs between 
the representatives of Austria, France, and England. There sits Italy in the 
council-chamber, bound and naked to the waist, for the scourge. At the ta- 



ble are seated, Austria, with head of double eagle; France, with a cock's head 
and crest, but a woman's bosom and extremely low-necked dress; and England, 
with a head compounded of unicorn and donkey. Underneath the table are 
the Pope and King Bomba, with hidden scourges, only waiting for the confer- 
ence to end to resume their congenial task of lashing helpless Italy. 

A terrific picture is one representing the Pope with a scourge in his hand, 
riding high in the air over Rome, mounted upon a hideous flying dragon with 
four heads. One of the heads is Austria's double eagle ; another, the Gallic 
cock ; the third, Spain ; the fourth, Bomba. The papal crown is carried in the 

coil of the monster's forked 
tail. Under the picture are 
words signifying " Such is 
the love of kings !" 

Imagine endless varia- 
tions upon this theme in 
II Don Pirlone, executed 
invariably with force, and 
sometimes with a power 
that, even at this distance 
of time, rouses the soul. 

Laying aside the cari- 
catures of the Revolution, 
of which considerable vol- 
umes have been collected, 
I may say a word or two 
of the comic entertainment 
that has now become uni- 
versal, Punch, which, if 
Italy did not originate it, 
received there its modern 
form and character. Punch 
is now exhibited daily in 
every civilized and semi-civilized land or earth in China, Siam, India, Japan, 
Tartary, Russia, Egypt, everywhere. A New York traveler, well known both 
for the extent of his journeys and for the excellent use he has made of them, 
tells me that he saw, not long ago, a performance of Punch at Cairo, in a tent, 
in Arabic, a small coin being charged for admission. The people entered with 
a grave demeanor, sat in rows upon the sand, listened to the dialogue without 
a smile, and at the close filed out in silence, as if from a solemnity. The per- 
formance was similar to that with which we are acquainted. The American 
reader, however, may not be very familiar with the exploits of Punch, for he 
has made his way slowly in the New World, and was rai-ely, if ever, seen here 
until within the last ten years. 




Much second-hand erudition could be adduced to show that Punch, besides 
being universal, dates back to remote antiquity. The bronze figure could be 
mentioned which was found at Herculaneum some years ago, with the Punchian 
nose arid chin ; as well as a drawing on the wall of a guard-house at Pompeii, 
in which there is a figure costumed like Punch. Even the name Punch, 
which some derive from Paunch, is supposed by others to be a corruption of 
the first name of Pontius Pilate. The weight of probability favors the con- 
jecture that Punch really did originate in India, at least three thousand years 
ago, and came down, through other Oriental lands, to Greece, part of the stock 
of traditions that gather about Bacchus and his comic audacities jovial and 

RETURN OP THE POPE TO ROME. (From II Don Pirlone, Rome, 1849.) 

impudent Vice triumphant over unskillful Virtue. Punch is a brother of Don 
Juan, except that Punch is victorious to the very end ; and the fable of Don 
Juan is among the oldest of human imaginings. 

It is agreed, however, that the Punch of modern European streets is Nea- 
politan ; and even to this day, as travelers report, nowhere in the world is the 
drama of Punch given with such force of drollery as in Naples. What Mr. 
D'Israeli, in the " Curiosities of Literature," where much Punch learning may 
be found, says of the histrionic ability of the Italian people, has been often 
confirmed since his day. lie adds an incident : 

" Perhaps there never was an Italian in a foreign country, however deep 
in trouble, but would drop all remembrance of his sorrows should one of his 
countrymen present himself with the paraphernalia of Punch at the corner of 


a street. I was acquainted with an Italian, a philosopher and a man of fort- 
une, residing in England, who found so lively a pleasure in performing Punchi- 
nello's little comedy, that, for this purpose, with considerable expense and cu- 
riosity, he had his wooden company, in all their costume, sent over from his na- 
tive place. The shrill squeak of the tin whistle had the same comic effect on 
him as the notes of the ranz-des-vaches have in awakening the tenderness of 
domestic emotion in the wandering Swiss. The national genius is dramatic." 

Through the joint labors of Mr. George Cruikshauk and Mr. Payne Collier, 
we now know exactly what the Punchian drama is, as performed by the best 
artists. Mr. Cruikshank explains the truly English process by which this val- 
uable information was obtained : 

" Having been engaged by Mr. Prowett, the publisher, to give the various 
scenes represented in the street performances of Punch and Judy, I obtained 
the address of the proprietor and performer of that popular exhibition. He 
was an elderly Italian, of the name of Piccini, whom I remembered from boy- 
hood, and he lived at a low public-house, the sign of ' The King's Arms,' in the 
' Coal-yard,' Drury Lane. Having made arrangements for a ' morning per- 
formance,' one of the window-frames on the first floor of the public-house was 
taken out, and the stand, or Punch's theatre, was hauled into the ' Club-room.' 
Mr. Payne Collier (who was to write the description), the publisher, and my- 
self, formed the audience ; and as the performance went on, I stopped it at the 
most interesting parts to sketch the figures, while Mr. Collier noted down the 
dialogue ; and thus the whole is a faithful copy and description of the various 
scenes represented by this Italian." 

The drama thus obtained, which has since been published with Mr. Cruik- 
shank's illustrations, must at least be pronounced the most popular of all dra- 
matic entertainments past or present. It is now in the thirtieth century of its 
"run;" and even the modern Italian version dates back to the year 1600. It 
is a rough, wild caricature of human life. 




JAMES GILLRAY, though the favorite caricaturist of London before the 
beginning of our century, did not reach the full development of his talent 
until the later extravagancies of Napoleon Bonaparte gave him subjects so 
richly suggestive of burlesque. Even at this late day, when we have it in em- 
power to know the infinite mis- 
chief done to our race by such 
perjured charlatans as Bona- 
parte, it is difficult to read some 
of his bulletins and messages 
without bursts of laughter the 
imitation of known models is so 
childish, and they reveal so pre- 
posterous an ignorance of every 
thing that the ruler of a civilized 
country ought to know. After 
giving London a long series of 

o o o 

caricatures of the French Revo- 
lution and of the English fer- 
mentation that followed it, Gill- /' 
ray fell upon Napoleon, and ex- 
hibited the ludicrous aspects of 
the man and his doings with a 
comic fertility and effectiveness rarely equaled. True, he knew very little 
either of the Revolution or of Bonaparte England knew little but while all 
well-informed and humane persons have forgiven the excesses of the Revolu- 
tionary period, or laid the blame at the door of the real culprits, the world is 
coming round to the view of Napoleon Bonaparte which the caricaturist gave 
seventy years ago. If I were asked to name the best five caricatures pro- 
duced since Hogarth, one of the five would be James Gillray's " Tiddy-Doll, 
the Great French Gingerbread Baker drawing out a New Batch of Kings;" 
and another, a picture by the same artist, " King of Brobdingnag and Gulli- 
ver" ridiculing Napoleon's scheme of invading England in 1803. Both are 
masterpieces of satiric art in what we may justly style the English style; i.e., 




HOPPING TALLEY, MIXING UP THE Douou. (Gillray, 1806.) 

the style which amuses every body and wounds nobody, not even the person 

Born in 1757, when Hogarth had still seven years to live, the son of a valiant 
English soldier who left an arm in Flanders, James Gillray belongs more to the 
old school of caricaturists than to the new. Many of his works could not now 
be exhibited; nor was Gillray supeiuor in moral feeling to the time in which 
he lived. He flattered the pride and the prejudices of John Bull. In a deep- 
drinking age, his own habits were excessively convivial; were such as to short- 
en his life, after having impaired his reason. He was, nevertheless, for a pe- 
riod of twenty years the favorite caricaturist of his country, and a very large 
number of his works are in all respects admirable. The reader will remark 
that Gillray, like most of his countrymen, was not acquainted with the counte- 
nance of Napoleon, and could, therefore, only give the popularly accepted por- 
trait. His likenesses generally are excellent. 

Among the crowds of laughing English boys who hailed every new picture 
issued by Gillray during the last ten years of his career was one named George 
Cruikshank, still living and honored among his countrymen in 1877. Him we 
may justly style the founder of the new school the virtuous school of comic 
art, which accords so agreeably with the humaner civilization which has been 
stealing over the world of late years, and particularly since the suppression of 
Bonaparte in 1815. On page 270 is a picture of his executed in his eightieth 
year, a proof of the steadiness of hand and alertness of mind which reward a 
temperate and honorable life even in extreme old age. This picture was both 



drawn and engraved by his own hand to please one of his oldest American 
friends, Mr. J. W. Bouton, of New York, long concerned in collecting and dis- 
tributing his works among us. Here, then, is a living artist w^hose first hand- 
ling of the etching-tool dates back almost three-quarters of a century. Mr. 
Reid, the keeper of prints and drawings in the British Museum, has been at 
the pains to make a catalogue of the works of George Cruikshank. The num- 
ber of entries in this catalogue is five thousand two hundred and sixty -five, 
many of which comprise extensive series of drawings, so that the total num- 
ber of his pictures probably exceeds twenty thousand about one picture for 
every working-day during the productive part of his career. 

There is perhaps no gift so likely to be transmitted from father to son as a 
talent for drawing. Certainly it runs in the Cruikshank family, for there are 
already five of the name known to collectors, much to their confusion. As a 
guide to Mr. Reid in the preparation of his catalogue, the old gentleman made 
a brief statement, which is one of the curiosities of art gossip, and it may 
serve a useful purpose to collectors in the United States. His father, Isaac 
Cruikshank, was a designer and etcher and engraver, as well as a water-color 
draughtsman. His brother, Isaac Robert, a miniature and portrait painter, was 


(The King of Brobdiugnag and Gulliver. Scene Gulliver manoeuvring with his little boat in the cis- 
tern. Vide Swift's " Gulliver.") 

"I often used to row for my own diversion, as well as that of the queen and her ladies, who thought them- 
selves well entertained with my skill and agility. Sometimes I would put tip my sail and show my art by 
steering starboard and larboard. However, my attempts produced nothing else besides a loud laughter, 
which all the respect due to his majesty from those about him could not make them contain. This made me 
reflect how vain an attempt it is for a man to endeavor to do himself honor among those who are out of all 
degree of equality or comparison with him." 



also a designer and etcher, and "your humble servant likewise a designer and 
etcher. When I was a mere boy," he adds, " my dear father kindly allowed 
me to play at etching on some of his copper-plates, little bits of shadows or 
little figures in the background, and to assist him a little as I grew older, and 
he used to assist me in putting in hands and faces. And when my dear broth- 
er Robert (who in his latter days omitted the Isaac) left off portrait-painting, 

and took almost entire- 
ly to designing and 
etching, I assisted him, 
at first to a great ex- 
tent, in some of his 
drawings." The result 
was that, in looking 
over the pictures of 
sixty years ago, he 
could not always tell 
his own work ; and, to 
make matters worse, 
his brother left a son, 
Percy Cruikshank, also 
a draughtsman and en- 
graver, and he, too, has 
an artist son, named 
George. The family 
has provided work for 

the coming connois- 

TUE BIUI.IOMAMAC. (George Cruikshauk, 18T1.) The gloi'Y of the liv- 

ing veteran, however, will remain unique, because he, first of the comic artists 
of his country, caught the new spirit, avoided the grossness and thoughtless 
one-sidedness of his predecessors, and used his art in such a manner that now, 
in his eighty-fourth year, looking back through the long gallery of his works 
gathered by the affectionate persistence of his admirers, he can not point to 
one picture which for any moral reason he could wish to turn to the wall. 

England owes much to her humorists of the new humane school. She 
owes, perhaps, more than she yet perceives, because the changes which they 
promote in manners and morals come about slowly and unmarked. It is the 
American revisiting the country after many years of absence who perceives the 
ameliorations which the satiric pencil and pen have conjointly produced ; nor 
are those ameliorations hidden from the American who treads for the first time 
the fast- anchored isle. It is with a peculiar rapturous recognition that we 
hail every indication of that England with which English art and literature 
have made us acquainted a very different country indeed from the England 



of politics and the newspaper. A student who found himself one fine Sunday 
morning in June gliding past the lovely Hampshire coast, covered with farms, 
lawns, and villas, gazed in silence for a long time, and could only relieve his 
mind at last by gasping, " Thomson's ' Seasons ?' " His first glance revealed 
to him, what he had never before suspected, that the rural poetry of England 
applied in a particular manner to the land that inspired it, could have been 
written only there, and only there could be quite appreciated. From Chaucer 
to Tennyson there is not a sterling line in it which could have been what it is 


if it had been composed in any part of the Western continent. We have a 
flower which we call a daisy, a weed coarsened by our fierce sun, betraying 
barrenness of soil, and suggestive of careless culture. There is also to be seen 
in our windows and greenhouses a flower named the primrose, which, though 
it has its merit, has not been celebrated by poets, nor is likely to be. But the 
instant we see an English road-side bright with primroses and daisies, we find 
ourselves saying, "Yes, of course; these are what the poets mean; this is the 
daisy of Shakspeare and Burns ; here is Wordsworth's yellow primrose !" 
And we go on holding similar discourse with ourselves as often as we descry 
the objects, at once familiar and unknown, which in every age the poets of 
Great Britain have loved to sing. 

But when, in these recent days, the same traveler observes the human life 


of English streets and homes and public places, he does not perceive so exact 
a resemblance to the life portrayed in books and pictures. English life seems 
gentler and better than it was represented forty years ago ; manners are freer 
and more cordial; people are less intemperate; the physical life is much less 
obstreperous ; the topics discussed have a more frequent relation to the higher 
interests of human nature. The glory of the last generation was held to be 
Waterloo; the distinction of the present one is a peaceful arbitration. The 
six-bottle men of Sheridan's time where are they ? Gone, quite gone. One 
bottle is now almost as unusual as it is excessive. Gone is the coach, with its 
long train of barbarisms its bloated Wellers, its coachmen who swallowed 
"an imperial pint of vinegar" with their oysters without winking, its mount- 
ainous landlord skillful in charging, its general horseyness and cumbersome 
inconvenience. The hideous prize-fight seems finally suppressed. If there are 
still estates upon which there are family cottages of one room, they are held 
in horror, and it is an axiom accepted that the owner who permits them to re- 
main is a truer savage than the most degraded peasants who inhabit them. 

Art, humanizing art, has reached a development which a dreamer of Ho- 
garth's day could not have anticipated for any period much short of the mil- 
lennium; and not a development only, but a wide diffusion. Chadband 
where is he? If he exists, he has assumed a less offensive form than when 
he eat muffins and sniveled inanity in Mrs. Snagsby's back room. Where are 
Thackeray's snobs? They, too, have not ceased to be, for the foible which he 
satirized is an integral part of human nature, which can be ennobled, not erad- 
icated. Strangers, however, do not often observe those violent and crude man- 
ifestations of it which Thackeray describes; and there seems a likelihood of 
the "Book of Snobs" meeting the fate of Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations," 
which made itself obsolete by accomplishing its purposes. Beer still flows 
redundant in every part of the British Empire. Nevertheless, there is here 
and there a person who has discovered how much more can be got out of life 
by avoiding stimulation. A decided advance must have been made toward 
tolerance of opinion when men can be borne to honorable burial in Westmin- 
ster Abbey whose opinions were at variance with those which built and sus- 
tain the edifice. Chadbandom feebly protests, but no man regards it. 

There are men still alive who remember the six-bottle period and all its 
strenuous vulgarities, the period when the whole strength of the empire was 
put forth in the Bonaparte wars. William Chambers, who was born when 
George Cruikshank was a boy of eight, speaks of those years as a time of uni- 
versal violence. Children, ruled by violence at home and by cruelty at school, 
pummeled and bullied one another in turn, besides practicing habitual cruelty 
toward birds and beasts, hunting cats, pelting dogs, plundering birds'nests. 
He tells us of a carter who used to turn out his horses to die on the common 
of his native town, where the boys, in the sight of the people, and without be- 
ing admonished by them, would daily amuse themselves by stoning the help- 



less creatures till they had battered the life out of them. The news that, 
roused the people was all of bloodshed on land and sea. The only pleasures 
that were held to be entirely worthy of men were hard riding and deep drink- 
ing. Those diaries of persons who flourished in the first half of George Cruik- 

shank's life, of which so many volumes have been published lately those, for 
example, of Moore, Greville, Jerdan, and Young what are they but a monoto- 
nous record of dinner anecdotes? Marryat's novels preserve a popular exhi- 
bition of that fighting age, and we perceive from his memoirs that he did not 
exaggerate its more savage characteristics. Several of his most brutal inci- 
dents were transcripts from his own experience. 



Comic art, which the amelioration of manners has purified, has done much 
in its turn to strengthen and diffuse that amelioration. Isaac Cruikshank was 
among the last of the old school. He seems to have kept his pencil on hire, 
for we have caricatures of his on all sides of the politics of his time, from con- 
servative to radical. In 1795 he represented William Pitt as the royal extin- 
guisher putting out the flame of sedition; but in 1797 he exhibited the same 
minister in the character of a showman deceiving the people with regard to 
the condition of the country. " Observe," says " Billy," " what a busy scene 
presents itself. The ports are filled with shipping, riches are flowing in from 
every quarter." But the countrymen standing around declare that they can 
see nothing but "a woide plain with some mountains and mole-hills upon't," 
and conjecture that the fine things which Billy sees must be behind one of the 
mole-hills. During the same year we find him caricaturing Fox, the leader of 
the Opposition, as having laid a train for the purpose of blowing up the Con- 
stitution, and then leaving to others the risk of touching it off. On both sides 
of the Irish questions of his day he employed his pencil, ridiculing in some 
pictures the Irish discontents, and in others the measures proposed by minis- 
ters for quieting them. When the old king was losing his reason, he drew 
him as a "farthing rush-light," around which were the Prince of Wales, Fox, 
Sheridan, and their friends, all trying to blow out the flickering flame. At 
length, in 1810, he caricatured the Burdett riots in a manner to please the 
most " advanced " radical. This picture, however, may have been a tribute 
to the mere audacity of the member for Westminster, who barricaded his 
house for four days against the officers of the House of Commons ordered to 
arrest him. 

It was while Isaac Cruikshank was occasionally drawing such caricatures 
as these that he " kindly allowed " his son George, " a mere boy," to " play at 
etching on some of his copper-plates." The first real work done by the lad 
was of a very modest character, but he speaks of them in a way to make us 
regret that even they should have been lost. " Many of my first productions, 
such as half-penny lottery books and books for little children, can never be 
known or seen, having been destroyed long, long ago by the dear little ones 
who had them to play with." 

Men who write so of little children that tore up their picture-books seventy 
years before are not formed for the strife of politics. George Cruikshank 
early in life withdrew from political caricature, but not before he had executed 
a few pictures of which he might reasonably boast in his old age, after time 
had justified their severity. This aged artist, who has lived to see the laws 
repealed which restricted the importation of grain into England, was just 
coming of age when those laws were passed, and he expressed his opinion of 
them in a caricature called "The Blessings of Peace; or, The Curse of the Corn 
Bill." It was in 1815 the year that consigned Bonaparte to St. Helena, and 
gave peace to Europe. A vessel laden with grain has arrived from a foreign 


port, and the supercargo, holding out a handful, says, " Here is the best for 
fifty shillings." But on the shore stands a store-house filled with home-grown 
grain, tight shut, in front of which is a group of British landowners, one of 
whom waves the foreign trader away, saying : " We won't have it at any price. 
We are determined to keep up our own to eighty shillings, and if the poor 
can't buy it at that price, why, they must starve." The foreign grain is thrown 
overboard, while a starving family looks on, and the father says, " No, no, mas- 
ters, I'll not starve, but quit my native country, where the poor are crushed by 
those they labor to support, and retire to one more hospitable, and where the 
arts of the rich do not interpose to defeat the providence of God." 

Such is the Protective System : an interested few, having the ear of the 
Government, thriving at the expense of the many who have not the ear of the 
Government! This young man saw the point in 1815 as clearly as Cobden, 
Peel, or Mill in 1846. 

In the same year he aimed a caricature at the ministry who took off the 
income tax, and lessened the taxes upon property without diminishing those 
which bore more directly upon the poor. Many pictures in a similar spirit 
followed ; but while he was still a young man he followed the bent of his dis- 
position, and has ever since employed his pencil in what his great master Ho- 
garth once styled " moral comedies," wherein humor appears as the ally and 
teacher of morals. 

John Doyle, who reigned next in the shop-windows of Great Britain, and 
continued to bear sway for twenty years 1829 to 1849 was not known by 
name to the generation which he amused. It chanced one day that two I's, in 
a printing-office where he was, stood close to two D's, and he observed that 
the conjunction formed a figure resembling H3. He adopted this as the 
mark or signature of his caricatures, and consequently he was always spoken 
of as H. B. down to the time of his death, which occurred about the year 1869. 
He, too, shared the spirit of the better time. Collectors number his published 
caricatures at nine hundred and seventeen, which have been re-issued in eleven 
volumes ; but in none of his works is there any thing of the savage vulgarity 
of the caricatures produced during the Bonaparte wars. It was a custom with 
English print-sellers to keep port-folios of his innocent and amusing pictures 
to let out by the evening to families about to engage in the arduous work of 
entertaining their friends at dinner. He excelled greatly in his portraits, 
many of which, it is said by contemporaries, are the best ever taken of the 
noted men of that day, and may be safely accepted as historical. Brougham, 
Peel, O'Connell, Hume, Russell, Palmerston, and others appear in his works as 
they were in their prime, with little distortion or exaggeration, the humor of 
the pictures being in the situation portrayed. Thus, after a debate in which 
allusion was made to an ancient egg anecdote, IB produced a caricature in 
which the leaders of parties were drawn as liens sitting upon eggs. The 
whole interest of the picture lies in the speaking likenesses of the men. An 



air of refinement pervades his designs. His humor is not aggressive. It was 
remarked at the time in the Westminster Review that the great hits of Gillray, 
on being put up for the first time in Mrs. Humphrey's window, were received 
by the crowd with shouts of approval, but that the kindlier humor of H3 only 
elicited silent smiles. 

Doubtless the war passion that raged throughout Christendom in Gillray's 

day had much to do with 
the warmth of applause 
which his works called 
forth. But, in truth, the 
vulgar portion of mankind 
appear to have a certain rel- 
ish of an effective thrust, 
no matter who may writhe. 
H3 was seldom severer than 
in his picture called " Hand- 
writing on the Wall," in 
which "Silly Billy" (as 
William IV. was familiarly 
styled) is seen reading a 
placard headed " Reform 
Bill," and muttering, "Re- 
form Bill ? Can that mean 
me?" Most of his pieces 
turn upon incidents or phases 
of politics which would re- 
quire many words to recall, 
and then scarcely interest a 
reader of to-day. A carica- 
ture, as before remarked, is 
made to be seen ; it is a 
thing of the moment, and 
for the moment, and when 
that moment is passed, it 

" I observed in the front row of a dress box a lady performing the 1 . 

most maternal office possible, several gentlemen without their coats, must be of exceptional qual- 

and a general air of contempt for the decencies of life, certainly - t f ^ rpvival in wnrrU 

more than usually revolting."-ME8. TBOLLOPB, Domestic Manners l 

of the Americans, vol. ii.,p. 194. Seeing caricatures from 

childhood has induced a habit in many persons of surveying life in the spirit 
of caricature, and has developed some tolerable private wielders of the satiric 
pencil. Mrs. Trollope was, perhaps, a case in point. Her volumes upon the 
"Domestic Manners of the Americans," the literary sensation of 1832, were 
illustrated by a dozen or more of very amusing caricatures, some of which 
were fair hits, and were of actual service in improving popular manners. 



There are persons still alive who remember hearing the cry of " Trollope ! 
Trollope !" raised in our theatres when a man ventured to take off his coat on 
a hot night, or sat with his feet too high in the air.* Her whole work, pict- 
ures and all, was a purposed political caricature, as she frankly confesses in 
her preface, where she says that her chief object was to warn her countrymen 
of "the jarring tumult and universal degradation which invariably follow the 
wild scheme of placing all the power of the State in the hands of the populace." 
She was, besides, exceedingly uncomfortable during her three years' residence 
in the United States, except when she was so happy as to be served by slaves. 
" On entering a slave State," she remarks, " I was immediately comfortable 
and at my ease, and felt that the intercourse between me and those who 
served me was profitable to both parties and painful to neither." 

Besides the specimen of her caricaturing powers given in this chapter, 
there are several others which have, at least, some interest as curiosities of 
insular judgment.. Mrs. Trollope, the daughter of a clergyman of the English 
Church, and the wife of an English lawyer of aristocratic family, entered the 
United States, in 1827, by the Mississippi, and spent a year or two in its newly 
settled valley. She saw the Western people engaged in a life-and-death strug- 
gle with untamed nature the forest, wild men and beasts, the swamp, the flood, 
the fever, a trying climate, and interminable distances. A partial conquest had 
been won. Some fair towns had risen. A few counties were subdued. The 
log school-house was a familiar object. To a mind of continental compass, al- 
though Western life was still rough, rude, and haggard, the pi'ospect was hope- 
ful ; it was evident that civilization was winning the day, and was destined, in 
the course of a century or two, to make the victory complete. The worst that 
a person of liberal mind could say, or can now say, of such a scene, would be 
this : " See what it costs to transplant human families from the parish to the 
wilderness !" 

Even cabbage plants wither when only transferred from the hot-bed to the 
garden ; but the transplanting of families from the organized society of an old 
country to a wild new land is a process under which all sicken, many degener- 
ate, and many die. 

Our curate's daughter, on the contrary, after a long and close survey of 
this interesting scene, could only discover that life on the banks of the Ohio, 
in the twentieth year of their settlement, was neither as pleasant, nor as grace- 
ful, nor as elegant, nor as clean, nor as convenient as it is in an English vil- 
lage; and this discovery she communicated to the woi'ld in two volumes, 12mo, 
with sixteen illustrations, very much to the satisfaction of many English read- 
ers. This worthy and gifted lady, mother of worthy and gifted children, was 

* "In the pit [of the Chatham Theatre, New York] persons pulled off their coats in order to 

be cool Gentlemen keep their hats on in the boxes, and in the pit they make themselves in 

every respect comfortable." Travels through North America during the Years 1825 and 1826, 
p. 145, by his Highness Bernhard, Duke of Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach. 




Sketches, 1834.) 

' PIOKWIOK." (Seymour's 

" Vot, eighteen shillings for that ere little pig? Vy, I could buy it in town for seven any day !" 

utterly baffled in her attempts to account for the rudeness of Western life. 
Provisions, she says, were abundant in Cincinnati, as many as four thousand 
pigs being advertised sometimes by one man. The very gutters of the town 
ran blood the blood of cheap innumerable swine. But " the total and uni- 
vei'sal want of manners, both in males and females, is so remarkable that I was 
constantly endeavoring to account for it." The people, she thought, had clear 
and active intellects ; their conversation was often weighty and instructive, oc- 
casionally dull, but never silly. What an unaccountable thing, then, it was 


that these dealers in the pig and slayers of the bear, these subduers. of the wil- 
derness and conquerors of Tecumseh, should not bow with courtly grace, and 
converse with the elegance and ease of Holland House ! "There is no charm, 
no grace, in their conversation," she laments. "I very seldom, during my 
whole stay in the country, heard a sentence elegantly turned and correctly pro- 
nounced from the lips of an American." 

Such a thing it is to be brought up in an island ! Her volumes, however, 
are to this day entertaining, and not devoid of historical value. There is here 
and there a passage which some of us could still read with profit, and her mis- 
interpretations are not much more insular and perverse than those of Dickens. 
No one, indeed, yet knows much of this mystery of .transplanting, in which lies 
hidden the explanation of America. 

Her first caricature, entitled "Ancient and Modern Republics," is in two 
scenes. An Ancient Republic is represented as a noble Greek, crowned with 
flowers, reclining upon a lounge, one hand resting upon the strings of a lyre, 
and the other gracefully holding up a beautiful cup, into which a lovely maid- 
en is squeezing the juice from a luxuriant bunch of grapes. A Modern Repub- 
lic figures as a Western bar-room politician, with his hat over his eyes, his 
heels upon the table, a tumbler in his hand, a decanter within reach, and a 
plug of tobacco at its side. We have next a picture of a " Philosophical Mil- 
linery Store " at New Orleans, in which Mrs. Trollope delineated an astounding 
event "My being introduced inform to a milliner !" She, a curate's daugh- 
ter, introduced to a maker of bonnets, who actually proved to be a gifted and 
intelligent lady ! A " Cincinnati Ball-room " reveals to us twenty-two ladies 
sitting close to the walls, the floor vacant, and all the men gormandizing at a 
table in the next room, leaving the ladies to a " sad and sulky repast " of trash 
in plates held on their laps. Then we are favored with a view of a young lady 
who is making a shirt, but is ashamed to pronounce the name of the garment 
in the presence of a man, and calls it pillow-case. Whereupon he says, "Now 
that passes, Miss Clarissa ! 'Tis a pillow-case for a giant, then. Shall I guess, 
miss ?" To which she sweetly replies, " Quit, Mr. Smith ; behave yourself, or 
I'll certainly be affronted." 

Another picture represents some ladies about to enter a gallery of art at 
Philadelphia, in which were exhibited several antique statues. The old woman 
in attendance says: "Now, ma'am, now! this is just the time for you. No- 
body can see you. Make haste !" Mrs. Trollope stared at her with astonish- 
ment, and asked her what she meant. " Only, ma'am," was the reply, " that 
the ladies like to go into that room by themselves, when there be no gentlemen 
watching them." Another picture presents to us an American citizen of " the 
highest standing " returning from market at 6 A.M. with a huge basket of veg- 
etables on one arm and a large ham carried in the other hand. A still more 
marvelous picture is given. Mr. Owen, father of Robert Dale Owen, chal- 
lenged debate on his assertion that all the religions ever promulgated were 



equally false and pernicious. A clergyman having accepted the challenge, the 
debate was continued during fifteen sessions. But what amazed Mrs. Trollope 
was that Mr. Owen was listened to with respect ! Nothing was thrown at him. 
The benches were not torn up. Another marvel was that neither of the dis- 
putants lost his temper, but they remained excellent friends, and dined together 
every day with the utmost gayety and cordiality. All this must have seemed 
strange indeed to the doting daughter of a State Church whose belief was 
regulated by act of Parliament. 

A famous contemporary of John Doyle and Mrs. Trollope was Robert Sey- 
mour, who will be long re- 

\ membered for his co-opera- 

tion with Charles Dickens 
in the production of the 
first numbers of "Pick- 
wick." Nothing can be 
more certain than that this 
unfortunate artist, who died 
by his own hand just before 
the second number of the 
work was issued, did actu- 
ally suggest the idea which 
the genius of Dickens de- 
veloped into the " Pickwick 
Papers." While Dickens 
was still in the reporters' 
gallery of the House of 
Commons, Seymour had at- 
tained a shop -window ce- 
lebrity by a kind of picture 
of which the English peo- 
ple seem never to be able 
to get enough caricatures 
of Londoners attempting 
country sports. It appears 
to be accepted as an axiom 

"Walked twenty miles overnight; up before peep o' day again; m England that a man C3- 

got a capital place; fell fast asleep; tide rose np to my knees; my p a ble of conducting bllSl- 

hat was changed, my pockets pick't, and a fish run away with my * 

hook ; dreamt of being on a polar expedition and having my toes neSS Successfully becomes 

an absurd and ludicrous 

object the moment he gets upon a horse or fires at a bird. It seems to be 
taken for granted that horsemanship and hunting belong to the feudal system, 
and are strictly entailed in county families. But as a man is supposed to rank 
in fashionable circles according to his mastery of those arts, great numbers of 

PBBS." (Seymour's Sketches, 1834.) 




(Richard Doyle, 1849.) 

young men, it seems, live but to attempt feats impossible except to inherited 
skill. Here is the field for such artists as Robert Seymour, " For whose use," 
as Mr. Dickens wrote, "I put in Mr. Winkle expressly," and who drew "that 
happy portrait of the founder of the Pickwick Club by which he is always 
recognized, and which may be said to have made him a reality." Perhaps as 
many as a third of the comic pictures published at that period were in the 
Winkle vein. 

Upon looking over the sketches of Robert Seymour, which used to appear 
from time to time in the windows price threepence while Boz was getting 
his "Sketches" through the press, we perceive that Dickens really derived 
fruitful hints from this artist, besides the original suggestion of the work. 
Mr. Winkle is recognizable in several of them; Mr. Pickwick's figure occurs 
occasionally; the Fat Boy is distinctly suggested; the famous picnic scene is 
anticipated ; and there is much in the spirit of the pictures to remind us that 


among the admiring crowd which they attracted, the author of " Pickwick v 
might often have been found. Seymour, however, gave him only hints. In 
every instance he has made the suggested character or incident absolutely his 
own. Seymour only supplied a piece of copper, which the alchemy of genius 
turned into gold. In Dickens's broadest and most boisterous humor there are 
ever a certain elegance and refinement of tone that are wanting in Seymour, 
Seymour's cockney hunters being persons of the Tittlebat Titmouse grade, who 
long ago ceased to amuse and began to offend. 

Seymour's discovery, in the first numbers of " Pickwick," that it was the 
author, not the artist, who was to dominate a work which was his own concep- 
tion and long-cherished dream, was probably among the causes of his fatal de- 
spair. When he first mentioned to Chapman & Hall his scheme of a Cockney 
Club ranging over England, he was a popular comic artist of several years' 
standing, and Charles Dickens was a name unknown. Nor was it supposed to 
be of so very much consequence who should write the descriptive matter. The 
firm closed the bargain with Mr. Seymour without having bestowed a thought 
upon the writer ; and when they had suggested the unknown " Boz," and pro- 
cured a copy of his " Sketches " by way of recommendation, Mrs. Seymour's 
remark was that, though she could not see any humor in his writings herself, 
yet he might do as well as another, and fifteen pounds a month to a poor and 
struggling author would be a little fortune. To a sensitive and ambitious 
man, made morbid by various hard usage such, as the men who delight the 
world often undergo, it must have been a cutting disappointment to be asked, 
in the infancy of an enterprise which he deemed peculiarly his own, to put 
aside an illustration that he had prepared, and make another to suit the fan- 
cies of a subordinate. It was like requiring a star actor to omit his favorite 
and most special " business " in order to afford a member of the company an 
opportunity to shine. 

The biographer of Mr. Dickens is naturally reluctant to admit the social in- 
significance in London, forty years ago, of a " struggling author," and he is 
grossly abusive of Mr. N. P. Willis for describing his hero as he appeared at 
this stage of his career. Mr. Willis visited him at a dismal building in Hoi- 
born, in company with one of Mr. Dickens's publishers, and he gave a brief 
account of what he saw, which doubtless was the exact truth. Willis was a, 
faithful chronicler of the minutiae of a scene. He was a stickler for having the 
small facts correct. " We pulled up," he wrote, " at the entrance of a large 
building used for lawyers' chambers. I followed by a long flight of stairs to 
an upper story, and was ushered into an uncarpeted and bleak-looking room, 
with a deal table, two or three chairs, and a few books, a small boy and Mr. 
Dickens, for the contents. I was only struck at first with one tiling (and I 
made a memorandum of it that evening as the strongest instance I had seen of 
English obsequiousness to employers) the degree to which the poor author 
was overpowered with the honor of his publisher's visit." He describes Dick- 


ens as dressed rather in the Swiveller style, though without Richard's swell 
look : hair close cropped, clothes jaunty and scant, " the very personification of 
a close sailer to the wind." There is nothing in this discreditable to the " poor 
author," and nothing which a person who knew London then would deem im- 
probable. Is it not a principle imbedded in the constitution of Britons that 
the person who receives money in small amounts for work and labor done is 
the party obliged, and must stand hat in hand before him who pays it? 

Whoever shall truly relate the history of the people of Great Britain \n the 
nineteenth century will not pass by in silence the publication of " Pickwick." 
Cruikshank, Seymour, and Irving, as well as the humorists of other times, had 
nourished and molded the genius of Dickens ; but, like all the masters in art, 
he so far transcended his immediate teachers that, even in what he most ob- 
viously derived from them, he was original. And it is he, not they, who is 
justly hailed as the founder of that benign school of comic art which gives us 
humor without coarseness, and satire without ill nature. It is " Pickwick " 
that marks the era, and the sole interest which Seymour's sketches now possess 
is in showing us from what Charles Dickens departed when he founded the 
Pickwick Club. 





ONE happy consequence of the new taste was the publication of Punch, 
which has been ever since the chief vehicle of caricature in England. As 
long as caricature was a thing of the only, its power was re- 
stricted within narrow limits. Since the founding of Punch, in 1841, about 
two years after the conclusion of the " Pickwick Papers," caricature has be- 
come an element in periodical literature, from which it will perhaps never 
again be separated. And it is the pictures in this celebrated paper which have 



Explanation by Earl Rnssell in 1874: "The object of that bill was merely to assert the supremacy of the 
Crown. It was never intended to prosecute Accordingly a very clever artist represented me in a cari- 
cature as a boy who had chalked up 'No Popery' upon a wall, and then ran away. This was a very fair 

Jke When my object had been gained, I had no objection to the repeal of the bill." Recollections and 

Suggestions, p. 210. 



prolonged its life to this day. It owes its success chiefly to artists. There 
was and is an error in the scheme of the work which would have been speedily 
fatal to it but for the ever- welcome pictures of Richard Doyle,, John Leech, 
John Tenuiel, Du Maurier, and their companions. 

One of the rarest products of the human mind is a joke so good that it 
remains good when the occasion that gave rise to it is past. Probably the 
entire weekly harvest of wit and humor gathered from the whole earth would 

not fill a number of Punch with "good things;" and if it did, no one could 
enjoy so many all at once, and the surfeit would sicken and disgust. The 
mere sitting-down for the purpose of being funny in a certain number of lines 
or pages is death to the comic powers ; and hence it is that a periodical to 
which nearly the whole humorous talent of England has contributed is some- 
times dull in its reading, and we wonder if there can be in any quarter of the 
globe a person so bereft of the means of entertainment as to get quite through 



one number. Once or twice a year, however, Punch originates a joke which 
goes round the world, and remains part of the common stock of that countless 
host who are indebted to their memory for their jests. 

But the pictures are almost always amusing, and often delightful. The 
artists have the whole scene of human life, public and private, to draw from, 
and they are able by their pencils to vividly reproduce the occasions that gave 
birth to their jokes. 

In looking over the long series of political caricatures by Leech and Ten- 
niel, which now go back thirty-three years, we are struck, first of all, by the 
simplicity of the means which they usually employ for giving a comic aspect 
to the political situation. They reduce cabinet ministers and other dignitaries 

PBEPARATOBY SJOHOOJ. FOB YOCNO LADIES. (John Leech, "Follies of the Year," London, 1S5H.) 

many degrees in the social scale, exhibiting them as footmen, as boys, as police- 
men, as nurses, as circus performers, so that a certain comic effect is produced, 
even if the joke should go no further. Of late years Mr. Tenniel has often 
reversed this device with fine effect by raising mundane personages to celestial 
rank, and investing them with a something more than a travesty of grandeur. 
It is remarkable how unfailing these simple devices are to amuse. Whether 
Mr. Leech presents us with Earl Russell as a small foot-boy covered with but- 
tons, or Mr. Tenniel endows Queen Victoria with the majestic mien of Minerva, 
the public is well pleased, and desires nothing additional but a few apt words 
explanatory of the situation. But, simple as these devices may be, it is only a 
rarely gifted artist that can use use them with effect. Between the sublime 
and the ridiculous there is a whole step ; but in comic art there is but a hair's- 
breadth between the happy and the flat. 

Lord Brougham was supposed to be courting the conservatives when Leech 



began to caricature. The superserviceable zeal of the ex-chancellor was hit 
very happily in a circus scene, in which the Duke of Wellington figures as the 
ring-mister, Brougham as the clown, and Sir Robert Peel as the rider. The 
clown says to the ring-master, " Now, Mr. Wellington, is there any thing I can 
run for to fetch for to come for to go for to carry for to bring for to 
take ?" etc. In another picture the same uneasy spirit, restive under his titled 
and pensioned nothingness, appears as "Henry asking for. wore." Again we 
have him dancing with the Wool-sack, which is explained by the words, "The 
Polka, a new Dance, introducing the old Double Shuffle." And again we see 
him in a tap-room, smoking a pipe, with a pot of beer on the table, looking on 
with complacency while Mr. Roebuck bullies an Irish member. Brougham 
says, " Go it, my little Roebuck ! Bless his little heart ! I taught him to 
bounce like that." 

Russell, Peel, Wellington, O'Connell, and Louis Philippe were other per- 
sonages whom Mr. Punch 
often caricatured at that pe- 
riod of his existence, and he 
generally presented them in 
a manner that still coincides 
with public feeling in En- 
gland, and was probably not 
disagreeable to the men 
themselves at the time. 
One of Leech's hits was a 
picture designed to ridicule 
certain utterances of the 
Prince de Joinville concern- 
ing the possible invasion of 
England in 1 845, when some 
irritating conduct of the 
French ministry had been 
met by Wellington with 
good temper and firmness. 
The prince, as a boy, is 
" squaring off," with a great 
show of fight, at the duke, 
who stands with his hands 
in his pockets, not defiant, 
but serene and watchful. 
This picture is perfectly in 
the English taste. Leech 
liked to show great Britannia as infinitely able to fight, and not so very un- 
willing, but firmly resolved uo.t to do so unless compelled by honor or necessity. 


Waster Wellington. " Yon're too good a judge to hit me, you are I" 

Master Joinville. "Ami?" 

Master Wellington. " Yes, you are." 

Master Joinville. " Oh, am I ?" 

Master Wellington. " Yes, you are." 

Master Joinville. " Ha !" 

Master Wellington. "Ha!" 

[Moral And they don't fight, after all. 


In these sixty-nine volumes of Punch there is much of the history of our 
time which words alone could not have preserved. We can trace in them the 
progress of ideas, of measures, and of men. The changes in public feeling 
are exhibited which enabled Cobden and Peel to strike from British industry 
the gilt fetters of protection, for Punch is only another name for Public Opin- 
ion. These pictures have a particular interest for us, since we are to travel 
the same road in due time, and thus, at length, give Great Britain a rival in 
the markets of the world. Nothing could be better than Mr. Leech's picture 
showing Sir Robert Peel as the " Deaf Postilion." In a debate on the Corn 
Laws he had said, " I shall still pursue steadily that course which my conscience 
tells me I should take; let you and those opposite pursue what course you think 
right." The picture shows us a post-chaise, the body of which has become de- 
tached from the fore-wheels a mishap which the deaf postilion does not dis- 
cover, but goes trotting along as though his horses were still drawing the load. 
The chaise, named Protection, is occupied by Tory lords, who shout in vain to 
the deaf postilion. Again, we have Disraeli as a viper biting the file, Sir Rob- 
ert. Leech continued his effective support of the movement until the victory 
was won, when he designed a monument to the victor, consisting of a pyramid 
of large cheap loaves of bread crowned by the name of Peel. 

The Puseyite imbecility was as effectively satirized by Leech in 1849 as 
the ritualistic imitation has recently been by Tenniel. American slavery came 
in for just rebuke. As a 1'etort to "some bunkum" in the American press in 
1848, Mr. Leech drew a picture of Liberty lashing a negro, while Jonathan, 
with rifle on his arm, cigar in his mouth, and bottle at his side, says, " Oh, ain't 
we a deal better than other folks ! I guess we're a most a splendid example 
to them thunderin' old monarchies." The language is wrong, of course ; no 

O O O? 7 

American ever said " a deal better." English attempts at American slang are 
always incorrect. But the satire was deserved. Leech was far from spar- 
ing his own country. Some readers must remember the pair of pictures by 
Leech, in 1849, entitled "Pin-money" and " Needle-money," one exhibiting a 
young lady's boudoir filled with luxurious and costly objects, and the other a 
poor needle-woman in her garret of desolation, sewing by the light of a soli- 
tary candle upon a shirt for which she is to receive three half-pence. In a 
similar spirit was conceived a picture presenting two objects often seen in ag- 
ricultural fairs in England a " Prize Peasant " and a " Prize Pig :" the first 
rewarded for sixty years of virtuous toil by a prize of two guineas, the owner 
of the fat pig being recompensed by an award of three guineas. 

Toward Louis Napoleon Punch gradually relented. At first Mr. Leech 
gave just and strong expression to the world's contempt for that unparalleled 
charlatan ; but as he became powerful, and seemed to be useful to Great Brit- 
ain, Punch treated him with an approach to respect. A similar change to- 
ward Mr. Disraeli is observable. Seldom during the first fifteen years of his 
public life was he presented in a favorable light. Upon his retirement from 


office in 1853, Leech satirized his malevolent attacks upon the new ministry 
very happily by a picture in which he appears as a crossing-sweeper spattering 
mud upon Lord Russell and his colleagues. " Won't give me any thing, won't 
you?" says the sweeper: "then take thatf" Nor did the admirable Leech 
fail to mark the public sense of Disraeli's silence during the long debates upon 
the bill giving to English Jews some of the rights of citizenship. In his whole 
public career there is nothing harder to forgive than that ignoble and unneces- 
sary abstinence. During the last few years Mr. Disraeli has won by sheer per- 
sistence a certain solidity of position in English politics, and Punch pays him 
the respect due to a person who represents a powerful and patriotic party. 

One quality of the Punch caricatures is worthy of particular regard : they 
are rarely severe, and never scurrilous. The men for whom Mr. Leech enter- 
tained an antipathy, such as O'Connell, O'Brien, Brougham, and others, were 
usually treated in a manner that could not have painfully wounded their self- 
love. We observe even in the more incisive works of Gillray a certain bois- 
terous good-humor that often made their satire amusing to the men satirized. 
Mr. Rush, American minister in London in 1818, describes a dinner party at 
Mr. Canning's, at which the minister exhibited to his guests albums and scrap- 
books of caricature in which he was himself very freely handled. Fox and 
Burke, we are told, visited the shop where Gillray's caricatures were sold, and 
while buying the last hit at themselves would bandy jests with Mrs. Hum- 
phrey, the publisher. Burke winced a little under the lash, but the robuster 
and larger Fox was rarely disturbed, and behaved in the shop with such win- 
ning courtesy that Mrs. Humphrey pronounced him the peerless model of a gen- 
tleman. Punch, likewise, does not appear to irritate the men whom he cari- 
catures. Lord Brougham used to laugh at the exceedingly ugly countenance 
given him by Leech, and to say that the artist, unable to hit his likeness, was 
obliged to designate him by his checked trousers. Lord Russell, as we see, 
does not object to Leech's delineations; and Palmerston, long a favorite with 
the Punch artists, may well have been content with their handsome treatment 
of him. 

During the last fifteen years Mr. Tenniel has oftenest supplied the political 
cartoon of Punch. His range is not so wide as that of Leech, but within his 
range he is powerful indeed. He has produced some pictures which for 
breadth, strength, aptness, good feeling, and finish have rarely been equaled in 
their kind. He gives us sometimes such n impression of his power as we 
fancy Michael Angelo might have done if he had amused himself by drawings 
reflecting upon the politics of his time. If, as the Quarterly Review lately 
remarked, Tenniel's pictures are often something less than caricature, being 
wanting in the exuberant humor of his predecessors, we can also say that they 
are frequently much more than caricature. Mr. Tenniel was an artist of re- 
pute, and had furnished a cartoon for the Westminster Parliament-house be- 
fore he became identified with Punch. 




" OBSTRUCTIVES." (John Tenniel, 18TO.) 

Mr. Punch (to Bnll A 1). "Yes, it's all very well to say ' Go to school !' How are they to go to school with 
those people quarreling in the door-way ? Why don't you make 'em ' move on ?' " 

In common with John Leech and the ruling class of England generally, Mr. 
Tenniel was so unfortunate as to misinterpret the civil war in America. He 
was almost as much mistaken as to its nature and significance as some of our 
own politicians, who had not his excuse of distance from the scene. He began 
well, however. His "Divorce a Vinculo," published in January, 1861, when 
the news of the secession of South Carolina reached England, was too flatter- 
ing to the North, though correct as to the attitude of the South. "Mrs. Caro- 
lina asserts her Right to 'larrup' her Nigger" was a rough statement of South 
Carolina's position, but we can not pretend that the Northern States objected 
from any interest they felt in the colored boy. On the part of the North it 
was simply a war for self-preservation. It was as truly such as if Scotland or 
Ireland, or both of them, had seceded from England in 1803, when the Peace 
of Amiens was broken, and the English people had taken the liberty to object. 
Again, Mr. Tenniel showed good feeling in admonishing Lord Palmerston, when 
the war had begun, to keep Great Britain neutral. " Well, Pam," says Mr. 
Punch to his workman, " of course I shall keep you on, but you must stick to 
peace-work" Nor could we object to the picture in May, 1861, of Mr. Lin- 
coln's poking the fire and filling the room with particles of soot, saying, with 
downcast look, " What a nice White House this would be if it were not for 
the Blacks !" 



But from that, time to the end of the war all was misapprehension and per- 
versity. In July, 1861, "Naughty Jonathan," an ill-favored little boy carry- 
ing a toy flag, addresses the majesty of Britain thus : " You shrfrft interfere, 
mother and you ought to be on my side and it's a great shame and I don't 
care and you shall interfere and I won't have it." During the Mason and 
Slidell imbroglio the Tenniel cartoons were not "soothing" to the American 
mind. " Do what's right, my son," says the burly sailor, Jack Bull, to little 
Admiral Jonathan, " or I'll blow you out of the water." Again, we have a 
family dinner scene. John Bull at the head of the table, and Lord Russell the 
boy in waiting. Enter " Captain Jonathan, F.N.," who says, " Jist looked in 
to see if thar's any rebels he-arr." Upon which Mr. Bull remarks, "Oh, in- 
deed ! John, look after the plate-basket, and then fetch a policeman." This 
was in allusion to a supposed claim on the part of Mr. Seward of a right to 
search ships for rebel passengers. Then we have Mr. Lincoln as a "coon" in 
a tree, and Colonel Bull aiming his blunderbuss at him. "Air you in earnest, 
colonel ?" asks the coon. " I am," replies the mighty Bull. " Don't fire," says 
the coon ; " I'll come down." And accordingly Mason and Slidell were speed- 
ily released. In a similar spirit most of the events of the war were treated ; 
and when the war had ended, there was still shown in Punchy as in the En- 

JEDDO AND BELFAST; OB, A PDZZLE FOE JAPAN. (John Tenniel, in Punch, 1872.) 

Japanese Embassador. " Then these people, your Grace, I suppose, are heathen f" 

Archbishop of Canterbury. " On the contrary, your Excellency ; those are among our most enthusiastic 



"AT THE CHURCH-GATE." (Du Maurier, in Punch, 1ST2.) 

"So now you've been to church, Ethel ! And which part of it all do yon like best?" 
" This part, mamma I" 

glish press generally, the same curious, inexplicable, and total ignorance of the 
feelings of the American people. What an inconceivable perversity it was to 
attribute Mr. Sumner's statement of the damage done to the United States by 
the alliance which existed for four years between the owners of England and 
the masters of the South to a Yankee grab for excessive damages ! In all the 
long catalogue of national misunderstandings there is none more remarkable 
than this. Mr. Tenniel from the first derided the idea that any particular dam- 
age had been done by the Alabama and her consorts : certainly there was no 
damage, he thought, upon which a "claim" could be founded. "Claim for 
damages against me ? n cries big Britannia, in one of his pictures of October, 
1865. "Nonsense, Columbia; don't be mean over money matters." 

All this has now become merely interesting as a curiosity of misinterpreta- 
tion. The American people know something of England through her art, her 
literature, and press; but England has extremely imperfect means of knowing 


us. No American periodical, probably, circulates in Great Britain two hun- 
dred copies. We have no Dickens, no Thackeray, no George Eliot, no Punch, 
to make our best and our worst familiar in the homes of Christendom ; and 
what little indigenous literature we have is more likely to mislead foreigners 
than enlighten them. Cooper's men, women, and Indians, if they ever existed, 
exist no more. Mr. Lowell's Yankee is extinct. Uncle Tom is now a free- 
man, raising his own bale of cotton. Mark Twain and Bret Harte would hard- 
ly recognize their own California. It is the literature, the art, and the science 
of a country which make it known to other lands ; and we shall have neither 
of these in adequate development until much more of the work is done of 
smoothing off this rough continent, and educating the people that come to us, 
at the rate of a cityful a month, from the continent over the sea. At present 
it is nearly as much as we can do to find spelling-books for so many. 

To most Americans the smaller pictures of Leech and others in Punch, 
which gently satirize the foibles and fashions of the time, are more interesting 
than the political cartoons. How different the life of the English people, as 
exhibited in these thousands of amusing scenes, from the life of America ! We 
see, upon turning over a single volume, how much more the English play and 
laugh than we do. It is not merely that there is a large class in England who 
have nothing to do except to amuse themselves, but the whole people seem in- 
terested in sport, and very frequently to abandon themselves to innocent pleas- 
ures. Here is a young lady in the hunting field in full gallop, who cries gayly 
to her companion, " Come along, Mr. Green ; I want a lead at the brook;" 
which makes "Mr. Green think that women have no business in hunting." En- 
gland generally thinks otherwise, and Mr. Punch loves to exhibit his country- 
women " in mid-air" leaping a ditch, or bounding across a field with huntsmen 
and hounds about them. He does not object to a hunting parson. A church- 
warden meets an " old sporting rector " on the road, and says, " Tell ye what 
'tis, sir, the congregation do wish you wouldn't put that 'ere curate up in pul- 
pit; nobody can't hear un." To which the old sporting parson on his pony re- 
plies, " Well, Blunt, the fact is, Tweedler's such a good fellow for parish work, 
I'm obliged to give him a mount sometimes." And in the distance we see 
poor Tweedler trudging briskly along, umbrella in hand, upon some parish er- 
rand. Another sporting picture shows us three gentlemen at dinner, one of 
whom is a clergyman whose mind is so peculiarly constituted that his thoughts 
run a little upon the duties of his office. Perhaps he is Tweedler himself. One 
of the laymen, a fox-hunter, says to the other, "That was a fine forty minutes 
yesterday." The other replies, " Yes ; didn't seem so long either." Punch re- 
marks that " the curate is puzzled, and wonders, do they refer to his lecture in 
the school-room ?" 

And what a part eating and drinking play in English life and English art ! 
Every body appears to give dinners occasionally, and all the dealers in vegeta- 
bles seem to stand ready to serve as waiters at five shillings for an evening. 



Food is a common topic of conversation, and it is a civility for people to 
show an interest in one another's alimentary pleasures. "Glad to see yer 

feed so beautiful, Mrs. B ," remarks a portly host to a corpulent lady, 

his Christmas guest. " Thank yer, Mr. J ," says she, with knife and fork 

at rest and pointing to the ceiling ; " I'm doin' lovely." Again, old Mr. 
Brown, entertaining young Mr. Green, says, with emphasis, " That wine, sir, 
has been in my cellar four-and-twenty years come last Christmas four-and- 
twenty years, sir !" To which innocent Mr. Green, anxious to say something 
agreeable, replies, "Has it really, sir? What must it have been when it was 
new ?" Little Emily asks her mother, " What is capital punishment ?" Mas- 
ter Harry replies, " Why, being locked up in the pantry ! I should con- 

AN EARLY QUIBBLE. (Da Maurier, ill Punch, 1872.) 

George. " There, Aunt Mary ! what do yon think of that t I drew the horse, and Ethel drew the jockey !" 
Aunt Mary. " H'm ! But what wonld mamma say to yonr drawing jockeys on a Sunday ?" 
George. "Ah, but look here ! We've drawn him riding to church, yon know !" 

sider it so." Even at the theatres, we may infer from some of the pict- 
ures, ale and porter are handed round between the acts of the play. In 
one picture we see two lovers looking upon the sky; poetical Augustus says, 
"Look, Edith! how lovely are those fleecy cloudlets, dappled over the " 
Edith (not in a spirit of burlesque) replies, " Yes, 'xactly like gravy when it's 
getting cold isn't it?" Then we have two gentlemen in the enjoyment of a 
little dinner, one of a long series given in the absence of the family at Bou- 
logne. The master of the house receives a telegram. He reads it, heaves a 
deep sigh, and says, dolefully, " It's all up !" Bachelor friend asks, " What's 
the matter?" Paterfamilias replies, " Telegram ! She says they've arrived 



safe at Folkestone, and will be home about 10.30." No more little dinners. 
Only a wife and children for comfort. And here are two of Mr. Du Manner's 
pretty children eating slices of bread too thinly spread with jam, and Ethel 
says, with thoughtful earnestness, " I dare say the queen and her courtiers eat 
a whole pot of jam every day, Harry !" There are many hundreds of pictures 
in Punch which show a kind of solemn interest in the repair of wasted tissue 
never seen in this country. It is evident that the English have a deep delight 

in the act of taking sustenance which is to us unknown. Mr. Thackeray him- 
self, in speaking of an Englishman's first glass of beer on returning home from 
a long journey in other lands, casts his eyes to heaven and gives way to some- 
thing like enthusiasm. 

Many pictures bring into juxtaposition extremes of civilization rarely wit- 
nessed in America. So many traps are set for ignorance in this country that a 
child can scarcely hope to get by them all, and escape into maturity an abso- 
lute dolt. Observe this conversation between a squire .and a villager: "Hob- 
son, they tell me you've taken your boy away from the national school. What's 


that for?" "'Cause the master ain't fit to teach un. He wanted to teach my 
boy to spell taters with a P." Here, again, is a scene in a London picture-gal- 
lery that presents a curious incongruity. A group is standing before one of 
the works of Ary Scheffer, and an East-ender, catalogue in hand, makes this 
comment upon the artist's name: "'Ary Scheffer! Hignorant fellers, these 
foreigners, Bill ! Spells 'Enery without the Haitch !" In New York we have 
doubtless people that would be as incongruous as this in such a scene, but they 
do not visit picture-galleries. Nor have we among us a photographer who 
could essay to bring a smile to a sitter's face by saying, " Just look a little 
pleasant, miss : think of 'm/" It is evident from many hundreds of such 
sketches that there are great numbers of people in England who exercise diffi- 
cult callings, hold responsible positions, dress in silk and broadcloth, and are 
in many particulars accomplished and well equipped for the stress of city life, 
who are destitute of mental culture to a degree which is associated in our 
minds only with squalor and degradation. 

The spirit of caste, which appears to be only less strong in England than in 
India, affords countless opportunities to English comic art. Imagine a coster- 
monger profusely and laboriously apologizing to a well-dressed passer-by for 
presuming to speak to him in order to let him know that his coat-tail is burn- 
ing: "You'll excuse my addressin' of you, sir common man in a manner of 
speakin' gen'leman like you, sir beggin' pardon for takin' the liberty, which 
I should never 'a thought of doin' under ordinary succumstances, sir, only you 
didn't seem to be aware on it, but it struck me as I see you agoin' along as 
you were afire, sir !" During the delivery of this apology combustion had con- 
tinued, and Brown's coat-tail was entirely consumed, his box of fusees having 
ignited some seconds before the coster -monger began his discourse. A few 
years ago Punch gave a little " Sea-side Drama " that illustrates another phase 
of the same universal foible. Mrs. De Tomkyns to her husband : " Ludovic 
dear, there's Algernon playing with a strange child ! Do prevent it." " How 
on earth am I to prevent it?" "Tell its parents Algernon is just recovering 
from the scarlet fever." Mr. De Tomkyns accordingly makes this fictitious 
statement to the father of the obnoxious child, who replies, " It's all right, sir ; 
so's our little girl." Punch hits it fairly, too, in a pictured tete-d-tete between 
Mr. Shoddy and Mrs. Sharp. Mr. Shoddy remarks, as he sips his coffee, that 
he never feels safe from the ubiquitous British snob until he is south of the 
Danube. To this Mrs. Sharp i m esponds by asking, "And what do the a 
South Danubinns say, Mr. Shoddy ?" 

The moral feeling of the Punch artists is so generally sound that it is sur- 
prising to find them often taking the wrong and popular side of the "conflict 
of ages " between mistress and maid. But if they usually laugh with the mis- 
tress and at the maid, they occasionally laugh with the maid and at the mis- 
tress ; and truly the wildest absurdity attributed to the British servant seems 
venial compared with the thoughtless arrogance of the typical British mistress. 


Punch does not wholly neglect her morals. Another hundred volumes or so 
will doubtless bring her over to Sydney Smith's opinion, that all the virtues 
and graces are not to be had for seven pounds per annum. l was a happy 
retort upon "No Irish need apply," to present an English servant-girl peremp- 
torily leaving a place because she had discovered that the family was Irish, al- 
leging that her friends would never forgive her if they knew she had lived in 
an Irish family. The picture, too, is good of a pretty servant walking home 
in the evening behind an elderly and ill-favored lady to "protect" her from 
insult. Punch wishes to know who is to protect the pretty girl on her return 
through London streets alone. We see also from numberless pictures that the 
British mistress deems it her right to control the dress of the British maid. 
When crinoline carne in, she thought it impudent in a servant to wear it; but 
when crinoline went out, she deemed it no less presuming in her to lay it 

For some years past the pictures of children and their ways by Mr. Du 
Maurier have been among the most pleasing efforts of comic art in England. 
There is not the faintest intimation in them of the malevolent or sarcastic. All 
good fathers, all good mothers, and all persons worthy to become such, delight 
in them. They are such pictures as we should naturally expect from an artist 
who was himself the happy father of a houseful of happy children, and who 
consequently looked upon all the children of the world in a fond, parental 
spirit. Surely no Bohemian, no hapless dweller in a boarding-house, no deso- 
late frequenter of clubs, no one not sharing in the social life of his time, could 
so delightfully represent and minister to it. Du Maurier vindicates the gener- 
ation that has produced Gavarni and Woodhull. He reminds us from week 
to week that children are the sufficient compensation of virtuous existence, 
worth all the rest of its honors and delights. 

The recent agitation in England of questions relating to religion has not 
escaped the caricaturist. For two centuries or more the caricaturists of Great 
Britain have been hearty Protestants, though not long Puritan, and we still 
find them laughing at the fulminations of the testy old clergyman who lives in 
the Vatican. Nor have they failed to reflect upon the too evident fact that 
it is the contentions of clergymen in England that have blocked the way into 
the national school. The old-fashioned penny broadside, all alive with figures 
and words, has been revived by " Gegeef," to promote the secularization of the 
schools. In one of them all the parties to the controversy are exhibited the 
candidate for the mastership of a Government school, who " believes in Colenso 
and geology, but don't mind teaching Genesis to oblige ;" the minister who 
holds up the text, " One faith, one baptism," but demands that the baptism 
taught should be his baptism ; Thomas Paine, too, who points to his "Age of 
Reason," and says, " When you finish, -/"shall have something to say ;" the com- 
promiser, who is willing to have Bible lessons given in the schools, provided 
they are given " without comment ;" and, of course, the radical Bradlaugh, 



who demands secularization pure and simple. The same draughtsman, whose 
zeal is more manifest than his skill, has attempted to show, in various penny 
sheets, that amidst all those sectarian conflicts the one true light for the guid- 
ance of bewildered men is Science. 

The only hit, however, in caricature, which these controversies have sug- 
gested is the " Soliloquy of a Rationalistic Chicken." It has had great cur- 
rency in England among the clergy, many of whom have assisted in sprea'ding 
it abroad ; and even secularists have found it passable as a caricature. An- 
other recent " sensation " was the caricature by Mr. Matt Morgan, in the Tom- 
ahawk, which represented the Prince of Wales "following " the ghost of his 
predecessor, George IV. It had a great currency at the time, and may have 
served a good purpose in warning an amiable and well-disposed prince to be 
more careful of appearances. 


How do I know I ever wa inside ? 
Now I reflect, it is, I do maintain, 
Less than my reason, and beneath my pride, 

To think that I could dwell 
In such a paltry, miserable cell 

As that old shell. 

Of course I couldn't ! How could /have lain, 
Body and beak and feathers, legs and wings, 
And my deep heart's sublime imaginings, 

In there T 

I meet the notion with profound disdain ; 
It's quite incredible ; since I declare 
(And I'm a chicken that yon can't deceive) 
What I can't understand I won't believe. 

What's that I hear? 

My mother cackling at me ! Just her way, 
So prejudiced and ignorant / say ; 
So far behind the wisdom of the day. 

What's old I can't revere. 
Hark at her ! " You're a silly chick, my dear, 

That's quite as plain, alack ! 
As is the piece of shell upon your back !" 
How bigoted ! upon my back, indeed ! 

I don't believe it's there, 
For I can't see it ; and I do declare, 

For all her fond deceivin', 
What I can't see, I never will believe in ! 



The P**"e of W"s to K**g G****e IV. (tog.). " I'll follow thee !" MATT MOEGAN, iu the T&mahawk, 1807. 

During the life-time of the venerable Cruikshank comic art in England has 
won the consideration due to a liberal profession, and now enjoys a fair share 
of reward as well as honor. He found the comic artist something of a Bohe- 
mian; he leaves him a solvent and respectable householder. He may have 
visited Gillray at work in the little room behind his publisher's shop; and 
he doubtless often enjoyed the elegant hospitality of John Leech, one of the 
first in his branch of art to attain the solid dignity of a front-door of his own. 
It is mentioned to the credit of Richard Doyle, son of H3, that when he re- 
signed his connection with Punch on account of its caricatures of Wiseman 
and the Pope, he gave up an income of eight hundred pounds a year. There 
is no worthy circle in Great Britain where the presence of a Tenniel, a Leech, 
a Du Maurier, a Doyle, or a Cruikshank would not be felt as an honor and 
their society valued as a privilege. England owes them gratitude and homage. 
They have not been always right, but they have nearly always meant to be. 
Nothing malign, nothing unpatriotic, nothing impure, nothing mean, has borne 
their signature; and in a vast majority of instances they have led the laughter 
of their countrymen so that it harmonized with humanity and truth. 




BENJAMIN FRANKLIN was the first American caricaturist. That pro- 
pensity of his to use pictures whenever he desired to affect strongly the 
public mind was an inheritance from the period when only a very small por- 
tion of the people could read any other than pictorial language. Among the 
relics of his race preserved in Boston there is an illustrated handbill issued by 
his English uncle Benjamin, after whom he was named, which must have been 
a familiar object to him from the eighth year of his age. Uncle Benjamin, a 
London dyer when James II. fled from England, wishing to strengthen the im- 
pression made by his printed offer to " dye into colors " cloth, silk, and India 
calico, placed at the head of his bill a rude wood-cut of an East Indian queen 
taking a walk, attended by two servants, one bearing her train and the other 
holding over her an umbrella. At the door of his shop, too, in Princes Street, 
near Leicester Fields, a figure of an Indian queen appealed to the passer-by. 

Such was the custom of the time. The diffusion of knowledge lessened the 
importance of pictorial representation ; but the mere date of Franklin's birth 
1706 explains in some degree his habitual resort to it. Nearly all the an- 
cient books were illustrated in some way, and nearly every ancient building 
appears to have had its " sign." When Franklin was a boy in Boston a gilt 
Bible would have directed him where to buy his books, if he had had any 
money to buy them with. A gilt sheaf probably notified him where to get 
those three historic rolls with which he made his entry into Philadelphia. The 
figure of a mermaid invited the thirsty wayfarer to beer, and an anchor in- 
formed sailors where sea-stores were to be had. The royal lion and unicorn, 
carved in wood or stone, marked public edifices. Over the door of his father's 
shop, where soap and candles were sold, he saw a blue ball, which still exists, 
bearing the legible date 1698. Why a blue ball? He was just the boy to ask 
the question. A lad who could not accept grace before meat without wishing 
to know why it were not better to say grace once for all over the barrel of 
pork, would be likely to inquire what a blue ball had in common with soap 
and candles. His excellent but not gifted sire probably informed him that the 
blue ball was a relic of the time when he had carried on the business of a dyer, 
and that he had continued to use it for his new vocation because he " had it in 
the house." Benjamin, the gifted, was the boy to be dissatisfied with this ex- 


plnnation, and to suggest devices more in harmony with the industry carried 
on within, so that the very incongruity of his father's sign may have quickened 
his sense of pictorial effect. f 

Franklin lived long, figured in a great variety of scenes, accomplished many 
notable things, and exhibited versatility of talent man of business, inventor, 
statesman, diplomatist, philosopher; and in each of these characters he was a 
leader among leaders ; but the ruling habit of his mind, his forte, the talent 
that he most loved to exercise and most relished in others, was humor. He 
began as a humorist, and he ended as a humorist. The first piece of his ever 
printed and the last piece he ever wrote were both satirical : the first, the reck- 
less satire of a saucy apprentice against the magnates of his town ; the last, 
the good-tempered satire of a richly gifted, benevolent soul, cognizant of hu- 
man weakness, but not despising it, and intent only upon opening the public 
mind to unwelcome truth as a mother makes a child laugh before inserting 
the medicine spoon. So dominant was this propensity in his youthful days, 
that if he had lived in a place where it had been possible to subsist by its ex- 
ercise, there had been danger of his becoming a professional humorist, merging 
all the powers of his incomparable intellect in that one gift. 

Imagine Boston in 1722, when this remarkable apprentice began to laugh, 
and to make others laugh, at the oppressive solemnities around him and above 
him. Then, as now, it was a population industrious and moral, extremely 
addicted to routine, habitually frugal, but capable of magnificent generosity, 
bold in business enterprises, valiant in battle, but in all the high matters averse 
to innovation. Then, as now, the clergy, a few important families, and Har- 
vard College composed the ruling influence, against which it was martyrdom 
to contend. But then, as now, there were a few audacious spirits who rebelled 
against these united powers, and carried their opposition very far, sometimes 
to a wild excess, and thus kept this noblest of towns from sinking into an 
inane respectability. The good, frugal, steady-going, tax-paying citizen, who 
lays in his coal in June and buys a whole pig in December, would subdue the 
world to a vast monotonous prosperity, crushing, intolerable, if there were no 
one to keep him and the public in mind that, admirable as he is, he does not 
exhaust the possibilities of human nature. When we examine the portraits 
of the noted men of New England of the first century and a half after the set- 
tlement, we observe in them all a certain expression of acquiescence. There 
is no audacity in them. They look like men who could come home from fight- 
ing the French in Canada, or from chasing the whale among the icebergs of 
Labrador, to be scared by the menaces of a pontiff like Cotton Mather. They 
look like men who would take it seriously, and not laugh at all, when Cotton 
Mather denounced the Franklins, for poking fun at him in their newspaper, 
as guilty of wickedness without a parallel. " Some good men," said he, " are 
afraid it may provoke Heaven to deal with this place as never any place has 
yet been dealt withal." 


Never was a community in such sore need of caricature and burlesque as 
when James Franklin set up in Boston, in 1721, the first "sensational news- 
paper" of America, the Courant, to which his brother Benjamin and the other 
rebels and come-outers of Boston contributed. The Mathers, as human beings 
and citizens of New England, were estimable and even admirable ; but the in- 
terests of human nature demand the suppression of pontiffs. These Mathers, 
though naturally benevolent, and not wanting in natural modesty, had attained 
to such a degi'ee of pontifical arrogance as to think Hoston in deadly peril be- 
cause a knot of young fellows in a printing-office aimed satirical paragraphs 
at them. Increase Mather called upon the Government to "suppress such a 
cursed libel," lest "some awful judgment should come upon the land, and the 
wrath of God should rise, and there should be no remedy." It is for such 
men that burlesque was made, and the Franklins supplied it in abundance. 
The Courant ridiculed them even when they were gloriously in the right. 
They were enlightened enough and brave enough to recommend inoculation, 
then just brought from Turkey by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The young 
doctors who wrote for the paper assailed the new system, apparently for no 
other reason than because Increase and Cotton Mather were its chief de- 

When Benjamin, at the age of sixteen, began to contribute to his brother's 
paper, he aimed at higher game even than the town pontiffs. He dared to 
lampoon Harvard College itself, the temple of learning where the clergy were 
formed, whose precincts he had hoped to tread, his father having dedicated 
this tenth son to the Church. He may have had his own father in mind when 
he wrote, in one of his early numbers, that every "peasant" who had the 
means proposed to send one of his children to this famous place ; and as most 
of them consulted their purses rather than their children's capacities, the 
greater number of those who went thither were little better than blockheads 
and dunces. When he came to speak of the theological department of the 
college, he drew a pen caricature, having then no skill with the pencil: "The 
business of those who were employed in the temple of theology being labo- 
rious and painful, I wondered exceedingly to see so many go toward it; but 
while I was pondering this matter in my mind, I spied Pecunia behind a cur- 
tain, beckoning to them with her hand." He draws another when he says that 
the only remarkable thing he saw in this temple was one Plagius hard at work 
copying an eloquent passage from Tillotson's works to embellish his own. 

This saucy boy, who had his " Hudibras " at his tongue's end, carried the 
satirical spirit with him to church on Sundays, and tried some of the brethren 
whom he saw there by the Hudibrastic standard. Even after his brother 
James had been in prison for his editorial conduct, Benjamin, who had been 
left in charge of the paper, drew with his subeditorial pen a caricature of a 
" Religious Knave, of all Knaves the Worst :" A most strict Sabbatarian, an 
exact observer not of the day only, but of the evening before and the evening 


after it ; at church conspicuously devout and attentive, even ridiculously so, 
with his distorted countenance and awkward gesticulation. But try and nail 
him to a bargain ! He will dissemble and lie, snuffle and whiffle, overreach 
and defraud, cut down a laborer's wages, and keep the bargain in the letter 
while violating its spirit. "Don't tell me," he cries; "a bargain is a bargain. 
You should have looked to that before. I can't help it now." Such was the 
religious knave invented by the author of " Hudibras," and borrowed by this 
Boston apprentice, who had, in all probability, never seen a character that 
could have fairly suggested the burlesque. 

The authorities rose upon these two audacious brothers, and indicated how 
much need there was of such a sheet in Boston by ordering James Franklin to 
print it no more. They contrived to carry it on a while in Benjamin's name ; 
but that sagacious youth was not long in discovering that the Mathers and 
their adherents were too strong for him, and he took an early opportunity of 
removing to a place established on the principle of doing without pontiffs. 
But during his long, illustrious career in Philadelphia as editor and public man 
he constantly acted in the spirit of one of the last passages he wrote before 
leaving Boston : " Pieces of pleasantry and mirth have a secret charm in them 
to allay the heats and tumults of our spirits, and to make a man forget his 
restless resentments. They have a strange power in them to hush disorders 
of the soul and reduce us to a serene and placid state of mind." He was the 
father of our humorous literature. If, at the present moment, America is con- 
tributing more to the innocent hilarity of mankind than other nations, it is 
greatly due to the happy influence of this benign and liberal humorist upon the 
national character. " Poor Richard," be it observed, was the great comic al- 
manac of the country for twenty-five years, and it was Franklin who infused 
the element of burlesque into American journalism. He could not advertise a 
stolen prayer-book without inserting a joke to give the advertisement wings : 
" The person who took it is desired to open it and read the Eighth Command- 
ment, and afterward return it into the same pew again ; upon which no further 
notice will be taken." 

This propensity was the more precious because it was his destiny to take 
a leading part in many controversies which would have become bitter beyond 
endurance but for "the strange power" of his "pieces of pleasantry and 
mirth" to "hush disorders of the soul." He employed both pen and pencil in 
bringing his excellent sense to bear upon the public mind. What but Frank- 
lin's inexhaustible tact and good-humor could have kept the peace in Pennsyl- 
vania between the non-combatant Quakers and the militant Christians during 
the long period when the province was threatened from the sea by hostile fleets 
and on land by savage Indians? Besides rousing the combatant citizens to ac- 
tion, he made them willing to fight for men who would not fight for them- 
selves, and brought over to his side a large number of the younger and more 
pliant Quakers. Even in that early time (1747), while bears still swam the 



Delaware, he contrived to get a picture drawn and engraved to enforce the 
lessons of his first pamphlet, calling on the Pennsylvanians to prepare for de- 
fense. He may have engraved it himself, for he had a dexterous hand, and 
had long before made little pictures out of type-metal to accompany adver- 
tisements. Hercules sits upon a cloud, with one hand resting upon his club. 
Three horses vainly strive to draw a heavy wagon from the mire. The wag- 
oner kneels, lifts his hands, and implores the aid of Hercules's mighty arm. 
In the background are trees and houses, and under the picture are Latin words 
signifying, " Not by offerings nor by womanish prayers is the help of gods ob- 
tained." In the text, too, when he essays the difficult task of reconciling the 
combatants to fighting for the non-combatants, he becomes pictorial, though 
he does not use the graver. " What !" he cries, " not defend your wives, your 
helpless children, your aged parents, because the Quakers have conscientious 
scruples about fighting!" Then he adds the burlesque picture: "Till of late 
I could scarce believe the story of him who refused to pump in a sinking ship 
because one on board whom he hated would be saved by it as well as himself." 
At the beginning of the contest which in Europe was the Seven Years' 
War, but in America a ten years' war, Franklin's pen and pencil were both 

employed in urging 
a cordial union of 
the colonies against 
the foe. His device 
of a snake severed 
into as many pieces 
as there were colo- 
nies, with the mot- 
to, " Join or Die? 
survived the occa- 
sion that called it 
forth, and became a 

common newspaper and handbill heading in 1776. It was he, also, as tradition 
reports, who exhibited to the unbelieving farmers of Pennsylvania the effect 
of gypsnm, by writing with that fertilizer in large letters upon a field the 
words "This has been plastered" The brilliant green of the grass which had 
been stimulated by the plaster soon made the words legible to the passer-by. 
During his first residence in London as the representative of Pennsylvania he 
became intimately acquainted with the great artist from whom excellence in 
the humorous art of England dates William Hogarth. The last letter that 
the dying Hogarth received was from Benjamin Franklin. " Receiving an 
agreeable letter," says Nichols, " from the American, Dr. Franklin, he drew up 
a rough draught of an answer to it." Three hours after, Hogarth was no 

A few of Franklin's devices for the coins and paper money of the young 




republic have been preserved. He wished that every coin and every note 
should say something wise or cheerful to their endless succession of possessors 
and scrutinizes. Collectors show the Franklin cent of 1787, with its circle 
of thirteen links and its central words, " We are one" and outside of these, 
" United States" On the other side of the coin there is a noonday sun blazing 
down upon a dial, with the motto, "Mind your JBusiness." He made the date 
say something more to the reader than the number of the year, by appending 
to it the word "Fugio" (I fly). Another cent has a central sun circled by 
thirteen stars and the words "Nova Constettatio" He suggested "Pay as 
you go " for a coin motto. Some of his designs for the Continental paper 
money were ingenious and effective. Upon one dingy little note, issued dur- 
ing the storm and stress of the Revolution, we see a roughly executed picture 
of a shower of rain falling upon a newly settled country, with a word of good 
cheer under it, " Serenabit" (It will clear). Upon another there is a picture 
of a beaver gnawing a huge oak, and the word "Perseverando" On another 
there is a crown resting upon a pedestal, and the words "Si recte facias" (If 
you do uprightly). There is one which represents a hawk and stork fighting, 
with the motto "Exitus in dubio est " (The event is in doubt) ; and another 
which shows a hand plucking branches from a tea-plant, with the motto "Sus- 
tain or Abstain" 

The famous scalp hoax devised by Franklin during the Revolutionary war, 
for the purpose of bringing the execration of civilized mankind upon the em- 
ployment of Indians by the English generals, was vividly pictorial. Upon his 
private printing-press in Paris he and his grandson struck off a leaf of an im- 
aginary newspaper, which he called a " Supplement to the Boston Independent 
Chronicle" For this he wrote a letter purporting to be from " Captain Ger- 
rish, of the New England Militia," accompanying eight packages of " scalps of 
our unhappy country folks," which he had captured on a raid into the Indian 
country. The captain sent with the scalps an inventory of them, supposed to 
be drawn up by one James Crawford, a trader, for the information of the Gov- 
ernor of Canada. Neither Swift nor De Foe ever surpassed the ingenious nat- 
uralness of this fictitious inventory. It was indeed too natural, for it was gen- 
erally accepted as a genuine document, and would even now deceive almost 
any one who should come upon it unawares. Who could suspect that these 
" eight packs of scalps, cured, dried, hooped, and painted, with all the Indian 
triumphal marks " upon them, had never existed except in the imagination of 
a merry old plenipotentiary in Paris ? There were " forty-three scalps of Con- 
gress soldiers, stretched on black hoops four inches diameter, the inside of the 
skin painted red, with a small black spot to denote their being killed with bul- 
lets;" and there were "sixty-two farmers, killed in their houses, marked with 
a hoe, a black circle all around to denote their being surprised in the night." 
Other farmers' scalps were marked with "a little red foot," to show that they 
stood upon their defense; and others with "a little yellow flame," to show that 




they had been burned alive. To one scalp a band was fastened, " supposed to 
be that of a rebel clergyman." Then there were eighty-eight scalps of women, 
and " some hundreds of boys and girls." The package last described was " a 
box of birch-bark containing twenty-nine little infants' scalps of various sizes, 
small white hoops, white ground, no tears, and only a little black knife in the 
middle to show they were ripped out of their mothers' bellies." The trader 
dwells upon the fact that most of the farmers were young or middle-aged, 
" there being but sixty-seven very gray heads among them ; which makes the 
service more essential." Every detail of this supplement was worked out with 
infinite ingenuity, even to the editor's postscript, which stated that the scalps 
had just reached Boston, where thousands of people were flocking to see them. 
Franklin was more than a humorist ; he was an artist in humor. In other 
words, he not only had a lively sense of the absurd and the ludicrous, but he 
knew how to exhibit them to others with the utmost power and finish. His 
grandson, who lived with him in Paris during the Revolutionary period, a very 
good draughtsman, used to illustrate his humorous papers, and between them 
they produced highly entertaining things, only a few of which have been gath- 
ered. The Abbe Morellet, one of the gay circle who enjoyed them, remarks 
that in his sportive moods Franklin was " Socrates mounted on a stick, play- 
ing with his children." To this day, however, there are millions who regard 
that vast and somewhat disorderly genius, who was one of the least sordid and 
most generous of all recorded men, as the mere type of penny prudence. Even 
so variously informed a person as the author of "A Short History of the En- 
glish People," published in 1875, speaks of the "close-fisted Franklin." 

It is in vain that we seek for specimens of colonial caricature outside of the 
Franklin circle. Satirical pictures were doubtless produced in great numbers, 
and a few may have been published ; but caricature is a thing of the moment, 
and usually perishes with the moment, unless it is incorporated with a period- 
ical. Almost all the intellectual product of the colonial period that was not 
theological has some relation to the wise and jovial Franklin, the incompar- 
able American, the father of his 
country's intellectual life, wheth- 
er manifested in literature, bur- 
lesque, politics, invention, or sci- 

The Boston massacre, as it 
was called, which was commem- 
orated by the device of a row 
of coffins, often employed before 
and since, might have been more 
properly styled a street brawl, 
if the mere presence of British 
troops in Boston in 1774 had not been an outrage of international dimensions. 

"American Historical Record.") 



The four victims, Samuel Gray, Samuel Maverick, James Cauldwell, and Cris- 
pus Attacks, were borne to the grave by all that was most distinguished in the 
province, and the whole people seemed to have either followed 6r witnessed 
the procession. Amidst the frenzy of the time, these coffin-lids served to ex- 
press and relieve the popular feeling. The subsequent acquittal of the inno- 
cent soldiers, who had shown more forbearance than armed men usually do 
when taunted and assailed by an unarmed crowd, remains one of the most 
honorable of the early records of Boston. 

There were attempts at caricature during the later years of the Revolu- 
tionary war. From 1778, when inflated paper, French francs, British gold, and 
Hessian thalers had given the business centres of the country a short, falla- 
cious prosperity, there was gayety enough in Philadelphia and Boston. There 
were balls and parties, and sending to France for articles of luxury, and pro- 
fusion of all kinds as there was in the late war, and as there must be in all 
wars which are not paid for till the war is ever. There are indications in the 
old books that the burlesquing pencil was a familiar instrument then among 
the merry lads of the cities and towns. But their efforts, after having an- 
swered their momentary purpose, perished. 

And the habit of burlesque survived the war. There are few persons, even 
among the zealous fraternity of collectors, who are aware that a New York 
dramatist, in the year 1788, endeavored to burlesque, in a regular five -act 
comedy, the violent debates which distracted all circles while the acceptance 
of the new Constitution was the question of questions. A copy or two of this 
comedy, called " The Politician Outwitted," have been preserved. In lieu of 
the lost pictures, take this brief scene, which exhibits a violent squabble be- 
tween an inveterate opponent of the Constitution and a burning patriot who 
supports it. They enter, in proper comedy fashion, after they are in full 


"Loveyet. I tell you, it is the most infernal scheme that ever was devised. 

" Trueman. And I tell you, sir, that your argument is heterodox, sophistical, and most prepos- 
terously illogical. 

"Loveyet. I insist upon it, sir, you know nothing at all about the matter! And give me leave 
to tell you, sir 

" Trueman. What! Give you leave to tell me I know nothing at all about the matter ? I shall 
do no such thing, sir. I'm not to be governed by your ipse dixit. 

"Loveyet. I desire none of your musty Latin, for I don't understand it, not I. 

" Trueman. O the ignorance of the age! To oppose a plan of government like the new Con- 
stitution ! Like it, did I say ? There never was one like it. Neither Minos, Solon, Lycurgus, 
nor Romulus ever fabricated so wise a system. Why, it is a political phenomenon, a prodigy of 
legislative wisdom, the fame of which will soon extend ultramundane, and astonish the nations 
of the world with its transcendent excellence. To what a sublime height will the superb edifice 
attain ! 

"Loveyet. Your aspiring edifice shall never be erected in this State, sir. 

" Trueman. Mr. Loveyet, you will not listen to reason. Only calmly attend one moment. 



[Reads.] . ' We, the people of the 
United States, in order to form a 
more perfect Union, establish justice, 
insure domestic tranquillity, pro- 
vide ' 

"Loveyet. I tell you I won't 
hear it. 

" Trueman. Mark all that. 
[Reads.'] 'Section the First. All 
legislative power herein granted shall 
be vested in a Congress of the United 
States, which shall consist of a Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives.' 
Very judicious and salutary, upon my 
erudition ! ' Section the Second ' 

"Loveyet. I'll hear no more of 
your sections." 

They continue the debate 
until both disputants are in 
the white heat of passion. 
Old Mr. Loveyet rushes away 
at last to break off the match 
between his daughter and 
Trueman's son, and Trueman 
retorts by calling his fiery an- 
tagonist "a conceited sot." 
This comedy is poor stuff, 
but it suffices to reveal the 
existence of the spirit of cari- 
cature among us at that early 
day, when New York was a 
clean, cobble - stoned, Dutch- 
looking town of thirty thou- 
sand inhabitants, one of whom, 
a boy five years of age, was 
named Washington Irving. 

General Washington was 
inaugurated President at the 
same city in the following 
year. How often has the 
world been assured that no 
dissentient voice was heard on 
that occasion ! The arrival of 
the general in New York was 
a pageant which the entire 


population is supposed to have most heartily approved ; and a very pleasing 
spectacle it must have been, as seen from the end of the island the vessels 
decked with flags and streamers, and the President's stately barge, rowed by 
thirteen pilots in white uniforms, advancing toward the city, surrounded and 
followed by a cloud of small boats, to the thunder of great guns. But even 
then, it seems, there were a few who looked askance. At least one caricature 
appeared. "All the world here," wrote John Armstrong to the unreconciled 
General Gates, " are busy in collecting flowers and sweets of every kind to 
amuse and delight the President." People were asking one another, he adds, 
by what awe-inspiring title the President should be caUed, even plain Roger 
Sherman, of Connecticut, regarding " His Excellency " as beneath the grandeur 
of the office. " Yet," says Armstrong, " in the midst of this admiration there 
are skeptics who doubt its propriety, and wits who amuse themselves at its 
extravagance. The first will grumble and the last will laugh, and the Presi- 
dent should be prepared to meet the attacks of both with firmness and good 
nature. A caricature has already appeared, called ' The Entry,' full of very 
disloyal and profane allusions." It was by no means a good-natured picture. 
General Washington was represented riding upon an ass, and held in the arms 
of his favorite man Billy, once huntsman, then valet and factotum ; Colonel 
David Humphreys, the general's aid and secretary, led the ass, singing hosan- 
nas and birthday odes, one couplet of which was legible : 

" The glorious time has come to pass 
When David shall conduct an ass." 

This effort was more ill-natured than brilliant; but the reader who exam- 
ines the fugitive publications of that period will often feel that the adulation 
of the President was such as to provoke and justify severe caricature. That 
adulation was as excessive as it was ill executed ; and part of the office of cari- 
cature is to remind Philip that he is a man. The numberless " verses," " odes," 
" tributes," " stanzas," " lines," and " sonnets " addressed to President Washing- 
ton lie entombed in the dingy leaves of the old newspapers ; but a few of the 
epigrams which they provoked have been disinterred, and even some of the 
caricatures are described in the letters of the time. Neither the verses nor the 
pictures are at all remarkable. Probably the best caricature that appeared 
during the administration of General Washington was suggested by the re- 
moval of the national capital from New York to Philadelphia. Senator Rob- 
ert Morris, being a Philadelphian, and having large possessions in Philadelphia, 
was popularly supposed to have procured the passage of the measure, and ac- 
cordingly the portly Senator is seen in the picture carrying off upon his broad 
shoulders the Federal Hall, the windows of which are crowded with members 
of both Houses, some commending, others cursing this novel method of re- 
moval. In the distance is seen the old Paulus Hook ferry-house, at what is 
now Jersey City, on the roof of which is the devil beckoning to the heavy-laden 


Morris, and crying to him, "This way, Bobby." The removal of the capital 
was a fruitful theme for the humorists of the day. Even then "New York 
politicians " had an ill name, and Congress was deemed well out of their reach. 
But those were the halcyon days of the untried administration ; to which 
indeed there was as yet nothing that could be called an Opposition. The en- 
tire nation, with here and there an individual exception, was in full accord 
with the feeling expressed in Benjamin Russell's allegory that went "the round 
of the press" in 1789 and 1790: 


"Just launched on the Ocean of Empire, the Ship COLUMBIA, GEORGE WASH- 
INGTON, Commander, which, after being thirteen years in dock, is at length well 
manned, and in very good condition. The Ship is & first rate has a good bottom, 
which all the Builders have pronounced sound and good. Some objection has been 
made to parts of the tackling, or running rigging, which, it is supposed, will be altered, when they 
shall be found to be incommodious, as the Sliip is able to make very good headway with them as 
they are. A jury of Carpenters have this matter now under consideration. The Captain and 
First Mate are universally esteemed by all the Owners Eleven* in number and she has been 
insured, under their direction, to make a good mooring in the harbor of Public Prosperity and 
Felicity whitherto she is bound. The Owners can furnish, besides the Ship's Company, the fol- 
lowing materials: New-Hampshire, the Masts and Spars; Massachusetts, Timber for the Hull, 
Fish, &c. ; Connecticut, Beef and Pork ; New- York, Porter and other Cabin stores ; New-Jersey, 
the Cordage; Pennsylvania, Flour and Bread; Delaware, the Colors, and Clothing for the 
Crew ; Maryland, the Iron work and small Anchors ; Virginia, Tobacco and the Sheet Anchor ; 
South-Carolina, Rice; and Georgia, Powder and small Provisions. Thus found, may this good 
Ship put to sea, and the prayer of all is, that GOD may preserve her, and bring her in safety to 
her desired haven. " 

The Government had not been long domiciled in the City of Brotherly Love 
before parties became defined and party spirit acrimonious. The popular 
heart and hope and imagination were all on the side of revolutionized France 
in her unequal struggle with the allied kings. Conservative and "safe" men 
were more and more drawn into sympathy with the powers that were striving 
to maintain the established order, chief of which was Great Britain. Presi- 
dent Washington, in maintaining the just balance between the two contending 
principles and powers, could not but give some dissatisfaction to both political 
parties, and, most of all, to the one in the warmest sympathy with France. In 
the dearth of pictorical relics of that period, I insert the parody of the Atha- 
nasian creed annexed, from the National Gazette of Philadelphia, edited by 
Freneau, and maintained by the friends of Jefferson and Madison : 

"Whoever would live peaceably in Philadelphia, above all things it is necessary that he hold 
the Federal faith and the Federal faitli is this, that there are two governing powers in this coun- 
try, both equal, and yet one superior: which faith except every one keep undefiledly, without 
doubt he shall be abused everlastingly. 

* Only eleven States had accepted the Constitution when this was written. 


"The Briton is superior to the American, and the American is inferior to the Briton : and yet 
they are equal, and the Briton shall govern the American. 

" The Briton, while here, is commanded to obey the American, and yet the American ought 
to obey tne Briton. 

"And yet they ought not both to be obedient, but only one to be obedient. For there is one 
dominion nominal of the American, and another dominion real of the Briton. 

"And yet there are not two dominions, but only one dominion. 

"For like as we are compelled by the British constitution book to acknowledge that subjects 
must submit themselves to their monarchs, and be obedient to them in all things : 

"So we are forbid by our Federal executive to say that we are at all influenced by our treaty 
with France, or to pay regard to what it enforceth : 

"The American was created for the Briton, and the Briton for the American : 

"And yet the American shall be a slave to the Briton, and the Briton the tyrant of the Amer- 

"And Britons are of three denominations, and yet only of one soul, nature, and subsistency : 

" The Irishman of infinite impudence : 

" The Scotchman of cunning most inscrutable : 

"And the Englishman of impertinence altogether insupportable: 

"The only true and honorable gentlemen of this our blessed country. 

" He, therefore, that would live in quiet, must thus think of the Briton and the American. 

"It is furthermore necessary that every good American should believe in the infallibility of the 
executive, when its proclamations are echoed by Britons : 

"For the true faith is, that we believe and confess that the Government is fallible and infallible : 

" Fallible in its republican nature, and infallible in its monarchical tendency, erring in its state 
of individuality, and unerring in its Federal complexity. 

"So that though it be both fallible and infallible, yet it is not twain, but one government only, 
as having consolidated all state dominion, in order to rule with sway uncontrolled. 

" This is the true Federal faith, which except a man believe and practice faithfully, beyond all 
doubt he shall be cursed perpetually." 

A rude but very curious specimen of the caricature of the early time is 
given on the next page of the collision on the floor of the House of Represent- 
atives between Matthew Lyon arid Roger Griswold, both representatives from 
Connecticut. Lyon, a native of Ireland, was an ardent Republican, who played a 
conspicuous part in politics during the final struggle between the Republicans 
and the Federalists. Roger Griswold, on the contrary, a member of an old 
and distinguished Connecticut family, a graduate of its ancient college, and a 
member of its really illustrious bar, was a pronounced Federalist. He was also 
a gentleman who had no natural relish for a strong-minded, unlettered emigrant 
who founded a town in his new country, built mills and foundries, invented 
processes, established a newspaper, and was elected to Congress. If Hamilton 
and Griswold and the other extreme Federalists had had their way in this 
country, there would have been no Matthew Lyons among us to create a new 
world for mankind, and begin the development of a better political system. 
Nor, indeed, was Matthew Lyon sufficiently tolerant of the old and tried meth- 
ods that had become inadequate. He was not likely, either at the age of 
fifty -two, standing upon the summit of a very successful career, which was 
wholly his own work to regard as equal to himself a man of thirty-six, who 




"He in a trice struck Griswold thrice 

Upon his head, enraged, sir ; 
Who seized the tongs to ease his wrongs, 
Anfl Griswold thus engaged, sir." 

seemed to owe his importance chiefly to his lineage. So here was a broad 
basis for an antipathy which the strife of politics could easily aggravate into 
an aversion extreme and fiery fiery, at least, on the part of the Irishman. 

Imagine this process complete, and the House, on the last day of the year 
1798, in languid session, balloting. The two members were standing near 
one another outside the bar, when Griswold made taunting allusion to an old 
"campaign story" of Matthew Lyon's having been sentenced to wear a wood- 
en sword for cowardice in the field. Lyon, in a fury, spit in Griswold's face. 
Instantly the House was in an uproar ; and although the impetuous Lyon apol- 
ogized to the House, he only escaped expulsion, after eleven days' debate, 
through the constitutional requirement of a two-thirds vote. This affair called 
forth a caricature in which the Irish member was depicted as a lion standing 
on his hind-legs wearing a wooden sword, while Griswold, handkerchief in 
hand, exclaims, " What a beastly action !" 

The vote for expulsion 52 to 44 did not satisfy Mr. Griswold. Four 
days after the vote occurred the outrageous scene rudely delineated in the 
picture already mentioned. Griswold, armed with what the Republican editor 
called " a stout hickory club," and the Federalist editor a " hickory stick," as- 
saulted Lyon while he was sitting at his desk, striking him on the head and 
shoulders several times before he could extricate himself. But at last Lyon 


got upon his feet, and, seizing the tongs, rushed upon the enemy. This is the 
moment selected -by the artist. They soon after closed and fell to the floor, 
where they enjoyed a good " rough-and-tumble " fight, until members pulled 
them apart. A few minutes after they chanced to meet again at the " water 
table," near one of the doors. Lyon was now provided with a stick, but Gris- 
wold had none. "Their eyes no sooner met,'' says the Federalist reporter, 
" than Mr. Lyon sprung to attack Mr. Griswold." A member handed Griswold 
a stick, and there was a fair prospect of another fight, when the Speaker inter- 
fered with so much energy that the antagonists were again torn apart. The 
battle was not renewed on the floor of Congress. 

But it was continued elsewhere. Under that amazing sedition law of the 
Federalists, Lyon was tried a few months after for saying in his newspaper 
that President Adams had an " unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp," had 
turned men out of office for their opinions, and had written "a bullying mes- 
sage" upon the French imbroglio of 1798. He was found guilty, sentenced to 
pay a fine of a thousand dollars, besides the heavy costs of the prosecution, to 
be imprisoned four months, and to continue in confinement until the fine was 
paid. Of course the people of his district stood by him, and, while he was in 
prison, re-elected him to Congress by a great majority ; and his fine was repaid 
to his heirs in 1840 by Congress, with forty-two years' interest. These events 
made a prodigious stir in their time. Matthew Lyon's presence in the House 
of Representatives, his demeanor there, and his triumphal return from prison 
to Congress, were the first distinct notification to parties interested that the 
sceptre was passing from the Few to the Many. 

The satire and burlesque of the Jeffersonian period, from 1798 to 1809, 
were abundant in quantity, if not of shining excellence. To the reader of the 
present day all savors of burlesque in the political utterances of that time, so 
preposterously violent were partisans on both sides. It is impossible to take a 
serious view of the case of an editor who could make it a matter of boasting 
that he had opposed the Republican measures for eight years " without a sin- 
gle exception." The press, indeed, had then no independent life ; it was the 
minion and slave of party. It is only in our own day that the press begins to 
exist for its own sake, and descant with reasonable freedom on topics other 
than the Importance of Early Rising and the Customs of the Chinese. The 
reader would neither be edified nor amused by seeing Mr. Jefferson kneeling 
before a stumpy pillar labeled "Altar of Gallic Despotism," upon which are 
Paine's "Age of Reason " and the works of Rousseau, Voltaire, and Helvetius, 
with the demon of the French Revolution crouching behind it, and the Ameri- 
can eagle soaring aloft, bearing in its talons the Constitution and the independ- 
ence of the United States. Pictures of that nature, of great size, crowded 
with objects, emblems, and sentences an elaborate blending of burlesque, alle- 
gory, and enigma were so much valued by that generation that some of them 
were engraved upon copper. 


On the day of the inauguration of Thomas Jefferson as President of the 
United States, March 4th, 1801, a parody appeared in the Centinel of Boston, 
a Federalist paper of great note in its time, which may serve our purpose here : 

fflontuncntal Inscription. 

" That life is long which answers Life's great end," 

Yesterday expired, deeply regretted by millions of grateful Americans, 

and by all good men, 

animated by 



JEt. 12 years. 

Its death was occasioned by the secret arts and open violence 

of foreign and domestic demagogues : 

Notwithstanding its whole life was devoted to the performance of every duty to promote 

the Union, Credit, Peace, Prosperity, Honor, 

and Felicity of its Country. 

At its birth, it found the Union of the States dissolving like a rope of snow ; 
It hath left it stronger than the threefold cord. 

It found the United States bankrupts in estate and reputation ; 

It hath left them unbounded in credit, and respected throughout the world. 

It found the Treasuries of the United States and Individual States empty ; 

It hath left them full and overflowing. 

It found all the evidences of public debts worthless as rags ; 

It hath left them more valuable than gold and silver. 

It found the United States at war with the Indian nations ; 

It hath concluded peace with them all. 

It found the aboriginals of the soil inveterate enemies of the whites ; 
It hath exercised toward them justice and generosity, and hath left them fast friends. 

It found Great Britain in possession of all the frontier posts ; 

It hath demanded their surrender, and it leaves them in the possession of the United States. 
It found the American sea-coast utterly defenseless ; 

It hath left it fortified. 

It found our arsenals empty, and magazines decaying ; 

It hath left them full of ammunition and warlike implements. 

It found our country dependent on foreign nations for engines of defense ; 

It hath left manufactories of cannon and musquets in full work. 
It found the American Nation at war with Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli ; 

It hath made peace with them all. 

It found American freemen in Turkish slavery, where they had languished in chains for years ; 
It hath ransomed them and set them free. 


It found the war-worn, invalid soldier starving from want ; or, like Belisarius, begging his refuse- 
meat from door to door ; 
It hath left ample provision for the regular payment of his pension. 

It found the commerce of our country confined almost to coasting craft ; 
It hath left it whitening every sea with its canvas, and cheering every clime with its stars. 

It found our mechanics and manufacturers idle in the streets for want of employ ; 

It hath left them full of business, prosperous, contented, and happy. 

It found the yeomanry of the country oppressed with unequal taxes ; their farms, houses, and 
barns decaying; their cattle selling at the sign-posts; and they driven to 

desperation and rebellion ; 

It hath left, their coffers in cash, their houses in repair, their barns full, their farms over- 
stocked, and their produce commanding ready money and a high price. 

In short, it found them poor, indigent malcontents; 
It hath left them wealthy friends to order and good government. 

It found the United States deeply in debt to France and Holland ; 
It hath paid all the demands of the former, and the principal part of the latter. 

It found the country in a ruinous alliance with France ; 
It hath honorably dissolved the connection, and set us free. 

It found the United States without a swivel on float for their defense ; 
It hath left a Navy composed of 34 ships of war, mounting 918 guns, and manned by 7350 

gallant tars. 

It found the exports of our country a mere song in value ; 

It hath left them worth above seventy millions of dollars per annum. 

In one word, it found America disunited, poor, insolvent, weak, discontented, and wretched ; 

It hath left her united, wealthy, respectable, strong, happy, and prosperous. 

Let the faithful historian, in after-times, say these things of its successor, if he can. 

And yet, notwithstanding all these services and blessings, there are found many, very many, weak, 

degenerate sons, who, lost to virtue, to gratitude, and patriotism, 

openly exult that this Administration is no more, and 

that the "Sun of Federalism is set forever." 

" Oh shame, where is thy blush ?" 


Oe Ccntincl. 

March 4th, 1801. 

The victorious Republicans, if less skillful than their adversaries in the 
burlesque arts, had their own methods of parrying and returning such assaults 
as this. At an earlier period in Mr. Jefferson's ascendency, the politicians, bor- 
rowing the idea from Catholic times, employed stuffed figures and burlesque 
processions in lieu of caricature. While the people were still in warm sympa- 
thy with the French Revolution, William Smith, a Representative in Congress 
from South Carolina, gave deep offense to many of his constituents by oppos- 
ing certain resolutions offered by " Citizen Madison " expressive of that sym- 



pathy. There was no burlesque artist then in South Carolina, but the Demo- 
crats of Charleston contrived, notwithstanding, to caricature the offender and 
" his infernal junto." A platform was erected in an open place in Charleston, 
upon which was exhibited to a noisy crowd, from early in the morning until 
three in the afternoon, a rare assemblage of figures : A woman representing 
the Genius of Britain inviting the recreant Representatives to share the wages 
of her iniquity; William Smith advancing toward her with eager steps, his 
right hand stretched out to receive his portion, in his left holding a paper 
upon which was written "Six per cents" and wearing upon his breast another 
with "40,000 in the Funds;" Benedict Arnold with his hand full of checks 
and bills; Fisher Ames labeled "400,000 in the Funds;" the devil and 
" Young Pitt" goading on the reprobate Americans. In front of the stage was 
a gallows for the due hanging and burning of these figures when the crowd 

were tired of gazing upon 
them. Each of the char- 
acters was provided with a 
label exhibiting an appropri- 
ate sentiment. The odious 
Smith was made to confess 
that his sentence was just: 
" The love of gold, a foreign 
education, and foreign con- 
nections damn me." " Young 
Pitt" owned to having let 
loose the Algerines upon the 
Americans, and Fisher Ames 
confessed that from the time 
when he began life as a horse- 
jockey his "Ames had been 

It is an objection to this 
kind of caricature that the 
weather may interfere with its proper presentation. A shower of rain oblit- 
erated most of those labels, and left the figures themselves in a reduced and 
draggled condition. But, according to the local historian, the exhibition was 
continued, " to the great mirth and entertainment of the boys, who would not 
quit the field until a total demolition of the figures took place," nor " before 
they had taken down the breeches of the effigy of the Representative of this 
State and given him repeated castigations." In the evening the colors of 
Great Britain were dipped in oil and French brandy, and burned at the same 
fire which had consumed the effigies. 

Later in the Jeffersonian period, the burlesque procession caricature vi- 
vante was occasionally employed by the New England Federalists to excite 

THE GERRY-MANDER. (Boston, 1811.) 


popular disapproval of the embargo which suspended foreign commerce. Eld- 
erly gentlemen in Newburyport remember hearing their fathers describe the 
battered old hulk of a vessel, with rotten rigging and tattered sails, manned 
by ragged and cadaverous sailors, that was drawn in such a procession in 
1808, the year of the Presidential election. There are even a few old people 
who remember seeing the procession, for in those healthy old coast towns 
the generations are linked together, and the whole history of New England is 
sometimes represented in the group round the post-office of a fine summer 
morning. The odd-looking picture of the Gerry-mander, on the previous page, 
belongs to the same period, and preserves a record not creditable to party poli- 
ticians. Democratic leaders in Massachusetts, in order to secure the election 
of two Senators of their party, redistricted the State with absurd disregard of 
geographical facts. The Centinel exhibited the fraud by means of a colored 
map, which the artist, Gilbert Stuart, by a few touches, converted into the im- 
mortal Gerry-mander. Governor Gerry, though not the author of the scheme, 
nor an approver of it, justly shares the discredit of a measure which he might 
have vetoed, but did not. 

The war of 1812 yields its quota of caricature to the collector's port-folio. 
"John Bull making a New Batch of Ships to send to the Lakes" is an obvious 
imitation of Gillray's masterpiece of Bonaparte baking a new batch of kings. 
The contribution levied upon Alexandria, and the retreat of a party of English 
troops from Baltimore, furnish subjects to a draughtsman who had more pa- 
triotic feeling than artistic invention. His " John Bull " is a stout man, with 
a bull's head and a long sword, who utters pompous words. " I must have all 
your flour, all your tobacco, all your ships, all your merchandise every thing 
except your Porter and Perry. Keep them out of sight ; I have had enough 
of them already." No doubt this was comforting to the patriotic mind while 
it was lamenting a Capitol burned and a President in flight. 



E era of good feeling which followed the war of 1812, and which ex- 
hausted the high, benign spirit infused into public affairs by Mr. Jeffer- 


son, could not be expected to call forth satirical pictures of remarkable quality. 
The irruption of the positive and uncontrollable Jackson into politics made 
amends. Once more the mind of the country was astir, and again nearly the 




(Harper's Weekly, September 16th, 1S71.) 



whole of the educated class was arrayed against the masses of the people. The 
two political parties in every country, call them by whatever disguising names 
we may, are the Rich and the Poor. The rich are naturally inclined to use 
their power to give their own class an advantage; the poor naturally object; 

and this is the underlying, ever-oper- 
ating cause of political strife in all 
countries that enjoy a degree of free- 
dom ; and this is the reason why, in 
times of political crisis, the instructed 
class is frequently in the wrong. In- 
terest and pride blind its judgment. 
In Jackson's day the distinction be- 
tween the right and the wrong poli- 
tics was not so clear as in Jefferson's 
time ; but it was, upon the whole, the 
same struggle disguised and degraded 
by personal ambitions and antipathies. 
It certainly called forth as many par- 
odies, burlesques, caricatures, and lam- 
poons as any similar strife since the 
invention of politics. The coffin hand- 
bills repeated the device employed 
after the Boston massacre of 1774 in 
order to keep it in memory that Gen- 

THB BBAI*B OF THE TAMMANY KING. (Harper's Week- eral Jckson had Ordered six militia- 

ly, October 21st, 1871.) men to be shot for desertion. The 

hickory poles that pierced the sky at so many cross-roads were a retort to 
these, admitting but eulogizing the hardness of the man. The sudden break- 
up of the cabinet in 1831 called forth a caricature which dear Mrs. Trollope 
described as " the only tolerable one she ever saw in the country." It repre- 
sented the President seated in his room trying hard to detain one of four es- 
caping rats by putting his foot on its tail. The rat thus held wore the famil- 
iar countenance of the Secretary of State, Martin Van Buren, who had been re- 
quested to remain till his successor had arrived. It was this picture that gave 
occasion for one of John Van Buren's noted sayings that were once a circu- 
lating medium in the lawyers' offices of New York. " When will your father 
be in New York?" asked some one. The reply was, "When the President 
takes off his foot." 

Then we have Van Buren as a baby in the arms of General Jackson, re- 
ceiving pap from a spoon in the general's hand ; Jackson and Clay as jockeys 
riding a race toward the Presidential house, Clay ahead ; Jackson receiving a 
crown from Van Buren and a sceptre from the devil ; Jackson, Benton, Blair, 
Kendall, and others, in the guise of robbers, directing a great battering-ram at 




the front door of the United States Bank ; Jackson, as Don Quixote, breaking 
a very slender lance against one of the marble pillars of the same edifice; 
Jackson and Louis Philippe as pugilists in a ring, the king having just re- 
ceived a blow that makes his crown topple over his face. 

Burlesque processions were also much in vogue in 1832 during the weeks 
preceding the Presidential election. To the oratory of Webster, Preston, 
Hoffman, and Everett, the Democracy replied by massive hickory poles, fifty 
feet long, drawn by eight, twelve, or sixteen horses, and ridden by as many 
young Democrats as could get astride of the emblematic log, waving flags and 
shouting, " Hurra for Jackson !" Live eagles were borne aloft upon poles, 
banners were carried exhibiting Nicholas Biddle as Old Nick, and endless 
ranks of Democrats marched past, each Democrat wearing in his hat a sprig 
of the sacred tree. And 
again the cultured orators 
were wrong, and the untu- 
tored Democrats were sub- 
stantially in the right. Am- 
bition and interest prevent- 
ed those brilliant men from 
seeing that in putting down 
the bank, as in other meas- 
ures of his stormy adminis- 
tration, the worst that could 
be truly said of General 
Jackson was that he did 
right things in a wrong way. 
The "shin -plaster" carica- 
ture given on the following 
page is itself a record of 
the bad consequences that 
followed his violent method 
in the matter of the bank. The inflation of 1835 produced the wild land 
speculation of 1836, which ended in the woful collapse of 1837, the year of 
bankruptcy and " shin-plaster." 

To this period belongs the picture, given on a previous page, which carica- 
tures the old militia system by presenting at one view many of the possible 
mishaps of training-day. The receipt which John Adams gave for making a 
free commonwealth enumerated four ingredients town meetings, training- 
days, town schools, and ministers. But in the time of Jackson the old militia 
system had been outgrown, and it was laughed out of existence. Most of the 
faces in this picture were intended to be portraits. 

Mr. Hudson, in his valuable " History of Journalism," speaks of a lithog- 
rapher named Robinson, who used to line the fences and even the curb-stones 



July 9th, 1870.) 

(Harper's Weekly, 



of New York with rude caricatures of the persons prominent in public life 
during the administrations of Jackson and Van Buren. Several of these have 
been preserved, with others of the same period ; but few of them are tolerable, 
now that the feeling which suggested them no longer exists ; and as to the 
greater number, we can only agree with the New York Mirror, then in the 
height of its celebrity and influence, in pronouncing them " so dull and so 
pointless that it were a waste of powder to blow them up." 

The publication of Mrs. Trollope's work upon the " Domestic Manners of 
the Americans " called forth many inanities, to say nothing of a volume of two 
hundred and.sixteen pages, entitled "Travels in America, by George Fibbleton, 
Esq., ex-Barber to His Majesty the King of Great Britain." In this work Mrs. 


Trollope's burlesque was burlesqued sufficiently well, perhaps, to amuse people 
at the moment, though it reads flatly enough now. The rise and progress of 
phrenology was caricatured as badly as Spurzheim himself could have desired, 
and the agitation in behalf of the rights of women evoked all that the pencil 
can achieve of the crude and the silly. On the other hand, the burning of the 
Ursuline convent in Boston was effectively rebuked by a pair of sketches, one 
exhibiting the destruction of the convent by an infuriate mob, and the other 
a room in which Sisters of Charity are waiting upon the sick. Over the whole 
was written, "Look on this picture, and on this." 

The thirty years' word war that preceded the four years' conflict in arms 


between North and South produced nothing in the way of burlesque art that 
is likely to be revived or remembered. If the war itself was not prolific of 
caricature, it was because drawing, as a part of school training, was still neg- 
lected among us. That the propensity to caricature existed is shown by the 
pictures on envelopes used during the first weeks of the war. The practice 
of illustrating envelopes in this way began on both sides in April, 1861, at 
the time when all eyes were directed upon Charleston. The flag of the 
Union, printed in colors, was the first device. This was instantly imitated 
by the Confederates, who filled their mails with envelope-flags showing seven 
stars and three broad stripes, the middle (white) one serving as a place for 
the direction of the letter. Very soon the flags began to exhibit mottoes and 
patriotic lines, such as, " Liberty and Union," " The Flag of the Free," and 
" Forever float that Standard Sheet !" The national arms speedily appeared, 
with various mottoes annexed. General Dix's inspiration, " If any one at- 
tempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot," was the most 
popular of all for several weeks. Portraits of favorite generals and other pub- 
lic men were soon added Scott, Fremont, Dix, Lincoln, Seward, and others. 
Before long the satirical and burlesque spirit began to manifest itself in such 
devices as a black flag and death's-head, with the words "Jeff Davis his 
Mark ;" a gallows, with a man hanging ; a large pig, with " Whole Hog or 

None ;" a bull-dog with his foot on a 
great piece of beef, marked Washing- 
ton, with the words " Why don't you 
take it?" The portrait of General 
Butler figured on thousands of letters 
during the months of April and May, 
with his patriotic sentence, " What- 
ever our politics, the Government 
must be sustained ;" and, a little later, 
his happy application of the words 

"contraband of war" to the case of the fugitive negroes was repeated upon 
letters without number. " Come back here, you old black rascal !" cries a 
master to his escaping slave. " Can't come back nohow," replies the colored 
brother ; " dis chile contrabanV On many envelopes printed as early as May, 
1861, we may still read a prophecy under the flag of the Union that has been 
fulfilled, " I shall wave again over Sumter." 

Such things as these usually perish with the feeling that called them forth. 
Mr. William B. Taylor, then the postmaster of New York, struck with the 
peculiar appearance of the post-office, all gay and brilliant with heaps of col- 
ored pictures, conceived the fancy of saving one or two envelopes of each kind, 
selected from the letters addressed to himself. These he hastily pasted in a 
scrap-book, which he afterward gave to swell the invaluable collection of curi- 
osities belonging to the New York Historical Society. 






(From Envelopes, 1861. Collected by William B. Taylor, Postmaster of New York, and presented by him 
to the New York Historical Society.) 



A Consoling f~aeuj)it~ 
N 0/"Ain_g is / 

< ft-<J>-i/{9 _ 


We should not naturally have looked for caricature in Richmond in April, 
1861, while the convention was sitting that passed the ordinance of secession. 
But the reader will perceive on this page that the pencil lent its aid to those 
who were putting the native state of Washington and Jefferson on the wrong 
side of the great controversy. This specimen appeared on the morning of the 
decisive day, and was brought away by a lady who then left Richmond for her 
home in New York. The rats are arranged so as to show the order in which 
the States seceded: South Carolina first, Mississippi second, Alabama and 
Florida on the same day, and Virginia still held by the negotiations with Mr. 
Lincoln. This picture may stand as the contribution of the Confederacy to 
the satiric art of the world. 

Few readers need to be informed that it was the war which developed and 
brought to light the caricaturist of the United States, Thomas Nast. When 
the war began he was a boyish -looking youth of eighteen, who had already 
been employed as a draughtsman upon the illustrated press of New York and 
London for two years. He had ridden in Garibaldi's train during the cam- 
paign of 1860 which freed Sicily and Naples, and sent sketches of the leading 
events home to New York and to the London Illustrated News. But it was 
the secession war that changed him from a roving lad, with a swift pencil for 
sale, into a patriot artist, burning with the enthusiasm of the time. Harper's 
Weekly, circulating in every town, army, camp, fort, and ship, placed the whole 
country within his reach, and 'he gave forth from time to time those powerful 
emblematic pictures that roused the citizen and cheered the soldier. In these 
early works, produced amidst the harrowing anxieties of the war, the serious 


element was of necessity dominant, and it was this quality that gave them so 
much influence. They were as much the expression of heart-felt conviction as 
Mr. Curtis's most impassioned editorials, or Mr. Lincoln's Gettysburg speech. 
This I know, because I sat by his side many a time while he was drawing 
them, and was with him often at those electric moments when the idea of a 
picture was conceived. It was not till the war was over, and President An- 
drew Johnson began to " swing round the circle," that Mi'. Nast's pictures be- 
came caricatures. But they were none the less the utterance of conviction. 
Whether he is wrong or right in the view presented of a subject, his pictures 
are always as much the product of his mind as they are of his hand. 

Concerning the justice of many of his political caricatures there must be, 
of course, two opinions ; but happily his greatest achievement is one which the 
honest portion of the people all approve. Caricature, since the earliest known 
period of its existence, far back in the dawn of Egyptian history, has accom- 
plished nothing else equal to the series of about forty-five pictures contributed 
by Thomas Nast to Harper's Weekly for the explosion of the Tammany Ring. 
These are the utmost that satiric art has done in that kind. The fertility of 
invention displayed by the artist, week after week, for months at a time, was 
so extraordinary that people concluded, as a matter of course, the ideas were 
furnished him by others. On the contrary, he can not draw from the sugges- 
tions of other minds. His more celebrated pictures have been drawn in quiet 
country places, several miles from the city in which they were published. 

The presence in New York of seventy or eighty thousand voters, born and 
reared in Europe, and left by European systems of government and religion 
totally ignorant of all that the citizens of a free state are most concerned to 
know, gave a chance here to the political thief such as has seldom existed, ex- 
cept within the circle of a court and aristocracy. The stealing, which was be- 
gun forty years before in the old corporation tea-room, had at last become a 
system, which was worked by a few coarse, cunning men with such effect as 
to endanger the solvency of the city. They stole more like kings and emper- 
ors than like common thieves, and the annual festival given by them at the 
Academy of Music called to mind the reckless profusion of Louis XIV. when 
he entertained the French nobles at Versailles at the expense of the laborious 
and economical people of France. Their chief was almost as ignorant and vul- 
gar, though not as mean and pig-like, as George IV. of England. In many 
particulars they resembled the gang of low conspirators who seized the su- 
preme power in France in 1851, and in the course of twenty years brought 
that powerful and illustrious nation so near ruin that it is even now a matter 
of doubt whether it exists by strength or by sufferance. 

What an 'escape we had ! But, also, what immeasurable harm was done ! 
From being a city where every one wished to live, or, at least, often to remain, 
they allowed New York to become a place from which all escaped who could. 
Nothing saved its business predominance but certain facts of geology and ge- 




(A New Christmas Pantomime at Tammany Hall.) 

Clown (to Pantaloon). " Let's blind them with this, and then take some more." 


January 14th, 1871.) 

ography which Rings can not alter. Two generations of wise and patriotic 
exertion will not undo the mischief done by that knot of scoundrels in about 
six years. The press caught them at the full tide of their success, when the 
Tammany Ring, in fell alliance with a railroad ring, was confident of placing a 
puppet of its own in the Presidential chair. The history of this melancholy 
lapse, from the hour when an alderman first pocketed a quire of note-paper, or 
carried from the tea-room a bundle of cigars, to the moment of Tweed's rescue 
from a felon's cell through the imperfection of the law, were a subject wor- 
thier far of a great American writer in independent circumstances than any he 
could find in the records of the world beyond the sea. The interests of human 
nature, not less than the special interests of this country, demand that it should 



be written ; for all the nations are now in substantially the same moral and 
political condition. Old methods have become everywhere inadequate before 
new ones are evolved; and meanwhile the Scoundrel has all the new forces 
and implements at his command. If ever this story should be written for the 
instruction of mankind, the historian will probably tell us that two young men 
of the New York press did more than any others to create the feeling that 
broke the Ring. Both of them naturally loathed a public thief. One of these 
young men in the columns of an important daily paper, and the other on the 
broad pages of Harper's Weekly, waged brilliant and effective warfare against 
the combination of spoilers. They made mad the guilty and appalled the free. 
They gave, also, moral support to the able and patriotic gentlemen who, in 



(Thomas Nast, in Harper's Weekly, August 19th, 1871.) 

more quiet, unconspicuous ways, were accumulating evidence that finally con- 
signed some of the conspirators to felons' cells, and made the rest harmless 
wanderers over the earth. 

Comic art is now well established among us. In the illustrated papers 
there are continually appearing pictures which are highly amusing, without 
having the incisive, aggressive force of Mr. Nast's caricatures. The old favor- 
ites of the public, Bellew, Eytinge, Reinhart, Beard, are known and admired, 
and the catalogue continually lengthens by the addition of other names. In- 
teresting sketches, more or less satirical, bear the names of Brackmere, C. G. 
Parker, M. Woolf, G. Bull, S. Fox, Paul Frenzeny, Thomas Worth, Hopkins, 
Frost, Wust, and others. Among such names it is delightful to find those of 




M'Clellan. Barlo 



M'Clellan. "Yon must coax him along: conciliate him. Force won't do. I don't believe in it ; but don't 
let go. Keep his head to the rear. If he should get away, he might go to Richmond, and theu my plans for 
conquering the Rebellion will never be developed." 

B-lmt, " Hold fast, B-rl-w, or he will get to Richmond in spite of us ; and then my capital for the Euro- 
pean market is all lost." 

B-rlr-w. " I've got him fast ; there's no danger. He's only changing his base to the Gun-boats." 
B-lm-t. "Look out for that letter to the President which yon wrote for him. Dou't lose that." 
B-rl-w. " No ; I have it safe here in my pocket. When his change of base is effected, I will make him sign 
the letter, and send it to old Abe." 

two ladies, Mary M'Donald and Jennie Browscombe. The old towns of New 
England abound in undeveloped and half-developed female talent, for which 
there seems at present no career. There will never be a career for talent un- 
developed or half developed. Give the schools in those fine old towns one les- 
son a week in object-drawing from a teacher that knows his business, keep it 
up for one generation, and New England girls will cheer all homes by genial 
sketches and amusing glimpses of life, to say nothing of more important and 
serious artistic work. The talent exists ; the taste exists. Nothing is want- 
ing but for us all to cast away from us the ridiculous notion that the only 
thing in human nature that requires educating is the brain. We must awake 
to the vast absurdity of bringing up girls upon algebra and Latin, and sending 
them out into a world which they were born to cheer and decorate unable to 
walk, dance, sing, or draw; their minds overwrought, but not well nourished, 
and their bodies devoid of the rudiments of education. 

There is no country on earth where the humorous aspects of human life are 
more relished than in the United States, and none where there is less power to 
exhibit them by the pencil. There are to-day a thousand paragraphs afloat in 
the press which ought to have been pictures. Here is one from a newspaper 



in the interior of Georgia: "A sorry sight it is to see a spike team, consisting 
of a skeleton steer and a skinky blind mule, with rope harness, and a squint- 
eyed driver, hauling a barrel of new whisky over poor roads, on a hermaphro- 
dite wagon, into a farming district where the people are in debt, and the chil- 
dren are forced to practice scant attire by day and hungry sleeping by night." 
The man who penned those graphic lines needed, perhaps, but an educated 
hand to reproduce the scene, and make it as vivid to all minds as it was to his 
own. The country contains many such possible artists. 

A novel kind of living caricature has been presented occasionally, of late, 
by Mr. William E. Baker, of the famous firm of sewing-machine manufacturers, 
Grover & Baker. At his farm in Natick, Massachusetts, Mr. Baker is fond of 
burlesquing the national propensity to convert every trifling celebration into 
a banner-and-brass-band pageant. A great company was once invited to his 
place to "assist" at the naming of a calf. At another time, the birthday of a 
favorite heifer was celebrated with pomp and circumstance. In the summer 
of 1875, several hundreds of people were summoned to witness the laying of 
the corner-stone of a new pig-pen, and among the guests were a governor, mil- 
itary companies, singing clubs, members of foreign legations, and other per- 
sons of note and importance. The enormous card of invitation, besides being 
adorned with pictures of high-bred pigs in the happiest condition, contained a 
story showing how pigs had brought on a war between two powerful nations. 
This was the tale : 

"By the carelessness of a boy in 1811, a garden-gate in Rhode Island wns 

CHRISTMAS-TIME WON AT A TURKEY RAFFLE. (Sol Eytiuge, Juu., Harper's Weekly, Jauuary 3d, 1874.) 
"De breed am small, but de flavor am delicious." 



"HE COMETH NOT, SHE SAID." (M. Woolf, in Harper's Bazar, July 31st, 1875.) 

left open; two pigs entered and destroyed a few plants. The day was hot, the 
pigs fat, and when attempts were made to drive them out, the characteristic 
obstinacy of the animals occasioned such violent exercise as to cause their 
death. A quarrel ensued between the owner of the pigs and the owner of the 
garden, which, spreading among their friends, resulted in the election of the 
opposition candidate Ho well by one majority to the United States Senate, 
by whose vote the motion to postpone until the next session further considera- 
tion on the question of declaiming war was defeated by one majority ; and by 
the vote following it war was declared with Great Britain in 1812, although 
Howell was opposed to and voted against it." 

This story was illustrated by excellent wood-cuts. The account of the fes- 
tival, given in the Boston Advertiser, is worth preserving as a narrative of the 
most costly, extensive, and elaborate joke ever performed in the United States. 
Since kings and emperors ceased to amuse their guests with similar burlesques, 
I know not if the world has witnessed " fooling " on so large a scale. 

"On Saturday" (June 19th, 1875, two days after the Bunker Hill Centen- 
nial) " the invited guests repaired to the Albany Railroad Depot. The nine- 
o'clock train took out the Fifth Maryland Regiment, which had been invited, 
and the Marine Band of Washington, also a delegation of the Washington 
Light Infantry of Charleston, South Carolina. 

" The next train took out their escort, the Charlestown Cadets, Company 
A, Fifth Massachusetts Regiment, Captain J. E. Phipps, the corps missing the 


train; a large number of invited guests, including Governor Gaston, his aid, 
Colonel Wyman, Colonels Kingsbury and Treadwell, and other representatives 
of the State House, General I. S. Burrell, First Brigade, and a great many of- 
ficers of rank of the different military organizations of the State in uniform. 

" Upon arriving at the depot in Wellesley, the carriage of Governor Eustis, 
in which Lafayette rode into Boston in 1824, with large iron-gray horses and 
rich gold-mounted harness, as old-fashioned as the vehicle, was placed at the 
service of the governor and his party. The line, consisting of some fifty ve- 
hicles, each capable of transporting twenty or thirty persons, headed by Ed- 
mands's Band, was then formed under the direction of Lieutenant Francis 
L. Hills, of the United States Artillery, who, by- the -way, was a most useful 

" The procession was welcomed to the Farms by George O. Sanford, Chief 
Marshal, who was attired in a rich dark -velvet suit of the style of 1775, 
trimmed with gold-lace, and a bag-wig. 

"About two or three thousand persons were upon the ground. Among 
them were General Banks, General Underwood, Colonel Andrews, of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, and many other citizens of note, in addition to those pre- 
viously mentioned. The marshals were distinguished by wearing a minia- 
ture silver hog upon the lapels of their coats, upon which were the letters 
'W. E. B., June 19th, 1875,' and underneath the metal a ribbon badge with 
' Marshal ' in gold letters, intended to read ' We B Marshal.' They also car- 
ried a silver baton with red, white, and blue ribbons. Of those upon the 
ground perhaps five hundred were ladies. 

" Teams from all the surrounding country were in the roads about the 
place, with their occupants gazing upon the spectacle. The military, who had 
marched from the depot, were drawn up on the lawn. The Marine Band was 
discoursing its delightful music here, Edmands's Band at another point, and 
the Natick Cornet at a third. 

" Old Father Time was circulating about in gray hair, long gray beard, a 
dark-purple velvet robe, and carrying the conventional scythe. Cheers upon 
cheers were going up for the host from the military and the other guests. 
Many hundreds of chairs were provided at different points for the use of the 
\veary. The young son of Mr. Baker was dressed in full Revolutionary Min- 
ute-man costume. 

"About twelve o'clock the military stacked their arms, and all repaired to 
an immense pavilion, where substantial refreshments, including iced tea for a 
beverage, were provided for the thousands. In the 'Minnehaha Sweet- water 
Wigwam' were two immense tubs holding about two barrels each, one filled 
with lemonade and the other with claret-punch. 

" In a large pen or ' corral ' built of railroad-ties, in a manner partaking of a 
Virginia fence, a log-cabin, and a block fortress, v/ere a cage of youthful bears 
and cages of other animals. The place was surrounded with pictures of hogs 


and men, both indulging in a grand carouse. There was no roof, and the top 
was surmounted by stuffed birds and animals. In this plac two of Satan's 
respectable representatives, a blue devil and a red devil, were dealing out 

"At about two o'clock a procession marched about a quarter of a mile to 
the vicinity of the Buffalo yards, where the corner-stone of the new piggery 
was to be laid. A platform some thirty feet square had been erected, and, 
after music from Edmands's Band, Mr. Baker made a brief address of welcome. 

"Brief and pertinent remarks were made by Governor Gaston, Curtis 
Guild, Esq., of the Commercial Bulletin, Colonel Andrews, of South Carolina, 
and C. B. Farnsworth, of Rhode Island. 

"Colonel Jenkins, commander of the Fifth, was called upon, and com- 
menced a patriotic speech, when he was interrupted by Mr. Baker, who took 
from a box a live white pig, some six weeks old, and presented it to the col- 
onel for a ' Child of the Regiment.' 

"Amidst shouts of laughter, the gallant colonel, in his rich dress, went on, 
dealing out patriotism with one arm and holding the pig in the other, where it 
quietly reposed, looking for all the world like a quiet babe just from the bath. 
The effect was irrepressibly ludicrous. 

" Soon afterward Mr. Baker produced a black pig, some three months old ; 
but the officer, having his arms already full, handed it to one of his men, who 
threw it upon his back, and only its head and fore paws were visible over the 
shoulders of the soldier. 

" The rueful look of Piggy as he contemplated society from this novel posi- 
tion, and his squeals of wonder and fright, sent off the whole audience again 
into laughter, and the Maryland boys cheered for their adopted twins. 

"The corner-stone was then lowered into position, the rope being held 
by Governor Gaston, Colonel Andrews, Colonel Jenkins, and Mr. Farnsworth, 
Mr. Baker first remarking that, as the Jews considered the pig unclean, it 
might be well to put a scent under the stone, which Mr. Guild thought was a 
centimental idea. Many cents were thrown, after which there was a slight 
shower, and many persons entered the big stable where were the wonderful 
cows which gave milk-punch. 

"After the ceremony there was another collation, and then the soldiers had 
a game of foot-ball. As they were about to be loaded into carriages for they 
rode back to the depdt several hundred red, white, and blue toy balloons 
were cut loose, and the air was filled with flocks of them. The troops took 
the train and arrived in town at six o'clock, and left almost immediately for 

With this remarkable specimen of Comic Art in America, I take leave of 
the subject. 



Abbott, Dr., interprets an Egyptian caricature, 

Adams, John, quoted, upon a free common- 
wealth, 321. 

JEneas, burlesque picture of, 20. 

Alcmena, Princess, burlesqued, 29. 

Alexaminos, Roman caricature of, 26. 

Alexander I., his advice to Louis XVIII., 213. 

American caricature, chapters upon, 300, 318. 

Amsterdam, caricatures published in, 129. 

Anchises burlesqued, 20. 

Ancients, the, their modes of ridicule, 15. 

Antiphanes, quoted, upon women, 176. 

Antiquaries puzzled, picture of, 146. 

Apollo burlesqued, 29, 30. 

Arbuthnot, John, his epitaph upon Charteris, 

Aristophanes, his power to provoke mirth, 30 ; 
satire of women, 176. 

Armstrong, John, quoted, 309. 

Ascanius burlesqued, 20. 

Ass, the, catechism upon, 49. 

Avegay, Madame, in a caricature, 63. 


Bacchus, legend of, 23. 

Baker, William E., his burlesque celebration, 

Ballou, M. M., his quotation-book, 184. 

Bastwick, Dr., loses his ears, 99 ; his triumphal 
return to London, 99. 

Beaumarchais, Caron de, quoted, 161, 162. 

Beaumont, G. de, a caricature by, 184. 

Beer known to the ancient Egyptians, 34. 

Be'ranger, Pierre-Jean de, his songs during the 
Restoration, 214, 215. 

Bernard, St., quoted, upon grotesque decora- 
tion, 47. 

Biddle, Nicholas, burlesqued, 321. 

Bohemians, the, described, 172. 

Bomba caricatured, 2G2, 263. 

Bonaparte, Euge'nie, caricatured, 234, 238. 

Bonaparte, Louis, burlesqued. 235, 238. 

Bonaparte, L. N., caricatured, 233, 238, 250, 

252, 255. 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, developed through George 

III., 153; suppressed caricature, 208; cari- 
catures of, 210, 268, 269. 
Boston described, 301. 
Box, Dame, anecdote of, 117. 
Bradlaugh, Charles, in a caricature, 297. 
Brandt, Sebastian, his " Ship of Fools," 60, 

Brougham, Lord, caricatured in Punch, 287, 

Browne, Hablot K., criticised by Thackeray, 

Burke, Edmund, in Gillray's caricatures, 154 ; 

quoted, upon the French Revolution, 163 ; 

caricature, 164. 

Burnet, Bishop, describes an altar-piece, 48. 
Bute, Lord, a favorite of George III., 150; 

caricatured, 152, 153. 
Butler, B. F., upon war envelopes, 324. 
Button, Daniel, his coffee-house, 135. 


Cairo never swept, 22. 

Calvin, Jean, his origin, 82 ; caricatures of, 83- 

Cambaceres, Jean-Jacques Regis de, a portrait 
of, 213. 

Canning, Mr., not offended by caricature, 289. 

Carlyle, Thomas, quoted, upon the French, 162, 

Cathedrals, decorations of, 40-43; explained, 48. 

Centinel, the, a parody from, 314. 

Chambers, William, quoted, upon his early 
time, 272. 

Cham, caricatures by, 185, 228, 232. 

Champfleury, Jules, quoted, on pigmies, 18 ; on 
cathedral decoration, 43, 46, 53 ; gives a bur- 
lesque Paternoster, 61 ; upon midnight masses, 
61; upon burlesque decoration of manuscripts, 
67; caricature from, 161, 162, 211 ; quoted, 
212, 220. 

Charivari, Le, its course, 218, 220. 

Charles II., caricature of, 103, 106. 



Charles X. dethroned, 216. 

Charlotte, Queen, caricatured, 154. 

Charteris, Colonel Francis, epitaph upon, 136. 

Chatham, Lord, caricatured, 156; disliked by 
George III., 157. 

Chatto, W. A., quoted, upon an old caricature, 
64, 97. 

Chesterfield, Lord, quoted, upon women, 185. 

China, caricatures of, 191. 

Chiron burlesqued, 29. 

Christians, Roman caricature of, 25 ; Roman 
opinion of, 26. 

Cicero divorces his wife, 1 78. 

Clement VII. ridiculed by Luther, 76 ; pas- 
quinade upon, 258. 

Clergy, the, dissolute in the early ages, 68 ; an- 
ecdotes of, 68 ; rob and plunder, 69. 

Coalition, the, caricatured, 157, 158. 

Collier, Payne, writes out Punch, 266. 

Commune, the, caricatures of, 235. 

Cranach, Lucas, caricaturist of the Reforma- 
tion, 77. 

Cranmer, Bishop, his martyrdom, 87. 

Cris-cross rhymes, specimen of, 105. 

Cromwell, Elizabeth, caricatured, 107. 

Cromwell, Oliver, caricatured, 104 ; his funeral 
and disinterment, 106. 

Cromwell, Richard, in caricature, 107. 

Crozat, Antoine, sells Louisiana trade, 125. 

Cruikshank, George, his caricature of crinoline, 
181; of school-girls, 189; draws Punch, 265; 
his career, 268; pictures by, 270, 271, 273; 
his family, 269. 

Cruikshank, Isaac, his career, 273. 

Cuba, comic art in, 256. 


Dance of Death, in Art of Middle Ages, 57-59. 

Dangeau, Marquis de, quoted, upon Louis XV., 

Daumier, M., his caricatures, 180, 219, 235. 

Davus satirizes Horace, 25. 

Death-crier, picture of, 56. 

" Decameron," the, its effect upon contempora- 
ries, 70. 

Devil, the, traditional character of, 51 ; carica- 
tured, 52-5") ; modified by time, 65. 

Devonshire, Duchess of, caricatured, 153. 

Dickens, Charles, his "Pickwick," 23; origin 
of his "Bill Stumps, "146; Pickwick suggest- 
ed by Seymour, 280 ; described by Willis, 282. 

Disraeli, Benjamin, caricatured, 289. 

D'Israeli, Isaac, quoted, upon Punch, 265. 

Dodington, Bubb, quoted, upon early life of 
George III., 148, 149. 

"Don Quixote," one secret of its charm, 23; 
quoted, 56. 

Dore', Gustave, caricature by, 231 , 232. 

Doyle, John, his caricatures, 275. 

Doyle, Richard, his Wedding Breakfast, 281 ; 

leaves Punch for conscience' sake, 299. 
Du Maurier, Mr., his pictures of children, 294, 

Durand, M., his interpretation of a cathedral, 

Diirer, Albert, describes a procession, 92. 


Egyptians, art among, 32, 33 ; their habits, 34, 

Elizabeth, Queen, celebration of her birthday, 

England, caricature in, 267. 

Erasmus, quoted, upon the monks, 66, 71 ; de- 
tested by Luther, 75; satirizes women, 181, 

Evelyn, John, quoted, upon law, 124. 

Extinguishers, family of the, 214. 

Ey tinge, Sol, picture by, 331. 


Fairholt, F. W., upon Gog and Magog, 50. 

Fanning the Grave a Chinese poem, 193. 

Feuillet, Octave, misrepresents, 172. 

"Figaro, Marriage of, "quoted, 161, 162. 

Fleury, Cardinal, tutor of Louis XV., 159. 

Fox, Charles James, in Gillray's caricatures, 
153, 154, 157; disliked by George III., 157; 
caricatured by Isaac Cruikshank, 274. 

France, caricature of, 208. 

Franklin, Benjamin, his caricature of the Col- 
onies Reduced, 147; quoted, upon George 
III., 151; burlesques English policy, 155; 
quoted, 185; his early use of pictures, 300, 
304 ; his early lampoons, 302 ; his love of 
humor, 301, 303 ; his Scalp Hoax, 306. 

Frederic II. snubs Pompadour, 160. 

French Revolution, caricatures of, 161-170. 

Fry, William H., his use of Juvenal, 23. 


Galas, General, caricature of, 115. 
Gallatin, Albert, good financier, 124. 
Ganesa, his character in Hindoo theology, 36. 
Gardiner, Bishop, his martyrdom, 86, 87. 
Gautier, The'ophile, quoted, upon Gavarni, 224. 
Gavarni, his caricatures of women, 171, 176, 

187, 188 ; his only political caricatures, 216 : 

social caricatures by, 223, 224, 226 ; portrait 

of, 236. 

Gegeef, his caricatures, 297. 
Geiler, Jacob, satirizes the monks, 71. 
George III., his early life, 148; compared with 

Louis XV., 159 ; caricature of, 209, 269. 



George IV., anecdote of, 151 ; in Gillray's car- 
icatures, 154. 

Germany, comic art in, 242. 

Gerry, Elbridge, in the affair of the Gerry- 
mander, 317. 

Gerry-mander, the picture of, 316. 

Gibbon, Edward, quoted, upon rise of Christian- 
ity, 47, 54. 

" Gil Bias," secret of its charm, 23. 

Gillray, James, his works described, 153, 154; 
caricatures Napoleon, 209 ; his portrait, 267. 

Gin, law to diminish use of, 143. 

Girin, a caricature from, 1 79. 

Godfrey, Sir Edmundsbury, assassinated, 109- 

Godiva, remark upon, 183. 

Goethe, J. W., quoted, upon housekeeping, 177. 

Gog and Magog, pictures of, 50. 

Gondomar, Count, complains of a caricature, 96, 

Greeks, art among, 28. 

Griswold, Roger, assaulted by Lyon, 312. 


Hamilton, Alexander, talked well on finance, 124. 

Harper's Weekly, during war, 326 ; pictures from, 

Herculaneum, how discovered, 21. 

Hindoos, the, art among, 36 ; their domestic 
code, 175. 

Hogarth, William, his career, 120, 133 ; carica- 
tures by, 134, 137, 138 ; his five days' pere- 
grination, 137; anecdote by, 138; his bur- 
lesque dedication, 140 ; procures act of Par- 
liament, 141 ; his last letter, 304. 

Holbein, Hans, caricatures indulgences, 72, 73 ; 
illustrates Erasmus and Brandt, 76 ; his tri- 
umph of riches, 81. 

Homer upon pigmies, 17. 

Horace, quoted, upon slavery, 23 ; upon a miser, 
24 ; upon the Saturnalia, 25. 

Howard, Cardinal, personated, 111. 

Howells, William D., upon San Carlo, 42, 47. 

Hue, M., quoted, upon the Chinese, 19,1. 

Huguenots, caricatures by, 118. 

Humbert, Aime, his work upon Japan, 198 ; a 
caricature from, 206. 

Humpty Dumpty, antiquity of, 23. 


Ipswich noted in Puritan period, 97. 
Isaac the Jew, caricatured, 63. 
Italy, caricature in, 257. 


Jackson, Andrew, in caricature, 320, 322. 
" Jade Chaplet," the, a poem from, 193. 

Japan, comic art in, 198, 206. 

Jefferson, Thomas, quoted, upon the heredita- 
ry principle, 147; upon Scott's novels, 184; 
upon the freedom of the press, 218 ; cari- 
catured, 313. 

Jerome, St., his portrait, 47. 

Jews, the, position and character of, in Middle 
Ages, 62. 

Jupiter, caricature of, 29, 30. 

Juvenal, quoted, upon slavery, 23 ; upon the 
toilette, 24 ; upon the Greeks, 31 ; upon 
learned women, 179. 


Kenrick, J., quoted, upon Theban remains, 33. 
Krishna, in Hindoo theology, 36-38. 


Langlois, E. H., quoted, upon the Death-crier, 

Laud, Archbishop, caricatured, 98, 100-102. 

Law, John, his career, 120, 123-132. 

Leech, John, his comic pictures, 284-286 ; his 
portrait, 285. 

Leighton, Dr. Alexander, persecuted, 98. 

Lent and Shrovetide, tilt of, 107, 108. 

Leo X., pasquinade upon, 258. 

Lincoln, Abraham, in Punch, 290, 291. 

London, its antiquity, 22. 

Longfellow, H. W., quoted, upon Dance of 
Death, 59. 

Louisiana, scheme for settling, 125 ; old map 
of, 126. 

Louis Philippe, his reign, 216, 217 ; caricatured, 
218, 321. 

Louis XIV., caricatured, 115, 116, 118; his 
finances, 121. 

Louis XV., his education, 159 ; anecdote of, 161. 

Louis XVI. caricatured, 166, 167. 

Louis XVIII., his character and reign, 212, 213. 

Lucian, quoted, upon Jupiter, 30. 

Luther, Martin, his aversion to Jews, 63; carica- 
ture of, 64 ; upon the devil, 65 ; disliked Eras- 
mus, 75 ; used caricature in the Reformation, 
76 ; his marriage, 78 ; his credulity, 93. 

Luxembourg, Due de, anecdote of, 116. 

Lyon, Matthew, his assault upon Griswold, 312 ; 
fined and imprisoned, 313. 


Macaire, Robert, burlesques so called, 221. 

Malcolm, J. P., quoted, upon grotesque decora- 
tion, 44-46 ; picture from, 90, 95, 196, 197. 

Marcelin, M., dedicates loose pictures to his 
mother, 231. 

Marcus Aurelins, quoted, upon Christians, 26. 

Maria Theresa civil to Pompadour, 160. 



Marie Antoinette caricatured, 169, 170. 

Mary, Queen, her prayer-book, 46, 53, 54. 

Masks worn by ancient actors, 22. 

Mather, Cotton, quoted, upon the Franklins, 

Mather, Increase, quoted, upon the press, 302. 

Matrimony, caricature of, 173, 177; in China, 

Melanchthon, Philip, upon Luther's marriage, 

Menius, Dr., anecdote of, 63. 

Mercury burlesqued, 29, 30. 

Merimee, M., quoted, on the devil, 53. 

Middle Ages, caricature of, 40, 50. 

Midnight masses, gayety of, in France, 61. 

Mingotti, Signora, caricature of, 143. 

Mirabeau, Gabriel, Comte de, caricature of, 162. 

Mitford, A. W., quoted, upon Japanese preach- 
ing, 198. 

Mokke, Mosse, caricatured, 63. 

Moor, Major Edward, quoted, upon Hindoo art, 

Morellet, Abbe", quoted, upon Franklin, 306. 

Morgan, Matt, a caricature by, 299. 

Morris, Robert, caricatured, 309. 


Nareda, in Hindoo mythology, 38. 

Nast, Thomas, portrait of, 318 ; caricatures by, 
319, 320, 328, 329 ; his career, 326. 

Nilus, St., quoted, upon grotesque decoration, 

Nonius Maximus caricatured at Pompeii, 16. 

North, Lord, caricatured, 157 ; disapproves pol- 
icy of George III., 158. 

Norton, Charles Eliot, quoted, upon art in Italy, 
260, 262. 

Norwich, great dragon of, 51. 

Notables, the, caricatured, 161. 

Nucerians, the, their contest with the people of 
Pompeii, 17. 


Gates, Titus, denounces Popish plot, 109. 

Old masters, Hogarth upon, 138 ; burlesque of, 


Olympiodorus, St. Nilus to, on decoration, 46. 
Opimius burlesqued by Horace, 24. 
Orange, Prince of, anecdote of, 116. 
Orleans, Due de, Regent of France, 122. 
Osiris, in Egyptian art, 33. 
Oudinot, General, caricatured, 260, 261. 


Paine, Thomas, caricatured by Gillray, 154 ; in 

a caricature, 297. 
Palladas, his epigram upon marriage, 177. 

Palmerston, Lord, in Punch, 289, 290. 

Parrhasius, anecdote of, 28. 

Pasquino, account of, 257, 259. 

Pergamus, unswept hall of, 28. 

Petre, Father, caricature of, 109. 

Philipon, Charles, portrait of, 218 ; his Chari- 
vari, 220 ; his trial, 220. 

Pigmies, Pompeian pictures of, 15, 17-19 ; de- 
scribed by Pliny, 17 ; uses of, 18. 

Pike, Luke Owen, a caricature from, 63 ; quoted, 
upon clerical robbers, 69. 

Pirlone, II Don, caricatures from, 259-263. 

Pitt, William, antagonist of Napoleon, 158 ; cari- 
catured by Isaac Cruikshank, 274. 

Pius VI., pasquinade upon, 258. 

Pius IX. caricatured, 263. 

Pliny the Elder describes pigmies, 17; upon 
Greek art, 28. 

Pliny the Younger, quoted, upon Christians, 26. 

Pocahontas, anecdote of, 175. 

Pole, Cardinal, caricatured, 86. 

"Politician Outwitted, "quoted, 307. 

Pompadour, Madame de, anecdotes of, 159- 

Pompeii, chalk caricatures from, 15, 17 ; pigmy 
pugilists from, 15 ; described, 16 ; its amphi- 
theatre closed, 17 ; how discovered, 21. 

" Poor Richard," the comic almanac of its day, 

Pope, Alexander, speculates in shares, 128 ; in 
a caricature, 136 ; quoted, upon Walpole, 142 ; 
women, 184. 

Popish plot, terror of, 109. 

Processions, remarks upon, 91 ; in honor of 
Virgin Mary, 92 ; upon birthday of Queen 
Elizabeth, 110. 

Proverbs satirizing women, 185. 

Prynne, Lawyer, loses his ears, 99; his tri- 
umphal return to London, 99. 

Puck, a burlesque from, 197. 

Punch, antiquity of the legend, 31 ; in Calcutta, 
39 ; in China, 191 ; at Cairo, 264 ; origin of, 

Punch, 284. 

Puritan period, caricatures of, 90; terror of, 
93, 94, 98, 105, 106. 


Quaker meeting, caricature of, 116. 
Queen of James II., caricature of, 109. 
Quincampoix, scenes in the street so named, 
127, 129. 


Rabelais, Fransois, his influence, 85, 86. 
Randon. M. , his caricatures, 227, 230. 
Rationalism, caricature of, 298. 



Reformation, the, caricatures of, 76 ; abolished 

processions, 93. 

" Reynard the Fox," its effect, 70. 
Rheims, its cathedral, 40. 
Richard II., his psalter, 45. 
Richter, Ludwig, caricature by, 248. 
Rochefoucauld, Due de, quoted, upon women, 


Roman Catholic Church, remark upon, 46. 
Rome, actors of, 22. 

Roundhead, the nickname, retorted, 104. 
Rupert, Prince, caricature of, 102. 
Russell, Benjamin, his allegory, 310. 
Russell, Earl, quoted, upon George III., 157; 

upon a caricature of himself, 284. 


Sacheverell, Dr., caricatured, 116, 1 17. 
Sachs, Hans, his picture described, 78. 
Saint-Simon, Due de, quoted, upon the French 

Government, 125. 
Satan, traditional character of, 51. 
Saturnalia, the, at Rome, 24. 
Saxe-Weimar, Duke of, quoted, upon American 

manners, 277. 

Scalp Hoax, the, described, 305. 
Scott, Sir Walter, Jefferson upon his novels, 1 84. 
Secession War, caricatures of, 324-326. 
Servetus, Michael, burned, 83, 84. 
Seymour, Robert, suggests "Pickwick," 280. 
Shakspeare, William, his death, 95. 
Sheridan, R. B., in Gillray's caricatures, 154; 

anecdote of, 165. 
Sherman, Roger, upon title of the President, 


"Ship of Fools" described and quoted, 60, 180. 
Shrovetide and Lent, caricatures of, 107, 108. 
Silenus, the legend of, 23. 
Sleeping Congregation, the, Hogarth's picture 

of, 134. 

Smart, Rev. Peter, persecuted, 98. 
Smith, William, burlesqued, 316. 
Socrates burlesqued by Aristophanes, 31. 
South Sea Scheme described, 128 ; caricatures 

of, 135. 

Spain, proverbs of, 185 ; comic art in, 249. 
Spayne and Rome defeated, picture of, 95. 
Stae'I, Madame de, Napoleon afraid of, 208. 
Stent, G. C., quoted, upon the Chinese, 192. 
Stone, S. J., caricature by, 298. 
Story, W. W., quoted, upon Pasqnino, 258, 259. 
Strafford, Earl of, caricatured, 99, 100. 
Strasburg, its cathedral, 41. 


Talleyrand, Prince de, caricatures of, 209, 211 ; 
quoted, upon Napoleon, 212; caricatured, 268. 

Tammany Ring, spoliations of, 328. 

Taylor, W. B., collects war envelopes, 324, 325. 

Temptation, the, picture of, 55.,- 

Tench, drum-maker, his fete, 106. 

Tenniel, John, his pictures in Punch, 286, 289, 

290 ; portrait of, 295. 
Terence, quoted, upon women, 179. 
Tertullian, quoted, upon Last Judgment, 54. 
Thackeray, W. M. , his caricature of Louis XIV. , 

119; quoted, upon Hogarth, 137 ; upon Louis 

Philippe, 219, 220; commends Daumier, 223. 
Thebes, antiquities of, 33, 35. 
Titian burlesques the Laocoon, 89. 
Tomes, Robert, quoted, upon Rheims Cathedral, 


Training Day, burlesque of, 308. 
Trajan to Pliny, upon the Christians, 27. 
Trollope, Mrs., her burlesques of American 

women, 183, 186, 276, 277, 279 ; burlesqued, 


Tweed, William, caricatured, 319, 320, 328. 
Tyrolese, the, scandalize their priests, 69. 


Van Buren, John, anecdote of, 320. 

Van Buren, Martin, in caricature, 320, 322. 

Velocipede IV. See Bonaparte, Louis. 

Viollet-le-duc, M. , quoted, upon burlesque deco- 
ration, 64. 

Virgil, quoted, upon JEneas, 20. 

Virginia Pausing, caricature, 326. 

Virgin Mary, her festival, 92. 

Voltaire, quoted, upon Massacre of St. Bartholo- 
mew, 94. 


Wade, Mr., burlesque of, 196, 197. 
Waldegrave, Lord, quoted, upon George III., 

150, 157. 

Wales, Prince of, caricatured, 299. 
Wales, Princess of, quoted, upon George III., 

148 ; caricatured, 152. 
Wall Street, scenes in, during inflation, 121. 
Walpole, Horace, quoted, upon a caricature, 

144 ; upon mother of George III., 148. 
Walpole, Sir Robert, in South Sea speculations, 

128; bribes, 141, 142 ; caricatured, 144, 145; 

downfall, 145. 

Ward, Samuel, his caricature, 96, 97. 
Washington, George, the picture of his crossing 

the Delaware, 21 ; caricatured, 309. 
Weather-cock, order of the, 214. 
Wilkes, John, Franklin upon, 151. 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, quoted, upon Egyptian 

remains, 34, 35. 
William and Mary, caricatures during their 

reign, 115. 


William IV. caricatured by Doyle, 276. 
Williams, S. W., a Chinese caricature from, 191. 
Willis, N. P., his interview with Dickens, 282. 
Winchester, its cathedral, 43. 
Wine among the Egyptians, 33, 34 ; among the 

monks, 68. 

Women and matrimony, caricatures of, 1 71-190. 
Worms, altar-piece at, 49. 


Wright, Thomas, gives caricature of Irish war- 

rior, 61; quoted, 70. 


Xenophon, quoted, upon marriage, 177. 


Zeuxis, anecdote of, 28. 




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